[ARTICLE] Real-time inverse kinematics for the upper limb: a model-based algorithm using segment orientations – Full Text



Model based analysis of human upper limb movements has key importance in understanding the motor control processes of our nervous system. Various simulation software packages have been developed over the years to perform model based analysis. These packages provide computationally intensive—and therefore off-line—solutions to calculate the anatomical joint angles from motion captured raw measurement data (also referred as inverse kinematics). In addition, recent developments in inertial motion sensing technology show that it may replace large, immobile and expensive optical systems with small, mobile and cheaper solutions in cases when a laboratory-free measurement setup is needed. The objective of the presented work is to extend the workflow of measurement and analysis of human arm movements with an algorithm that allows accurate and real-time estimation of anatomical joint angles for a widely used OpenSim upper limb kinematic model when inertial sensors are used for movement recording.


The internal structure of the selected upper limb model is analyzed and used as the underlying platform for the development of the proposed algorithm. Based on this structure, a prototype marker set is constructed that facilitates the reconstruction of model-based joint angles using orientation data directly available from inertial measurement systems. The mathematical formulation of the reconstruction algorithm is presented along with the validation of the algorithm on various platforms, including embedded environments.


Execution performance tables of the proposed algorithm show significant improvement on all tested platforms. Compared to OpenSim’s Inverse Kinematics tool 50–15,000x speedup is achieved while maintaining numerical accuracy.


The proposed algorithm is capable of real-time reconstruction of standardized anatomical joint angles even in embedded environments, establishing a new way for complex applications to take advantage of accurate and fast model-based inverse kinematics calculations.

Continue —> Real-time inverse kinematics for the upper limb: a model-based algorithm using segment orientations | BioMedical Engineering OnLine | Full Text

Fig. 1 Representations of the used upper limb model with reference poses and markers. a Screenshot taken from OpenSim while displaying the used full arm model. The reference configuration is shown as a shaded overlay on an actual example configuration determined by the joint angle vector [θelvθelv = 0∘0∘, θsh_elvθsh_elv = 63∘63∘, θsh_rotθsh_rot = 15∘15∘, θel_flexθel_flex = 95∘95∘, θpro_supθpro_sup = −60∘−60∘, θdev_cθdev_c = 0∘0∘, θflex_cθflex_c = 20∘20∘]. b Representation of the model’s exported structure in MATLAB producing the same actual configuration as in sub-figure (a) using the developed forward kinematics function (functionally equivalent to OpenSim’s version). c Locations of prototype markers that are solely used to the reconstruction of model-defined anatomical joint angles with the proposed algorithm. d Locations of virtual markers that are used for the algorithm validation process by serving as inputs to OpenSim’s inverse kinematics tool directly

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