[Abstract] The Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on Later Life: Effects on Normal Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

ABSTRACT

The acute and chronic effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been widely described; however, there is limited knowledge on how a TBI sustained during early adulthood or mid-adulthood will influence aging. Epidemiological studies have explored whether TBI poses a risk for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. We will discuss the influence of TBI and resulting medical comorbidities such as endocrine, sleep, and inflammatory disturbances on age-related gray and white matter changes and cognitive decline. Post mortem studies examining amyloid, tau, and other proteins will be discussed within the context of neurodegenerative diseases and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The data support the suggestion that pathological changes triggered by an earlier TBI will have an influence on normal aging processes and will interact with neurodegenerative disease processes rather than the development of a specific disease, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. Chronic neurophysiologic change after TBI may have detrimental effects on neurodegenerative disease.

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