Problem. PTs often make stroke survivors make 8 trips around the gym each day while OTs may treat the upper extremity for only 4 to 11 minutes out of a 47 minute treatment session (1). It is not surprising that repeated practice in PT produces quick leg recovery after a stroke.
Problem. Constraint therapy forced doctors to accept that recovery is possible years after a stroke BUT it is only for stroke survivors who already have some hand movement and who agree to an intense schedule of 2 to 6 hours of supervised therapy per day.
Harris and associates designed a self-administered hand therapy program for a larger range of stroke survivors with a less intensive approach (2). One-hundred and three subjects with mild, moderate, and severe impairment on the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer test (UEFM) were recruited soon after they were admitted to a rehab hospital. Subjects in the experimental group were given booklets and equipment graded to their level and asked to do exercises and functional tasks for 1 hour a day 6 days a week during breaks in the therapy schedule. Subjects actually did an average of 3 hours spread over 4.8 days per week. Subjects in the control group read and did homework about stroke and their health during breaks in the therapy schedule. A site coordinator taught the program and then monitored each subject once a week.
Experimental subjects did an average of 12 hours of self-administered hand therapy spread over 4 weeks while in a rehab hospital. They were significantly better than control subjects at reaching for and grasping objects on the ARAT (P=0.031) and using their hand during functional tasks on the Chedoke (P<0.001). A limitation for self-administered therapy is cognitive and language deficits. Stroke survivors in this study were excluded if they had receptive aphasia or a score below 20 on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). A score of 18 to 23 on the MMSE indicates a mild cognitive impairment.
A self-administered hand therapy program that required minimal therapist time and moderate client time to supplement in-patient OT produced significant gains in hand recovery for stroke survivors with minimal cognitive impairments.
1. Berhardt J, Chan J, Nicola I, Collier J. Little therapy, little physical activity: rehabilitation within the first 14 days of organized stroke unit care. J Rehabil Med. 2007;39:43-48.
2. Harris JE, Eng JJ, Miller WC, Dawson AS. A self-administered graded repetitive arm supplementary program (GRASP) improves arm function during inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Stroke. 2009;40:2123-2128.