[ARTICLE] Adaptive Treadmill-Assisted Virtual Reality-Based Gait Rehabilitation for Post-Stroke Physical Reconditioning—a Feasibility Study in Low-Resource Settings – Full Text


Objectives: Individuals with chronic stroke suffer from heterogeneous functional limitations, including cardiovascular dysfunction and gait disorders (associated with increased energy expenditure) besides psychological factors, e.g., motivation. To recondition their cardiovascular endurance and gait, rehabilitation exercises with gradually increasing exercise intensity suiting their individualized capabilities need to be offered. In principal accordance, here we (i) implemented an adaptive Virtual Reality (VR)-based treadmill-assisted platform sensitive to energy expenditure, (ii) investigated its safety and feasibility of use and (iii) examined the implications of gait exercise with this platform on cardiac and gait performance along with energy expenditure, clinical measures (to estimate physical reconditioning of subjects with stroke) and their views on community ambulation capabilities. Methods: Ten able-bodied subjects volunteered in a study to ensure its safety and feasibility of use. Nine subjects with chronic stroke underwent physical reconditioning over multiple exposures using our platform. We investigated the patients’ cardiac and gait performance prior and post exposure to our platform along with studying the clinical relevance of gait parameters in estimating their physical reconditioning. We collected the patients’ feedback. Results: We found statistical improvement in the gait parameters and reduction in energy expenditure during overground walk following ~1 month of gait exercise with our platform. They reported that the VR-based tasks were motivating. Conclusion: Results show that this platform can pave the way towards implementing home-based individualized exercise platform that can monitor one’s cardiac and gait performance capabilities while offering an adaptive and progressive gait exercise environment within safety thresholds suiting one’s exercise capabilities.
Physiological Cost Index sensitive Adaptive Response Technology (PCI-ART) for post-stroke physical reconditioning. Note: PCI- Physiological Cost Index; SST-Single Support Time; AL- Affected limb; UAL- Unaffected limb.

Physiological Cost Index sensitive Adaptive Response Technology (PCI-ART) for post-stroke physical reconditioning. Note: PCI- Physiological Cost Index; SST-Single Support Time; AL- Affected limb; UAL- Unaffected limb. 



Neurological disorders, such as stroke is a leading cause of disability with a prevalence rate of 424 in 100,000 individuals in India [1]. Often, these patients suffer from functional disabilities, heterogeneous physical deconditioning along with deteriorated cardiac functioning [2], [3] and a sedentary lifestyle immediately following stroke [4]. A deconditioned patient requires reconditioning of his/her cardiac capacity and ambulation capabilities that can be achieved through individualized rehabilitation [5]. This needs to be done under the supervision of a clinician who can monitor one’s functional capability, cardiac capacity and gait performance thereby recommending an appropriate dosage of the gait rehabilitation exercise intensity to the patient along with feedback. Such gait rehabilitation is crucial since about 80% of these patients have been reported to suffer from gait-related disorders [6] along with more energy expenditure than able-bodied individuals [7] often accompanied with reduced cardiac capacity [2], [4]. However, given the low doctor-to-patient ratio [8], lack of rehabilitation facilities and patients being released early from rehabilitation clinics followed by home-based exercise [9], particularly in developing countries like India, availing individualized rehabilitation services becomes difficult. Again, undergoing home-based exercises under clinician’s one-on-one supervision becomes difficult given the restricted healthcare resources, thereby limiting the rehabilitation outcomes [10]. Again, given the restricted healthcare resources, getting a clinician visiting the homes for delivering therapy sessions to patients is often costly causing the patients to miss the expert inputs on the exercise intensity suiting his/her exercise capability along with motivational feedback from the clinician [11]. This necessitates the use of a complementary technology-assisted rehabilitation platform that can be availed by the patient at his/her home [12] following a short stay at the rehabilitation clinic [13]. Again, it is preferred that this platform be capable of offering individualized gait exercise while varying the dosage of exercise intensity (based on the patient’s exercise capability) along with motivational feedback [14]. Additionally, exercise administered by this platform can be complemented with intermediate clinician-mediated assessments of rehabilitation outcomes, thereby reducing continuous demands on the restricted clinical resources. Thus, it is important to investigate the use of such technology-assisted gait exercise platforms that are capable of offering exercise based on one’s individualized capability along with motivational feedback.

Researchers have explored the use of technology-assisted solutions to offer rehabilitative gait exercises to these patients, along with presenting motivational feedback [15]–[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. Specifically, investigators have used Virtual Reality (VR) coupled with a treadmill (having a limited footprint and making it suitable for home-based settings) while delivering individualized feedback [15] to the patient during exercise. Again, VR can help to project scenarios that can make the exercise engaging and interactive for a user [16]–[17][18][19]. In fact, Finley et al. have shown that the visual feedback offered by VR provides an optical flow that can induce changes in the gait performance (quantified in terms of gait parameters, e.g., Step Length, Step Symmetry, etc.) of such patients during treadmill-assisted walk [20]. Further, Jaffe et al. have reported positive implications of VR-based treadmill-assisted walking exercise on the gait performance of individuals with stroke [23], leading to improvement in their community ambulation [24]. These studies have shown the efficacy of the VR-based treadmill-assisted gait exercise platform to contribute towards gait rehabilitation of individuals suffering from stroke. Though promising, none of these platforms are sensitive to one’s individualized exercise capability and thus, in turn, could not decide an optimum dosage of exercise intensity suiting one’s capability, e.g., cardiac capacity and ambulation capability. This is particularly critical for individuals with stroke since they possess diminished exercise ability along with deteriorated cardiac functioning [2], [4].

From literature review, we find that after stroke, treadmill-assisted cardiac exercise programs can lead to one’s improved fitness and exercise capability [25]. For example, researchers have presented studies on Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise and High-Intensity Interval Training in which exercise protocols are individualized by a clinician based on one’s cardiac capacity while contributing to effective gait rehabilitation [26]–[27][28][29]. Though promising, these have not offered a progressive and adaptive exercise environment in which the dosage of exercise intensity is varied based on one’s cardiac capacity in real-time. Thus, the choice of optimum dosage of exercise intensity that can be individualized in real-time for a patient, still remains as inadequately explored [4]. For deciding the optimal dosage of rehabilitative exercise intensity, clinicians often refer to the guidelines recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) [30]. These guidelines suggest thresholds to decide the intensity of the exercise based on one’s metabolic energy consumption in terms of oxygen intake, heart rate, etc. Deciding the dosage of exercise intensity is crucial, particularly for individuals with stroke since their energy requirements have been reported to be 55-100% higher than that of their able-bodied counterparts [7]. Specifically, higher energy requirement often limits the capabilities of these patients and challenges their rehabilitation outcomes. This can be addressed if the technology-assisted gait exercise platform can offer individualized exercise (maintaining the safe exercise thresholds) based on the energy expenditure of the patients acquired in real-time during the exercise.

The energy expenditure can be defined as the cost of physical activity [4] and it is often expressed in terms of oxygen consumption or heart rate [31]. Thus, investigators have monitored the oxygen consumption and heart rate to estimate the energy expenditure of individuals with stroke during their walk [31], [32]. However, monitoring oxygen consumption during exercise requires a cumbersome setup [31], making it unsuitable for home-based rehabilitation. On the other hand, one’s heart rate (HR) can be monitored using portable solutions [33] that can be integrated with a treadmill in home-based settings. Researchers have explored treadmill-assisted gait exercise platforms that are sensitive to the user’s heart rate. For example, researchers have offered treadmill training to subjects with stroke in which some of them varied treadmill speed to achieve 45%-50% [34], while others varied speed to achieve 85% to 95% [35], [36] of one’s age-related maximum heart rate. Again, Pohl et al. have offered treadmill-assisted exercise to subjects with stroke while ensuring that the user’s heart rate settled to the respective resting-state heart rate [37]. Again of late, there had been advanced treadmills, available off-the-shelf, that can monitor one’s heart rate and vary the treadmill speed to maintain the user’s heart rate at a predefined level [38], [39]. Though one’s heart rate is an important indicator that needs to be considered during treadmill-assisted exercise, one’s walking speed while using the treadmill also offers important information on one’s exercise capability. This is because gait rehabilitation aims to improve one’s community ambulation that is related to one’s walking speed [40]. Thus, it would be interesting to explore the composite effect of one’s walking speed along with working and resting-state heart rates during treadmill-assisted gait exercise to study one’s energy expenditure, quantified in terms of a proxy index, namely Physiological Cost Index (PCI) [31].

Given that there are no existing studies that have used a treadmill-assisted gait exercise platform deciding the dosage of exercise intensity based on one’s PCI estimated in real-time during exercise, it might be interesting to explore the use of such an individualized gait exercise platform for individuals with stroke. Thus, we wanted to extend a treadmill-assisted gait exercise platform by making it adaptive to one’s individualized PCI. Additionally, we wanted to augment this platform with VR-based user interface to offer visual feedback to the user undergoing gait exercise. We hypothesized that such a gait exercise platform can recondition a patient’s exercise capability in terms of cardiac and gait performance to achieve improved community ambulation. The objectives of our research were three-fold, namely to (i) implement a novel PCI-sensitive Adaptive Response Technology (PCI-ART) offering VR-based treadmill-assisted gait exercise, (ii) investigate the safety and feasibility of use of this platform among able-bodied individuals before applying it to subjects with stroke and (iii) examine implications of undergoing gait exercise with this platform on the patients’ (a) cardiac and gait performance along with energy expenditure, (b) clinical measures estimating the physical reconditioning and (c) views on their community ambulation capabilities.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II presents our system design. Section III explains the experiments and procedures of this study. Section IV discusses the results. In Section V, we summarize our findings, limitations, and scope of future research.[…]

Continue —-> Adaptive Treadmill-Assisted Virtual Reality-Based Gait Rehabilitation for Post-Stroke Physical Reconditioning—a Feasibility Study in Low-Resource Settings – IEEE Journals & Magazine

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