[ARTICLE] Exercise as medicine – evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases – Full Text HTML/PDF

Abstract

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in SportsThis review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis); metabolic diseases (obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and claudication intermittent); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. The effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis and symptoms are given and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. We have interpreted the scientific literature and for each disease, we provide the reader with our best advice regarding the optimal type and dose for prescription of exercise.

Introduction

Here we present an update of a previously published review “Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease” from 2006 (Pedersen & Saltin, 2006). Physical activity represents a cornerstone in the primary prevention of at least 35 chronic conditions (Booth et al., 2012). However, over the past two decades, considerable knowledge has accumulated concerning the significance of exercise as the first-line treatment of several chronic diseases. Of note, today exercise has a role as medicine in diseases that do not primarily manifest as disorders of the locomotive apparatus. When we selected diagnoses to be included in this review, we took into account both the frequency of the diseases and the relative need for exercise therapy. Twenty-six diseases covering various aspects of the medical curriculum are included. These are psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis); metabolic diseases (adiposity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and intermittent claudication); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. We provide the reader with the evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine for all of these diseases. We than briefly discuss possible mechanisms of action. Finally, regarding type and dose of exercise we suggest specific recommendations, which are based on evidence, experience and common sense.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was carried out for each diagnosis in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). In addition, we sought literature by examining reference lists in original articles and reviews. We have primarily identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses and thereafter identified additional controlled trials. We then selected studies in which the intervention was aerobic or strength exercise and have given priority to randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Continue —> Exercise as medicine – evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases – Pedersen – 2015 – Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports – Wiley Online Library

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  1. #1 by Adrianne Broadhead on February 23, 2018 - 04:34

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