The proportion of rehabilitation doctors and patients mismatch is very grim in the context of social aging. The Family Rehabilitation System captures the profound information of the trainer’s movements through the kinect bone tracing technique, allowing the doctor to remotely master the patient’s training progress. With the help of computers and the Internet, the patient can consult a physician, while the physician can remotely guide and launch the training “prescription” through the Internet according to the training effect. Patients can have rehabilitated training at home. The results of the test showed that the system has a positive effect on the rehabilitation of the patient.
Archive for category Tele/Home Rehabilitation
Two mandatory conditions in the development of tele-rehabilitation platforms are:
- (i) being based on affordable technologies and
- (ii) ensuring the patient is performing the exercises correctly.
To do so, the present study proposes a cognitive algorithm based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach to assess in real-time the quality of a human movement recorded through a low-cost motion capture device.
The assessment of the correctness of the exercises, which includes the detection of multiple undesirable compensatory movements, shows a very high accuracy (the average performance = 97%). In addition, the proposed model shows a potential for providing the patients with real-time feedback on their performance (up to five times a second).
A certain limitation of the model occurs for the compensatory movements characterized by an absence of translational motion of the centre of mass (17% of misclassifications). In this situation, additional features are required to properly assess the quality of the therapeutic exercise.
[Conference Paper] Design and Implementation study of Remote Home Rehabilitation Training Operating System based on Internet – Full Text PDF
The number of patients with motor dysfunction caused by hemiplegia and stroke increased. In order to promote better recovery of their body muscles, patients are still required to perform rehabilitation exercises in the community or family after the treatment of discharge. However, there are still some difficulties in community rehabilitation for patients with motor dysfunction:
- (1) The number of therapists on-site services is scarce and expensive;
- (2) In the absence of standard and systematic action guidance, the patients ‘ own training is not only the science is not high and the effect is limited.
- (3) Patients need to be trained in special environments such as rehabilitation centers, and wearing complex training equipment is inconvenient for them.
The family rehabilitation system collects the depth information of the trainer’s movements through the Kinect skeletal tracking technique; With the help of computers and the Internet, patients can consult physicians, and the doctor through the Internet remote guidance and open training action “prescription” according to the training effect so that patients at home can be rehabilitation training. This liberated the physician’s labour force and formed a network community that was closely linked to the hospital and regularly received “training prescriptions” to improve patient rehabilitation. […]
Published on Oct 16, 2017
[Abstract] Understanding community-based rehabilitation and the role of physical and rehabilitation medicine
Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is an accepted model to improve the delivery of rehabilitation in the community. It includes the access to health care, education, labor and accessible environments. The role of Specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in this strategy (SPRM) is not very well defined. On the occasion of the international consultation for the WHO Action Plan for persons with disabilities, a discussion about the meaning of CBR and the role of SPRM on CBR has occurred among the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) members. The following major questions were identified; what is CBR? What is the role of Specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SPMR) in CBR? A review of the literature and a discussion among experts was held to answer these questions. It is of major importance to distinguish between the two concepts of CBR: The first one is the policy or management strategy of CBR that was developed by WHO about 30 years ago. The second one is the provision of basic rehabilitation services offered at the community level. CBR strategy must also addresses the need for optimal access to specialized rehabilitation services and will have a key role in the design and building of so-called “Basic Rehabilitation Services.” The authors proposed a scheme, which integrates all relevant aspects surrounding the concept of CBR; levels of care rehabilitation services and the roles proposed for SPRM. In addition, the convention for the rights of persons with disabilities and the conceptual framework of the ICF was taken into account.
via Understanding community-based rehabilitation and the role of physical and rehabilitation medicine – European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2018 February;54(1):90-9 – Minerva Medica – Journals
Most people with stroke in India have no access to organised rehabilitation services. The effectiveness of training family members to provide stroke rehabilitation is uncertain. Our primary objective was to determine whether family-led stroke rehabilitation, initiated in hospital and continued at home, would be superior to usual care in a low-resource setting.
The Family-led Rehabilitation after Stroke in India (ATTEND) trial was a prospectively randomised open trial with blinded endpoint done across 14 hospitals in India. Patients aged 18 years or older who had had a stroke within the past month, had residual disability and reasonable expectation of survival, and who had an informal family-nominated caregiver were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care by site coordinators using a secure web-based system with minimisation by site and stroke severity. The family members of participants in the intervention group received additional structured rehabilitation training—including information provision, joint goal setting, carer training, and task-specific training—that was started in hospital and continued at home for up to 2 months. The primary outcome was death or dependency at 6 months, defined by scores 3–6 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) as assessed by masked observers. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2013/04/003557), Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000078752), and Universal Trial Number (U1111-1138-6707).
Between Jan 13, 2014, and Feb 12, 2016, 1250 patients were randomly assigned to intervention (n=623) or control (n=627) groups. 33 patients were lost to follow-up (14 intervention, 19 control) and five patients withdrew (two intervention, three control). At 6 months, 285 (47%) of 607 patients in the intervention group and 287 (47%) of 605 controls were dead or dependent (odds ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·78–1·23, p=0·87). 72 (12%) patients in the intervention group and 86 (14%) in the control group died (p=0·27), and we observed no difference in rehospitalisation (89 [14%]patients in the intervention group vs 82 [13%] in the control group; p=0·56). We also found no difference in total non-fatal events (112 events in 82 [13%] intervention patients vs 110 events in 79 [13%] control patients; p=0·80).
Although task shifting is an attractive solution for health-care sustainability, our results do not support investment in new stroke rehabilitation services that shift tasks to family caregivers, unless new evidence emerges. A future avenue of research should be to investigate the effects of task shifting to health-care assistants or team-based community care.
The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.
This article is available free of charge.
[Abstract] Home-based hand rehabilitation with a robotic glove in hemiplegic patients after stroke: a pilot feasibility study
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of home rehabilitation of the hand using a robotic glove, and, in addition, its effectiveness, in hemiplegic patients after stroke.
Methods: In this non-randomized pilot study, 21 hemiplegic stroke patients (Ashworth spasticity index ≤ 3) were prescribed, after in-hospital rehabilitation, a 2-month home-program of intensive hand training using the Gloreha Lite glove that provides computer-controlled passive mobilization of the fingers. Feasibility was measured by: number of patients who completed the home-program, minutes of exercise and number of sessions/patient performed. Safety was assessed by: hand pain with a visual analog scale (VAS), Ashworth spasticity index for finger flexors, opponents of the thumb and wrist flexors, and hand edema (circumference of forearm, wrist and fingers), measured at start (T0) and end (T1) of rehabilitation. Hand motor function (Motricity Index, MI), fine manual dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test, NHPT) and strength (Grip test) were also measured at T0 and T1.
Results: Patients performed, over a mean period 56 (49–63) days, a total of 1699 (1353–2045) min/patient of exercise with Gloreha Lite, 5.1 (4.3–5.8) days/week. Seventeen patients (81%) completed the full program. The mean VAS score of hand pain, Ashworth spasticity index and hand edema did not change significantly at T1 compared to T0. The MI, NHPT and Grip test improved significantly (p = 0.0020, 0.0156 and 0.0024, respectively) compared to baseline.
Conclusion: Gloreha Lite is feasible and safe for use in home rehabilitation. The efficacy data show a therapeutic effect which need to be confirmed by a randomized controlled study.
[Abstract] A low cost virtual reality system for home based rehabilitation of the arm following stroke: a randomised controlled feasibility trial
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial of a home-based virtual reality system for rehabilitation of the arm following stroke.
DESIGN: Two group feasibility randomised controlled trial of intervention versus usual care.
SETTING: Patients’ homes.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 or over, with residual arm dysfunction following stroke and no longer receiving any other intensive rehabilitation.
INTERVENTIONS: Eight weeks’ use of a low cost home-based virtual reality system employing infra-red capture to translate the position of the hand into game play or usual care.
MAIN MEASURES: The primary objective was to collect information on the feasibility of a trial, including recruitment, collection of outcome measures and staff support required. Patients were assessed at three time points using the Wolf Motor Function Test, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Motor Activity Log and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living.
RESULTS: Over 15 months only 47 people were referred to the team. Twenty seven were randomised and 18 (67%) of those completed final outcome measures. Sample size calculation based on data from the Wolf Motor Function Test indicated a requirement for 38 per group. There was a significantly greater change from baseline in the intervention group on midpoint Wolf Grip strength and two subscales of the final Motor Activity Log. Training in the use of the equipment took a median of 230 minutes per patient.
CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the required sample size, a definitive home-based trial would require additional strategies to boost recruitment rates and adequate resources for patient support.
[THESIS] A home-based functional electrical stimulation system for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation – Abstract
Due to an increased population of stroke patients and subsequent demand on health providers, there is an urgent need for effective stroke rehabilitation technology that can be used in patients’ own homes. Over recent years, systems employing functional electrical stimulation (FES) have shown the ability to provide effective therapy. However, there is currently no low-cost therapeutic system available which simultaneously supplies FES to muscles in the patient’s shoulder, arm and wrist to provide co-ordinated functional movement. This restricts the effectiveness of treatment, and hence the ability to support activities of daily living.
In this thesis a home-based low cost rehabilitation system is developed which substantially extends the current state of art in terms of sensing and control methodologies. In particular, it embeds novel non-contact sensing approaches; the first use of an electrode array within a closed-loop model based control scheme; an interactive task display system; and an integrated learning-based controller for multiple muscles within the upper-limb (UL), which supports co-ordinated tasks. The thesis then focuses on compacting the prototype by upgrading the depth sensor and using embedded systems to transfer it to the home
Currently available home-based systems employing FES for UL rehabilitation are first reviewed in terms of their underlying technology, operation, scope and clinical evidence. Motivated by this, a detailed examination of a prototype system is carried out that combines low cost non-contact sensors with closed-loop FES controllers. Then potential avenues to extend the technology are highlighted, with specific focus given to low-cost non-contact based sensors for the hand and wrist. Sensing approaches are then reviewed and evaluated in terms of their scope to support the intended system requirements. Electrode array hardware is developed in order to provide accurate movement capability. Biomechanical models of the combined stimulated arm and mechanical support are then formulated. Using these, model-based iterative learning control methodologies are then designed and implemented.
The system is evaluated with both unimpaired participants and stroke patients undergoing a course of treatment. Finally, a home-based prototype is developed which integrates and extends the aforementioned components. Results conrm the system’s scope to provide more effective stroke rehabilitation. Based on the achieved results, courses of future work necessary to continue this development are outlined.
[DISSERTATION] Tele-Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Function in Stroke Patients using Microsoft Kinect – Full Text PDF
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The damage or death of
brain cells caused by a stroke affects brain function and leads to deficits in sensory
and/or motor function. As a consequence, a stroke can have a significantly negative
impact on the patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living and therefore also
affect the patient’s quality of life. Stroke patients may regain function through
intensive physical rehabilitation, but often they do not recover their original
functional level. The incomplete recovery in some patients might be related to e.g.
stroke severity, lack of motivation for training, or insufficient and/or non-optimal
training in the initial weeks following the stroke.
A threefold increase in the number of people living past the age of 80 in 2050,
combined with the increasing number of surviving stroke patients, will very likely
lead to a significant increase in the number of stroke patients in need of
rehabilitation. This will put further pressure on healthcare systems that are already
short on resources. As a result of this, the amount of therapeutic supervision and
support per stroke patient will most likely decrease, thereby affecting negatively the
quality of rehabilitation.
Technology-based rehabilitation systems could very likely offer a way of
maintaining the current quality of rehabilitation services by supporting therapists.
Repetition of routine exercises may be performed automatically by these systems
with only limited or even no need for human supervision. The requirements to such
systems are highly dependent on the training environment and the physical and
mental abilities of the stroke patient. Therefore, the ideal rehabilitation system
should be highly versatile, but also low-cost. These systems may even be used to
support patients at remote sites, e.g. in the patient’s own home, thus serving as telerehabilitation systems.
In this Ph.D. project the low-cost and commercially available Microsoft Kinect
sensor was used as a key component in three studies performed to investigate the
feasibility of supporting and assessing upper limb function and training in stroke
patients by use of a Microsoft Kinect sensor based tele-rehabilitation system. The
outcome of the three studies showed that the Microsoft Kinect sensor can
successfully be used for closed-loop control of functional electrical stimulation for
supporting hand function training in stroke patients (Study I), delivering visual
feedback to stroke patients during upper limb training (Study II), and automatization
of a validated motor function test (Study III).
The systems described in the three studies could be developed further in many
possible ways, e.g. new studies could investigate adaptive regulation of the intensity
used by the closed-loop FES system described in Study I, different types of feedback
to target a larger group of stroke patients (Study II), and implementation of more
sensors to allow a more detailed kinematic analysis of the stroke patients (Study III).
New studies could also test a combined version of the systems described in this
thesis and test the system in the patients’ own homes as part of a clinical trial
investigating the effect of long-term training on motor function and/or non-physical
parameters, e.g. motivational level and quality of life.[…]
via Link to publication from Aalborg University
Purpose: This abstract reports a qualitative study on a home-based stroke telerehabilitation system. The telerehabilitation system delivers treatment sessions in the form of daily guided rehabilitation games, exercises, and stroke education at the patient’s home. Therapists examine patients then establish regular videoconferences with them via the system to discuss their progress, provide feedback, and adjust treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate patients’ general impressions about the benefits of and barriers to using the telerehabilitation system at home.
Methods: We used a qualitative study design that involved in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 participants who had completed a 6-week intervention using the telerehabilitation system. Thematic analysis was conducted using the grounded theory approach.
Results: Participants mostly reported positive experiences with the telerehabilitation system. Benefits included observed improvements in limb functions and provision of an outlet for mental tension and anxiety. They mainly valued the following four merits of the system: engaging game experience, flexibility in time and location in using the system, having the therapists accountable, and having less burden on caregivers. In particular, all participants rated highly their experience using the videoconference capability, which provided a channel for therapists to observe, correct, and provide feedback and encouragement to patients. Most patients expressed that they established a personal connection with the therapist through use of the telerehabilitation system. By doing so, they felt less isolated and more positive and connected. Finally, communicating with therapists three times a week also held patients accountable for completing the exercises. Barriers to system use were all logistics-related, such as the lack of physical space at home, which impeded effective use, and poor internet connection at home.
Conclusions: The telerehabilitation system studied provides patients with home-based access to games, exercises, education, and therapists. Based on participants’ qualitative feedback, it is a promising tool to deliver stroke rehabilitation therapies effectively and remotely to patients at home.