Archive for category Virtual Reality

[Conference paper] Usage of VR Headsets for Rehabilitation Exergames – Abstract+References

Abstract

The work presented here is part of a large project aimed at finding new ways to tackle exergames used for physical rehabilitation. The preferred user group consists of physically impaired who normally cannot use commercially available games; our approach wants to fill a niche and allow them to get the same playing experience like healthy. Four exercises were implemented with the Blender Game engine and connected to a motion capture device (Kinect) via a modular middleware. The games incorporate special features that enhance weak user movements, such that the avatar reacts in the same way as for persons without physical restrictions. Additionally, virtual reality glasses have been integrated to achieve a more immersive feeling during play. In this work, we compare the results of preliminary user tests, performed with and without VR glasses. Test outcomes are good for motion amplification in some of the games but do not present generally better results when using the VR glasses.

Source: Usage of VR Headsets for Rehabilitation Exergames | SpringerLink

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[WEB SITE] The Rehabilitation Gaming System

slideshow 1RGS is a highly innovative Virtual Reality (VR) tool for the rehabilitation of deficits that occur after brain lesions and has been successfully used for the rehabilitation of the upper extremities after stroke.
The RGS is based on the neurobiological considerations that plasticity of the brain remains  throughout life and therefore can be utilized to achieve functional reorganization of the brain areas affected by stroke. This can be realized by means of activation of secondary motor areas such as the so called mirror neurons system.

RGS deploys a deficit oriented training approach. Specifically, while training with RGS the patient is playing individualized games where movement execution is combined with the observation of correlated actions performed by a virtual body. The system optimizes the user’s training by analyzing the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the user’s performance. This warranties a detailed assessment of the deficits of the patient and their recovery dynamics.

Key articles and Recent publications

also see specs.upf.edu

Source: The Rehabilitation Gaming System | Rehabilitation Gaming System

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[Research Poster] Upper Limb Virtual Reality Training Provides Increased Activity Compared With Conventional Training for Severely Affected Subacute Patients After Stroke

To compare amount of activity of virtual reality (VR) and conventional task-oriented training (CT).

Source: Upper Limb Virtual Reality Training Provides Increased Activity Compared With Conventional Training for Severely Affected Subacute Patients After Stroke – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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[VIDEO] SaeboVR – World’s First Virtual ADL Rehabilitation System

Δημοσιεύτηκε στις 21 Φεβ 2017

Saebo, Inc., is a leading global provider of innovative rehabilitation products for stroke survivors and other neurologically impaired individuals. Headquartered in Charlotte, NC, the company was founded in 2001 by two occupational therapists specializing in stroke rehabilitation. As the leading cause of long-term disability in the U.S., stroke affects over 700,000 Americans every year, leaving many with crippling side affects including the loss of hand function. Saebos pioneering treatment protocols are based on new research documenting the brains remarkable ability to re-program itself following injury.

The companys neurological orthotic devices, including the ground-breaking SaeboFlex and SaeboReach, allow patients with very little residual arm and hand function to immediately begin performing task-oriented, grasp and release activities, thereby forging new pathways in the brain. Named Most Valuable Product in 2008 by Therapy Times, the Saebo Program is now offered as a treatment option at over 2,000clinics and hospitals nationwide, including 22 of the Top 25 Rehabilitation Hospitals as ranked by U.S. News & World Report. The Saebo orthoses are also eligible for reimbursement by Medicare and most commercial insurers. With a network of over 6,000 trained clinicians spanning four continents, Saebo is committed to helping stroke survivors around the globe achieve a new level of independence.

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[Abstract] Experience of an upper limb training program with a non-immersive virtual reality system in patients after stroke: a qualitative study

Abstract

Objectives

The YouGrabber (YG) is a new virtual reality training system that focuses on unilateral and bimanual activities. This nested study was part of a larger multicentre randomised controlled trial and explored experiences of people with chronic stroke during a 4 week intensive upper limb training with YG.

Design

A qualitative design using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. A phenomenological descriptive approach was used, with data coded, categorized and summarized using a thematic analysis. Topics investigated included: the experience of YG training, perceived impact of YG training on arm function, and the role of the treating therapist.

Results

Five people were interviewed (1 female, age range 55-75yrs, 1-6yrs post-stroke). Seven main themes were identified: (1) general experience, (2) expectations, (3) feedback, (4) arm function, (5) physiotherapist’s role, (6) fatigue, (7) motivation. Key experiences reported included feelings of motivation and satisfaction, with positive factors identified as challenge, competition, fun and effort. The YG training appeared to trigger greater effort, however fatigue was experienced at the end of the training. Overall, patients described positive changes in upper limb motor function and activity level, e.g. automatic arm use. While the opportunity for self-practice was appreciated, input from the therapist at the start of the intervention was deemed important for safety and confidence.

Conclusions

Reported experiences were mostly positive and the participants were motivated to practice intensively. They enjoyed the challenging component of the games.

Source: Experience of an upper limb training program with a non-immersive virtual reality system in patients after stroke: a qualitative study – Physiotherapy

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[ARTICLE] The application of virtual reality in neurorehabilitation: motor re-learning supported by innovative technologies – Full Text

Abstract
The motor function impairment resulting from a stroke injury has a negative impact on autonomy, the activities of daily living thus the individuals affected by a stroke need long-term rehabilitation. Several studies have demonstrated that learning new motor skills is important to induce neuroplasticity and functional recovery. Innovative technologies used in rehabilitation allow one the possibility to enhance training throughout generated feedback. It seems advantageous to combine traditional motor rehabilitation with innovative technology in order to promote motor re-learning and skill re-acquisition by means of enhanced training. An environment enriched by feedback involves multiple sensory modalities and could promote active patient participation. Exercises in a virtual environment contain elements necessary to maximize motor learning, such as repetitive
and diffe-rentiated task practice and feedback on the performance and results. The recovery of the limbs motor function in post-stroke subjects is one of the main therapeutic aims for patients and physiotherapist alike. Virtual reality as well as robotic devices allow one to provide specific treatment based on the reinforced feedback in a virtual environment (RFVE), artificially augmenting the sensory information coherent with the real-world objects and events. Motor training based on RFVE is emerging as an effective motor learning based techniques for the treatment of the extremities.

Continue —> The application of virtual reality in neurorehabilitation: motor re-learning supported by innovative technologies (PDF Download Available)

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[Abstract] Reinforced feedback in virtual environment for rehabilitation of upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: preliminary data from a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To study whether the reinforced feedback in virtual environment (RFVE) is more effective than traditional rehabilitation (TR) for the treatment of upper limb motor function after stroke, regardless of stroke etiology (i.e., ischemic, hemorrhagic).
DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. Participants. Forty-four patients affected by stroke. Intervention. The patients were randomized into two groups: RFVE (N = 23) and TR (N = 21), and stratified according to stroke etiology. The RFVE treatment consisted of multidirectional exercises providing augmented feedback provided by virtual reality, while in the TR treatment the same exercises were provided without augmented feedbacks. Outcome Measures. Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale (F-M UE), Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM), and kinematics parameters (speed, time, and peak).
RESULTS: The F-M UE (P = 0.030), FIM (P = 0.021), time (P = 0.008), and peak (P = 0.018), were significantly higher in the RFVE group after treatment, but not speed (P = 0.140). The patients affected by hemorrhagic stroke significantly improved FIM (P = 0.031), time (P = 0.011), and peak (P = 0.020) after treatment, whereas the patients affected by ischemic stroke improved significantly only speed (P = 0.005) when treated by RFVE.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that some poststroke patients may benefit from RFVE program for the recovery of upper limb motor function. This trial is registered with NCT01955291.

Source: Reinforced feedback in virtual environment for rehabilitation of upper extremity dysfunction after stroke: preliminary data from a randomized controlled trial.

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[Abstract] Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Lower Extremity Disorders in Post-stroke Patients

Abstract
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on “Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation”.
Objectives: To identify support of a virtual reality system in the kinematic assessment and physiotherapy approach to gait disorders in individuals with stroke.
Methods: We adapt Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System (VRRS), software widely used in the functional recovery of the upper limb, for its use on the lower limb of hemiplegic patients. Clinical scales have been used to relate them with the kinematic assessment provided by the system. A description of the use of reinforced feedback provided by the system on the recovery of deficits in several real cases in the field of physiotherapy is performed. Specific examples of functional tasks have been detailed, to be considered in creating intelligent health technologies to improve post-stroke gait.
Results: Both participants improved scores on the clinical scales, the kinematic parameters in leg stance on plegic lower extremity and walking speed > Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID).
Conclusion: The use of the VRRS software attached to a motion tracking capture system showed their practical utility and safety in enriching physiotherapeutic assessment and treatment in post-stroke gait disorders.

Source: Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Lower Extremity Disorders in Post-stroke Patients

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[OPINION ARTICLE] Enhancing Our Lives with Immersive Virtual Reality – Full Text

Summary

Virtual reality (VR) started about 50 years ago in a form we would recognize today [stereo head-mounted display (HMD), head tracking, computer graphics generated images] – although the hardware was completely different. In the 1980s and 1990s, VR emerged again based on a different generation of hardware (e.g., CRT displays rather than vector refresh, electromagnetic tracking instead of mechanical). This reached the attention of the public, and VR was hailed by many engineers, scientists, celebrities, and business people as the beginning of a new era, when VR would soon change the world for the better. Then, VR disappeared from public view and was rumored to be “dead.” In the intervening 25 years a huge amount of research has nevertheless been carried out across a vast range of applications – from medicine to business, from psychotherapy to industry, from sports to travel. Scientists, engineers, and people working in industry carried on with their research and applications using and exploring different forms of VR, not knowing that actually the topic had already passed away.

The purpose of this article is to survey a range of VR applications where there is some evidence for, or at least debate about, its utility, mainly based on publications in peer-reviewed journals. Of course not every type of application has been covered, nor every scientific paper (about 186,000 papers in Google Scholar): in particular, in this review we have not covered applications in psychological or medical rehabilitation. The objective is that the reader becomes aware of what has been accomplished in VR, where the evidence is weaker or stronger, and what can be done. We start in Section 1 with an outline of what VR is and the major conceptual framework used to understand what happens when people experience it – the concept of “presence.” In Section 2, we review some areas where VR has been used in science – mostly psychology and neuroscience, the area of scientific visualization, and some remarks about its use in education and surgical training. In Section 3, we discuss how VR has been used in sports and exercise. In Section 4, we survey applications in social psychology and related areas – how VR has been used to throw light on some social phenomena, and how it can be used to tackle experimentally areas that cannot be studied experimentally in real life. We conclude with how it has been used in the preservation of and access to cultural heritage. In Section 5, we present the domain of moral behavior, including an example of how it might be used to train professionals such as medical doctors when confronting serious dilemmas with patients. In Section 6, we consider how VR has been and might be used in various aspects of travel, collaboration, and industry. In Section 7, we consider mainly the use of VR in news presentation and also discuss different types of VR. In the concluding Section 8, we briefly consider new ideas that have recently emerged – an impossible task since during the short time we have written this page even newer ideas have emerged! And, we conclude with some general considerations and speculations.

Throughout and wherever possible we have stressed novel applications and approaches and how the real power of VR is not necessarily to produce a faithful reproduction of “reality” but rather that it offers the possibility to step outside of the normal bounds of reality and realize goals in a totally new and unexpected way. We hope that our article will provoke readers to think as paradigm changers, and advance VR to realize different worlds that might have a positive impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide, and maybe even help a little in saving the planet.

Continue —> Frontiers | Enhancing Our Lives with Immersive Virtual Reality | Virtual Environments

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[ARTICLE] Application of head-mounted devices with eye-tracking in virtual reality therapy – Full Text

Abstract:

Using eye-tracking to assess visual attention in head-mounted devices (HMD) opens up many possibilities for virtual reality (VR)-based therapy. Existing therapy concepts where attention plays a major role can be transferred to VR. Furthermore, they can be expanded to a precise real-time attention assessment, which can serve as a foundation for new therapy approaches. Utilizing HMDs and eye-tracking in a clinical environment is challenging because of hygiene issues and requirements of patients with heterogeneous cognitive and motor impairments. In this paper, we provide an overview of those challenges, discuss possible solutions and present preliminary results of a study with patients.

1 Introduction

Virtual Reality (VR) is a promising field for new forms of therapy. It is a flexible tool for therapists to provide an immersive and interactive environment for patients. VR has been used in the treatment of phobias [1], therapy of addictions [2] and motor rehabilitation [3]. Implementing eye-tracking into head-mounted devices (HMD) introduces a precise real-time assessment of attention and opens up new possibilities for VR-based therapy, e.g. analyzing cognitive processes [4] or diagnosing medical conditions [5]. Additionally to common VR-related issues, specific conditions persist when using HMDs in a clinical context. Strict hygiene requirements have to be met to protect patients, particularly considering the prevalence of multi-resistant organisms.

To achieve sufficient positional accuracy of the eye-tracking, a re-calibration is required every time the HMD has been moved [6]. Hence, eye-tracking creates additional workload for patients and therapists through the calibration procedure. Adequate procedures have to be found to minimize this additional workload in order to be applicable for patients with cognitive deficits.

Setting up eye-tracking systems in head-mounted devices in a way that it (i) meets the hygiene requirements for use in clinical applications, (ii) is suitable for patients with heterogeneous motor and cognitive limitations and (iii) still yields valid and reliable attention data throughout a therapy session is a complex challenge we like to address in this paper.

Continue —> Application of head-mounted devices with eye-tracking in virtual reality therapy : Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering

 

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