Archive for category Music
[ARTICLE] Neurologic Music Therapy to Facilitate Recovery from Complications of Neurologic Diseases – Full Text
Neurologic music therapy (NMT) has fostered recovery from complications in patients suffering from a wide variety of neurologic diseases. Combining music and virtual reality with standard rehabilitation therapies can improve patient compliance and make therapy more enjoyable. Listening to music can reduce epileptiform discharges and enhances brain plasticity. Music produces variations in brain anatomy between musicians and non-musicians. Music therapy is an inexpensive intervention to help post-stroke patients to recover faster and more efficiently if applied soon after the event. There is evidence that incorporating music into a rehabilitation program fosters recovery of hand function, dexterity, spatial movement, cognitive function, mood, coordination, stride length and memory. Learning words as lyrics, melodic intonation therapy and singing can help the aphasic patient to recover faster. NMT therapists are valuable members of the rehabilitation team. NMT has been approved by the World Rehabilitation Federation as an effective evidence based method of treatment.
Incorporating music into routine rehabilitation programs not only fosters initial recovery but also contributes to improvement and enduring benefit after stopping the treatment. Disabilities stem from different neurologic disorders, work-related injuries and trauma such as motor vehicle accidents and sport injuries. Disabilities can have devastating physical, emotional and financial effects on the lives of patients and their families. It is important to identify and incorporate strategies that supplement traditional rehabilitation therapy in order to optimize the recovery of function and quality of life. NMT, by facilitating the patients’ recovery, contributes to positive patient outcomes. The following reviews the evidence base highlighting the importance of adding music to more standard forms of rehabilitation therapy. It references the neurobiological foundation of NMT, its history and applications. Evidence in support of its use to facilitate recovery from a wide range of complications related to specific neurological diagnoses will be discussed.[…]
[European Commission] Let the music move you: involvement of motor networks of the brain in music processing – CORDIS : Projects and Results
Previous work has shown an intricate connection between music processing and movement in the brain. This overlap is also present for imagined music, and may as such be applied to existing imagery-based movement rehabilitation paradigms. In the following proposal we outline two main questions. The first concerns the extent of the involvement of motor areas during music processing in various modes, namely perception, auditory imagination, auditory-motor imagination and observation. Common and separate brain activation patterns will be assessed using fMRI. The second question addresses the effects of imagery training paradigms on plastic changes in the brain, and the effect of cuing during this training. Pre- and post training fMRI will be measured as well as the behavioral output of the training. These questions will address unanswered issues that are relevant to existing movement rehabilitation paradigms. Additional to furthering our knowledge of imagery mechanisms in the brain, the results will be directly applicable to the clinical arena, as well as training in high-level skill acquisition.
This guide to the piano literature for the one-handed pianist surveys over 2,100 individual piano pieces which include not only concert literature but pedagogical pieces as well. Following the introduction are four chapters cataloguing original works for the right hand alone, original works for the left hand alone, music arranged or transcribed for one hand alone, and concerted works for one hand in concert with other pianists, instruments, or voices. Each entry assesses the individual composition, its quality, its difficulty, its particular appeal, and its uses with the composer’s name, dates, and nationality, where possible. Also included is a selected discography of commercially produced phonodiscs, compact discs, and cassettes. Instructors and pianists alike will appreciate this exhaustive guide to one-handed piano music. To aid further research, a bibliography of books, articles, and theses about the literature is provided along with a chapter that lists the contents of thirty-six anthologies devoted to one-handed piano music. This unique reference also includes an index.
Novel rehabilitation interventions have improved motor recovery by induction of neural plasticity in individuals with stroke. Of these, Music-supported therapy (MST) is based on music training designed to restore motor deficits.
Music training requires multimodal processing, involving the integration and co-operation of visual, motor, auditory, affective and cognitive systems. The main objective of this study was to assess, in a group of 20 individuals suffering from chronic stroke, the motor, cognitive, emotional and neuroplastic effects of MST.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we observed a clear restitution of both activity and connectivity among auditory-motor regions of the affected hemisphere. Importantly, no differences were observed in this functional network in a healthy control group, ruling out possible confounds such as repeated imaging testing. Moreover, this increase in activity and connectivity between auditory and motor regions was accompanied by a functional improvement of the paretic hand. The present results confirm MST as a viable intervention to improve motor function in chronic stroke individuals.
[ARTICLE] Home-based Neurologic Music Therapy for Upper Limb Rehabilitation with Stroke Patients at Community Rehabilitation Stage – a Feasibility Study Protocol.
Background: Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements.
Methods: For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3 – 60 months post stroke) has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n=7) or wait list control (n=7) group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies.
Discussion: Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes.
Source: Frontiers | Home-based Neurologic Music Therapy for Upper Limb Rehabilitation with Stroke Patients at Community Rehabilitation Stage – a Feasibility Study Protocol. | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
The Sonata for Two Pianos in D major, K. 448 is a piano work composed in 1781 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, at 25 years of age. It is written in strict sonata-allegro form, with three movements. The sonata was composed for a performance he would give with fellow pianist Josephine von Aurnhammer. Mozart composed this in the galant style, with interlocking melodies and simultaneous cadences. This is one of his only formal compositions written exclusively for two pianos. This sonata was also used in the scientific study that tested the theory of the Mozart Effect, suggesting that classical music increases brain activity more positively than other kinds of music. The sonata is written in three movements,
- Allegro con spirito
and 3. Molto Allegro.
The first movement begins in D major, and sets the tonal center with a strong introduction. The two pianos divide the main melody for the exposition, and when the theme is presented both play it simultaneously. Mozart spends little time in the development introducing a new theme unlike most sonata forms, and begins the recapitulation, repeating the first theme. The entire second movement is played Andante, in a very relaxed pace. The melody is played with both pianos, but there is no strong climax in this movement. It is written in a strict ABA form. Molto Allegro begins with a galloping theme. The cadences used in this movement are similar to those in Mozart’s Rondo alla Turca. According to the British Epilepsy Organization, research has suggested that Mozart’s K 448 can have the “Mozart effect”, in that listening to the piano sonata improved spatial reasoning skills and reduce the number of seizures in people with epilepsy. Apart from another Mozart Concerto, K 488, only one other piece of music has been found to have a similar effect, a song by the Greek composer Yanni, entitled “Acroyali/Standing In Motion”, which is featured on his album Yanni Live at the Acropolis. It was determined to have the “Mozart effect”, by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine because it was similar to Mozart’s K 448 in tempo, structure, melodic and harmonic consonance and predictability.