[Chapter 10] UPPER EXTREMITY MOTOR REHABILITATION INTERVENTIONS – EBRSR PDF File.

Chapter 10: Upper Extremity Motor Rehabilitation Interventions Table of contents
Key points ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Modified Sackett Scale ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
New to the 19th edition of the Evidence-based Review of Stroke Rehabilitation…………….. 9
Outcome measures definitions………………………………………………………………………………….11
Motor Function……………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Dexterity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Activities of daily living…………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Spasticity …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Range of motion …………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Proprioception ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
Stroke severity……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Muscle strength ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
Therapy based interventions …………………………………………………………………………………….27
Neurodevelopmental techniques …………………………………………………………………….. 27
Bilateral arm training……………………………………………………………………………………… 32
Strength training …………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
Task-specific training…………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) ………………………………………………… 53
Trunk restraint ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
Stretching programs ……………………………………………………………………………………… 72
Orthotics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
Mirror Therapy……………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
Mental practice …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Action observation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
Music therapy ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
Technology based interventions ……………………………………………………………………………….98
Telerehabilitation ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
Robotics…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
Virtual reality………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
Brain computer interfaces…………………………………………………………………………….. 123
EMG biofeedback ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
Sensorimotor stimulation………………………………………………………………………………………..132
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) …………………………………………………. 132
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)………………………………………… 148
Thermal stimulation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
Muscle vibration………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
Additional afferent and peripheral stimulation methods …………………………………….. 158
Invasive central nervous system stimulation ……………………………………………………………163
Invasive cortical and nerve electrode implant stimulation………………………………….. 163
Non-invasive brain stimulation ………………………………………………………………………………..166
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)……………………………………….. 166
Theta burst stimulation (TBS)……………………………………………………………………….. 177
http://www.ebrsr.com Page 3
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)……………………………………………….. 182
Pharmaceuticals …………………………………………………………………………………………………….197
Botulinum toxin…………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
Steroids …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
Cerebrolysin ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
Levodopa…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
Atorvastatin………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
Antidepressants………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
Central nervous system stimulants………………………………………………………………… 218
Complementary and alternative medicine…………………………………………………………………221
Acupuncture ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
Electroacupuncture and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation………………. 227
Meridian acupressure and massage therapy…………………………………………………… 232
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….235

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