Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an “old/new” noninvasive brain modulation technique that has gained increasing popularity and relevance in psychology and neuroscience. The contemporary tDCS procedure is effective and painless. It was shown to modulate motor performance and several sensory and cognitive functions. It can be used to study cortical organization and clarify brain-behavior relationships.
Using tDCS for rehabilitation is a promising strategy, and numerous publications suggest that it can be used alone or combined to augment the outcomes of behavioral training and pharmacological interventions. Compared with other brain modulation techniques, it has the advantage of being noninvasive and safe, with easy and effective placebo controls. Its efficacy, low cost, and ease of use make tDCS a very convenient tool for researchers in developing countries.
This review introduces tDCS to a new audience and seeks to inspire future investigations in the field. We highlight work that illustrates the main concepts and applications of tDCS as a basic research and rehabilitation tool.