[Abstract] Additional physical therapy services reduce length of stay and improve health outcomes in people with acute and sub-acute conditions: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Objective

To update a previous review on whether additional physical therapy services reduce length of stay, improve health outcomes, are safe and cost effective for patients with acute or sub-acute conditions.

Data sources

Electronic database (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, PubMed) searches were updated from 2010 through June 2017.

Study selection

Randomized controlled trials evaluating additional physical therapy services on patient health outcomes, length of stay or cost effectiveness were eligible. Searching identified 1524 potentially relevant articles, of which 11 new articles from 8 new randomized controlled trials with 1563 participants were selected. In total, 24 randomized controlled trials with 3262 participants are included in this review.

Data extraction

Data were extracted using the form used in the original systematic review. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale and The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was applied to each meta-analysis.

Data synthesis

Post intervention data were pooled with an inverse variance, random effects model to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There is moderate quality evidence that additional physical therapy services reduced length of stay by 3 days in sub-acute settings (MD-2.8, 95%CI -4.6 to -0.9, I20%) and low quality evidence that it reduced length of stay by 0.6 days in acute settings (MD -0.6, 95%CI -1.1 to 0.0, I2 65%). Additional physical therapy led to small improvements in self-care (SMD 0.11, 95%CI 0.03 to 0.19, I2 0%), activities of daily living (SMD 0.13, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.25, I2 15%) and health-related quality of life (SMD 0.12, 95%CI 0.03 to 0.21, I2 0%), with no increases in adverse events. There was no significant change in walking ability. One trial reported that additional physical therapy was likely to be cost-effective in sub-acute rehabilitation.

Conclusions

Additional physical therapy services improve patient activity and participation outcomes, while reducing hospital length of stay for adults. These benefits are likely safe and there is preliminary evidence to suggest they may be cost effective.

via Additional physical therapy services reduce length of stay and improve health outcomes in people with acute and sub-acute conditions: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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