Introduction Despite the increased interest in telerehabilitation (TR), virtual reality (VR) and outcome measures for stroke rehabilitation, surprisingly little research has been done to map and identify the most common outcome measures used in TR. For this review, we conducted a systematic search of the literature that reports outcome measures used in TR or VR for stroke rehabilitation. Our specific objectives included: 1) to identify the outcome measures used in TR and VR studies; and 2) to describe which parts of the International Classification of Functioning are measured in the studies.
Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases (e.g. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PSYCOINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database). The scoping review included all study designs. Two reviewers conducted pilot testing of the data extraction forms and independently screened all the studies and extracted the data. Disagreements about inclusion or exclusion were resolved by consensus or by consulting a third reviewer.
Results In total, 28 studies were included in this scoping review. The results were synthesized and reported considering the implications of the findings within the clinical practice and policy context.
Discussion This scoping review identified a wide range of outcome measures used in VR and TR studies and helped identify gaps in current use of outcome measures in the literature. The review also informs researchers and end users (i.e. clinicians, policymakers and researchers) regarding the most appropriate outcome measures for TR or VR.