In this study, a finger exoskeleton robot has been designed and presented. The prototype device was designed to be worn on the dorsal side of the hand to assist in the movement and rehabilitation of the fingers. The finger exoskeleton is 3D-printed to be low-cost and has a transmission mechanism consisting of rigid serial links which is actuated by a stepper motor. The actuation of the robotic finger is by a sliding motion and mimics the movement of the human finger. To make it possible for the patient to use the rehabilitation device anywhere and anytime, an Arduino™ control board and a speech recognition board were used to allow voice control. As the robotic finger follows the patients voice commands the actual motion is analyzed by Tracker image analysis software. The finger exoskeleton is designed to flex and extend the fingers, and has a rotation range of motion (ROM) of 44.2°.
Statistically, one in six people in the world will have a stroke [1
] at some time, or develop some debilitating bone condition. Most strokes are caused by an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain. It is very important for stroke patients to move the parts of the body that have been affected to restore and retrain movement. This rehabilitation is very important for the patient and is particularly so for the achievement of full movement. This not only helps to maintain muscle tension and strength, and increase durability, but also promotes blood circulation [2
Rehabilitation systems have been extensively studied for effective restoration and training of muscle activity in the arm or hand [3
]. The degree of upper limb rehabilitation is also used in clinical tests [5
]. However, a finger exoskeleton is more difficult to design than one for the arm because it requires many more degrees of freedom (DOF) of motion and this involves small moving parts [6
]. The design of a typical finger mechanism is complicated, has involved control requirements, and is usually very expensive. To reduce the cost and simplify the fabrication and operation, many people working on the problem began to use underactuated mechanisms in the design of a robot finger [7
An underactuated mechanism has fewer driving sources than the number of DOF. Such an underactuated finger mechanism can be simple in structure, and is easily made even simpler by linking the motion of individual joints, or linking the motion of one finger to another finger [9
]. Tendon-actuated and linkage mechanisms are the most common underactuated mechanisms in current use. However, the development and progress of robotic engineering has allowed the underactuated robot to include more DOF and has also lowered the complexity in many different applications.
A tendon-driven mechanism [10
] can simply use a nylon line to stretch and bend the fingers. It has the advantage of simplicity and also absorbs shock; however, the line itself is under tension, which puts more load on the finger joints that increases friction forces, and is itself subject to elastic deformation. This kind of mechanism can only be used under a small load. Linkage-type mechanisms driven by auxiliary links to control the fingers have advantages. They are easy to analyze and mechanically rigid, but the many links lead to a loose structure and a humanoid robot finger comparable in size to that of a real finger is not easy to achieve [11
Various hand exoskeleton technologies for rehabilitation and assistive robotics have recently been developed [12
]. To design a proper hand or finger exoskeleton, the biomechanics of the hand/finger, robotic mechanisms, and control methods must be considered. Hand exoskeletons can be driven by different actuators, including electric actuators, pneumatic actuators, and smart material actuators [12
]. Allota [13
] used external servo motors to drive the exoskeleton fingers, whereas the radio control (RC) servomotors pulled the cables to actuate the fingers in the opening or closure phase. Polygerinos [14
] used a soft pneumatic glove to produce bending motions to follow the motion of human fingers.
In this paper, a rehabilitative robotic finger is presented that can be used to maintain muscle strength through repetitive action, which also has the effect of functional recovery by rebuilding the sensorimotor links through the reorganization process in the damaged brain. To avoid the limitations of the heavy and bulky exoskeleton, the design of the finger used an underactuated mechanism, and a 3D printer was used to fabricate a prototype. Thus, the exoskeleton is affordable and competes with conventional therapy costs. In continuous passive motion therapy, a patient usually cannot control the movement through conscious effort; therefore, we used auto speech recognition to help patients control rehabilitation efforts themselves. A specific key word was used to start the robot and a carefully chosen stepper motor was used to power the mechanism. The actual motion was analyzed using the Open Source Physics tool, Tracker.
2. Design and Simulation
The design of the exoskeleton robot was undertaken with a number of important considerations in mind, the most pertinent of which were shape, size, cost, and weight. The weight and cost of the exoskeleton are critical to the users. In our design, the cost (around 30 US dollars) is affordable and competes with conventional therapy costs, while the weight is less than 45 grams. The device needed to fit on a finger and its movement had to follow the finger of the disabled patient. Before embarking on the project, we first studied finger bending motion as well as the general structure of finger muscles and bones. The input torque is set to 30 N-mm according to the motor selected. In the experiment, this torque can move the finger slowly, which is suitable for slight stroke patients. For moderate stroke patients, a higher torque motor with a similar size can be selected with a slight increase of cost and weight. We used Solidworks™ and Autodesk Inventor™ to both design and analyze the system.
The slider-type robotic finger we designed can be divided into two main parts: the slider itself and the N-shaped linkage, as shown in . The design concept of the slider mechanism was to locate the centers of the two arc-shaped sliders on the proximal and distal finger joints separately and to ensure the robotic finger followed human finger motion. In addition, the N-shaped linkage mechanism was designed to connect the proximal and distal arc-shaped sliders and to make them bend together. The N-shaped linkage used is simple and reduced the size of the finger.
Figure 1. Design of the finger exoskeleton robot that allows the finger to curl from (a) extended to (d) flexed.
The prototype robotic finger has three sliders, five links, ten bolts, and one motor. As the motor rotates, the blue crank moves the gray coupler forwards or backwards. The gray coupler pushes and pulls the yellow slider arm, making it move along the slot. When the yellow slider moves, this causes the green link, or N-shaped linkage, to rotate, which in turn causes the yellow and outer red sliders to move together. The N-shaped linkage continues to push and pull the outer red slider, causing it to move along the slot. The outer red slider connects to the human finger and causes it to bend.[…]
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