Archive for category TBI

[Infographic] Traumatic Brain Injury

traumatic-brain-injury-infographic

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[Abstract] Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation.

Design: Retrospective cohort.

Setting: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers.

Participants: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the onset time of each endorsed comorbidity.

Results: At 10 years postinjury, the most common comorbidities developing postinjury, in order, were back pain, depression, hypertension, anxiety, fractures, high blood cholesterol, sleep disorders, panic attacks, osteoarthritis, and diabetes. Comparing those 50 years and older to those younger than 50 years, diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 3.54; P = .0016), high blood cholesterol (OR = 2.04; P = .0092), osteoarthritis (OR = 2.02; P = .0454), and hypertension (OR = 1.84; P = .0175) were significantly more prevalent in the older cohort while panic attacks (OR = 0.33; P = .0022) were significantly more prevalent in the younger cohort. No significant differences in prevalence rates between the older and younger cohorts were found for back pain, depression, anxiety, fractures, or sleep disorders.

Conclusions: People with moderate-severe TBI experience other medical and mental health comorbidities during the long-term course of recovery and life after injury. The findings can inform further investigation into comorbidities associated with TBI and the role of medical care, surveillance, prevention, lifestyle, and healthy behaviors in potentially modifying their presence and/or prevalence over the life span.

 

via Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Followin… : The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

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[Guideline] TELE-REHABILITATION INTERVENTIONS GUIDELINE – PDF File

TRIUMPH TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY GUIDELINES 2019

Tele-Rehabilitation Interventions through University-based Medicine for Prevention and Health

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[Booklet] Parenting after brain injury – PDF

by Dr Alex Goody

Image result for Parenting after brain injury

This booklet has been written to help those parents
who have had a brain injury understand how their injury
has affected them in their role as a parent.

 

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[WEB SITE] Parenting After Brain Injury

Parenting After Brain Injury

Parenting is a challenging life role for all people, yet one of the most valued roles within society. Brain Injury frequently occurs at a life stage where people are yet to complete their parenting responsibilities. For people with acquired brain injury (ABI), facing cognitive, physical, communication, behavioural and psychological challenges, parenting can present complex challenges. In addition, persons with ABI often face societal and environmental barriers. These fact sheets have been developed to assist parents with an ABI and their partners to improve their knowledge and skills to meet the ongoing challenges of parenting. family walking together
little girl finger painting boy doing his homework two little girls arguing

Encouraging your
Developing Child

Setting Routines

Managing Behaviour

Other Useful Parenting Website Links and Resources

Parenting Fact Sheet References and Acknowledgements
Return to Support for Families

Contact ABIOS
abios@health.qld.gov.au

Last updated: 20 March 2017

via Parenting After Brain Injury | Queensland Health

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[ARTICLE] The Importance of Therapeutic Time Window in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury – Full Text

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. Despite its importance in public health, there are presently no drugs to treat TBI. Many reasons underlie why drugs have failed clinical trials, one reason is that most drugs to treat TBI lose much of their efficacy before patients are first treated. This review discusses the importance of therapeutic time window; the time interval between TBI onset and the initiation of treatment. Therapeutic time window is complex, as brain injury is both acute and chronic, resulting in multiple drug targets that appear and disappear with differing kinetics. The speed and increasing complexity of TBI pathophysiology is a major reason why drugs lose efficacy as time to first dose increases. Recent Phase III clinical trials treated moderate to severe TBI patients within 4–8 h after injury, yet they turned away many potential patients who could not be treated within these time windows. Additionally, most head trauma is mild TBI. Unlike moderate to severe TBI, patients with mild TBI often delay treatment until their symptoms do not abate. Thus, drugs to treat moderate to severe TBI likely will need to retain high efficacy for up to 12 h after injury; drugs for mild TBI, however, will likely need even longer windows. Early pathological events following TBI progress with similar kinetics in humans and animal TBI models suggesting that preclinical testing of time windows assists the design of clinical trials. We reviewed preclinical studies of drugs first dosed later than 4 h after injury. This review showed that therapeutic time window can differ depending upon the animal TBI model and the outcome measure. We identify the few drugs (methamphetamine, melanocortin, minocycline plus N-acetylcysteine, and cycloserine) that demonstrated good therapeutic windows with multiple outcome measures. On the basis of their therapeutic window, these drugs appear to be excellent candidates for clinical trials. In addition to further testing of these drugs, we recommend that the assessment of therapeutic time window with multiple outcome measures becomes a standard component of preclinical drug testing.

Therapeutic Time Window is a Key Element of Drugs to Treat TBI

Despite decades of research, there are currently no treatments for TBI other than palliative care (Diaz-Arrastia et al., 2014). The reasons for the lack of therapeutics are many; drug may have failed in clinical trials since most preclinical studies dose drugs immediately or soon after experimental TBI (Diaz-Arrastia et al., 2014). This experimental design fails to take into account the well-documented clinical phenomenon of treatment gap: the time individuals wait before seeking medical care after head trauma (Tanielian and Jaycox, 2008Demakis and Rimland, 2010). In 1991, one quarter of an estimated 1.5 million patients in America did not seek medical care after receiving a TBI that did not result in death or long-term institutionalization (Sosin et al., 1996). The multiple reasons given to postpone or avoid treatment include perceived symptom resolution, as well as the time and cost of treatment (Demakis and Rimland, 2010). Military personnel are particularly at risk for TBI. Lack of access to safe and accessible transportation for deployed military personnel can delay treatment up to 72 h after TBI (Farmer et al., 2017). Thus, treatment gap likely contributes to negative outcomes after TBI. Despite the importance of treatment gap, we know relatively little about the time course of pathophysiological events that can be successfully targeted with drugs first dosed many hours to days following TBI.

The treatment of thromboembolic stroke using tissue plasminogen activator illustrates the importance of time window in neurodegenerative diseases with a rapid onset. Thromboembolic stroke produces a complex and rapidly evolving injury with an overlapping, yet distinct, pathophysiology to TBI. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is highly effective if dosed within 4.5 h of a stroke, yet its utility drops sharply after 4.5 h due to the increased probability of hemorrhage (Ahmed et al., 2013). Despite its established ability to prevent injury, only 2–5% of stroke patients receive t-PA (Miller et al., 2011). A major reason for the limited use of t-PA is its short time window (Miller et al., 2011). The experience of clinicians with t-PA to treat stoke suggests similar difficulties will arise if drugs to treat TBI have similarly short therapeutic time windows that fall off sharply.

Since no drug has received FDA-approval, a key unanswered question is: what is a clinically relevant therapeutic window for a TBI drug? Clinical trials at designated trauma centers have enrolled patients 4–7 h after a moderate to severe TBI. Even with the high skill of the clinical staff at these trauma centers; many patients could not be enrolled because treatment could not be initiated within 4–7 h. Less specialized hospitals are likely to have even longer treatment delays. To treat the largest number of patients, a drug or drug combination will likely need to retain high efficacy when first dosed 12 h after moderate to severe TBI. In contrast to those with severe or moderate TBI, patients with mild TBI often delay seeking medical help for days after injury until their symptoms do not abate (Sosin et al., 1996Tanielian and Jaycox, 2008Demakis and Rimland, 2010). Thus, drugs will need to retain efficacy when dosed days after injury to treat large numbers of patients with mild TBI.

Traumatic brain injury has a complex pathophysiology whether initiated by a blunt impact, penetration through the skull into the brain, or exposure to explosive blast (Dixon, 2017). TBI produces mechanical injury within seconds to neurons, glia, and vessels. This primary injury rapidly triggers a secondary injury that evolves for weeks to months (Dixon, 2017). Both primary and secondary injury damages both gray and white matter. Within minutes after primary injury, neurons lose the ability to control ion homeostasis, which results in accumulation of intracellular calcium, cell depolarization, excitotoxic release of glutamate and additional disruptions of ionic gradients (Weber, 2012Guerriero et al., 2015). Impaired mitochondrial function leads to energy failure; calcium accumulation and elevated reactive oxygen species are additional early events in secondary injury (Bains and Hall, 2012Weber, 2012Hill et al., 2017). Damage to vessels reduces cerebral blood flow resulting in hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (Price et al., 2016). Inflammation rapidly follows TBI and persists for weeks to months after injury (Hinson et al., 2015). Acute inflammation is initiated by release by necrotic cells of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) that activate astrocytes and microglia. Release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines lead to further breakdown of the blood brain barrier and recruitment of peripheral inflammatory cells. Microglia and astrocyte activation occurs rapidly in both gray and white matter; neuroinflammation may become chronic and continue to injure brain for months or years after injury. Later events in secondary injury include induction of cytogenic and vasogenic edema, increased intracerebral pressure, oxidative damage and necrotic and apoptotic cell loss (Bains and Hall, 2012Hill et al., 2017). Early events in white matter include damage to axons, impaired transport and swelling. Damage to oligodendrocytes leads to demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss (Narayana, 2017). White matter damage evolves for weeks resulting in Wallerian axonal degeneration.

The pathophysiological events of secondary injury are highly interconnected. If dosed before, or soon after TBI, a variety of drugs with diverse modes of action (anti-oxidants, glutamate receptor antagonists, and anti-inflammatories) greatly limit the scope of secondary injury (Diaz-Arrastia et al., 2014). These drugs are effective despite targeting only one component of secondary injury. This suggests that, early after TBI, multiple pathophysiological events trigger the spread of secondary injury. Thus, early blockade of any one of these many injury mechanisms results in a substantial, long-term therapeutic effect. As secondary injury evolves, the efficacy of most drugs rapidly diminish through loss of drug targets; the intensification of secondary injury greatly diminishes the therapeutic effect of inhibiting one injury mechanism. Drugs that retain efficacy when dosed at longer intervals after injury may target pathophysiological events that initiate slowly after injury. Alternatively, drugs with good therapeutic windows have multiple targets that can still reduce secondary injury even after its intensification over time.

The importance of therapeutic time window in treating TBI is illustrated by comparing the preclinical testing of progesterone and CDP-choline with the design of Phase III clinical trials testing the same drugs. Progesterone was tested in two recent Phase III trials for TBI. The PROTECT III trial (NCT00822900) recruited patients with moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Score 4–12) within 4 h post-injury while the SYNAPSE trial (NCT01143064) recruited patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Score < 7) within 7 h (Skolnick et al., 2014Wright et al., 2014). Both trials were unable to demonstrate a therapeutic effect for progesterone. Prior to Phase III testing, numerous laboratories demonstrated a diverse set of therapeutic effects of progesterone in multiple rodent TBI models (Stein and Sayeed, 2018). Progesterone reduced glutamate release, prevented vasogenic edema, restored the blood brain barrier, improved aerobic respiration, and increased myelin and neurotrophin synthesis. Most importantly, progesterone reduced brain damage and improved multiple functional outcomes. Few drugs have had such wide preclinical testing on so many therapeutic outcomes. Virtually all of these studies, however, first dosed progesterone within 1 h or less after injury (Stein and Sayeed, 2018). Only three studies dosed progesterone between 4 and 6 h after injury and none of these studies performed a careful analysis of how the efficacy of progesterone changed after injury (Peterson et al., 20122015). A first dose of progesterone 4 h after experimental TBI decreased gray matter damage, improved motor function and limited astrocyte activation (Peterson et al., 20122015). A first dose at 6 h produced small improvements on expression of Nogo-A, GFAP, and GAP-43 (Liu et al., 2014). None of these studies examined multiple therapeutic time windows so it remains unknown how the efficacy of progesterone changed with increasingly longer times to first dose. A study of a first dose of progesterone 1 or 6 h post-stroke showed good retention of drug efficacy in a rat cerebral ischemia model (Yousuf et al., 2014). Little is understood, however, of how the analysis of therapeutic time window in animal models of stroke tells us whether an equivalent therapeutic window exists for TBI. The PROTECT III and SYNAPSE trials provided important information of how rapidly we could recruit and treat patients after moderate to severe TBI, however, due to the lack of appropriate preclinical testing, we do not know if progesterone retained sufficient potency to treat TBI when first dosed at 4–7 h after injury.

The Phase 3 COBRIT study tested the efficacy of CDP-choline on mild, moderate and severe TBI (Zafonte et al., 2012). Most patients (86%) received drugs within the first 24 h after injury. The COBRIT study did not show improvement in any outcome measures. Compared to progesterone, there was relatively little preclinical testing of CHP-choline. Dixon et al. showed that a first dose of CDP-choline beginning 24 h after injury produced mild improvements on beam balance and beam walk, and on acquisition of Morris water maze (Dixon et al., 1997). Two additional studies that dosed CDP-choline immediately after injury reported decreased lesion volume, increased neuroprotection, improvements in neurological tests, edema and protection of the blood brain barrier (Başkaya et al., 2000Dempsey and Raghavendra Rao, 2003). A potential hypothesized mechanism of action of CDP-choline was to improve lipid metabolism, yet no study examined whether CDP-choline limited white matter injury. As with progesterone, there are no studies examining the efficacy of CDP-choline at different therapeutic time windows. Thus, inadequate drug potency at the time when patients were treated may have contributed to the futility of the PROTECT III, SYNAPSE, and COBRIT trials.

TBI Pathophysiology is a Major Determinant of Therapeutic Time Window

The speed of secondary injury after TBI results in the rapid appearance and disappearance of drug targets (Dixon, 2017). Studies of the therapeutic time windows of methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists and antagonists illustrate how therapeutic time windows arise from the interaction of drugs with changes in TBI pathophysiological changes over time (Guerriero et al., 2015). Excessive glutamate release activates NMDA receptors within minutes after the onset of TBI (Guerriero et al., 2015). NMDA receptor activation produces calcium overload and activation of calcium-activated catabolic enzymes (Weber, 2012). If dosed soon after injury, NMDA antagonists prevent this calcium overload and prevent neuronal loss (Shohami and Biegon, 2013). The short therapeutic time window of NMDA receptor antagonists is the consequence of the speed of the calcium overload after TBI (Shohami and Biegon, 2013Campos-Pires et al., 2015). Ongoing secondary injury subsequently produces a long-lasting downregulation of NMDA receptor expression. The loss of NMDA receptor function impairs synaptic plasticity and results in cognitive and memory deficits. The partial NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine when first dosed at 24 or 72 h post-injury improves Neurological Severity Score (NSS). A first dose of d-cycloserine at 24 h PI also improved performance of hippocampal-dependent tasks (Temple and Hamm, 1996Adeleye et al., 2010Sta Maria et al., 2017). A first dose of cycloserine at 24 h post-injury was also effective in rat model of pediatric TBI (Sta Maria et al., 2017). D-cycloserine improved performance on Novel Object Recognition and produced a mild improvement in acquisition, but not retention of Morris Water Maze (Sta Maria et al., 2017). Earlier dosing of d-cycloserine was ineffective at 8 or 16 h post-injury when NMDA receptors were downregulated (Adeleye et al., 2010). Thus, the different therapeutic time windows of NMDA receptor antagonists and agonists results from the differential consequences of NMDA receptor activation after TBI (Shohami and Biegon, 2013).

Are Studies of Therapeutic Time Window in Animal Models Relevant to Human TBI?

Animal models of TBI have been invaluable for our understanding of TBI pathophysiology (Xiong et al., 2013). Most of the secondary injury events that occur in clinical TBI also occur in animal models. This has validated the use of animal models to find drug targets to treat TBI. Virtually all studies of therapeutic time window have used rodent TBI models (Table 1 and Supplementary Table 1). Studies of therapeutic time window in rodents not only assume similar TBI pathophysiology in animals and people, but that these pathophysiological events occur with similar kinetics. Both humans and rodents rapidly develop edema, elevated extracellular glutamate, excitotoxicity and elevated intracellular Ca++2 after TBI or experimental TBI (Palmer et al., 1993Bullock et al., 1995Vespa et al., 1998Markgraf et al., 2001Hutchinson, 2005Weber, 2012). The increase in reactive oxygen species and its accompanying oxidative damage also occurs rapidly in animals and people (Bains et al., 2013Cornelius et al., 2013). A variety of plasma biomarkers (GFAP, UCh-1, Tau, and S100β) show similar kinetics in rodent TBI models and clinical TBI (Mondello et al., 2016Caprelli et al., 2017Korley et al., 2018Shahjouei et al., 2018). In both human TBI and TBI animal models, there is an acute and rapid increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory markers (Clausen et al., 2018Huie et al., 2018). These data suggest that studies using rodent TBI model can provide important insights into the therapeutic window of a drug to treat clinical TBI.

Table 1. Drugs with a therapeutic time window of 12 h or greater in animal models of TBI.

[…]

 

Continue —>  Frontiers | The Importance of Therapeutic Time Window in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury | Neuroscience

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[WEB SITE] Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments – WebMD

Brain damage is an injury that causes the destruction or deterioration of brain cells.

In the U.S., every year, about 2.6 million people have some type of brain injury — whether as a result of trauma, stroke, tumor, or other illnesses, according to the Brain Injury Association of America. About 52,000 die as a result of traumatic brain injury, and more than 5 million Americans who’ve suffered traumatic brain injury require assistance in performing daily activities. Approximately 130,000 Americans die of stroke each year, according to the National Stroke Association.

What Are the Types of Brain Damage and How Severe Are They?

All traumatic brain injuries are head injuries. But head injury is not necessarily brain injury. There are two types of brain injury: traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury. Both disrupt the brain’s normal functioning.

  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is caused by an external force — such as a blow to the head — that causes the brain to move inside the skull or damages the skull. This in turn damages the brain.
  • Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) occurs at the cellular level. It is most often associated with pressure on the brain. This could come from a tumor. Or it could result from neurological illness, as in the case of a stroke.
Both traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury occur after birth. And neither is degenerative. Sometimes, the two terms are used interchangeably.

There is a kind of brain damage that results from genetics or birth trauma. It’s called congenital brain damage. It is not included, though, within the standard definition of brain damage or traumatic brain injury.

Some brain injuries cause focal — or localized — brain damage, such as the damage caused when a bullet enters the brain. In other words, the damage is confined to a small area. Closed head injuries frequently cause diffuse brain damage, which means damage to several areas of the brain. For example, both sides of the brain are damaged and the nerves are stretched throughout the brain. This is called diffuse axonal injury or DAI.

The severity of brain damage can vary with the type of brain injury. A mild brain injury may be temporary. It causes headaches, confusion, memory problems, and nausea. In a moderate brain injury, symptoms can last longer and be more pronounced. In both cases, most patients make a good recovery, although even in mild brain injury 15% of people will have persistent problems after one year.

With a severe brain injury, the person may suffer life-changing and debilitating problems. He or she will have cognitive, behavioral, and physical disabilities. People who are in a coma or a minimally responsive state may remain dependent on the care of others for the rest of their lives. .

 

 

 

more —-> Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

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[VIDEO] A Song About Traumatic Brain Injury – YouTube

Listen at: http://laetolimusic.com/release/post-… 5.3 million Americans are living with a TBI-related (Traumatic Brain Injury). This is one woman’s experience… Download the song now.

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[WEB SITE] Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide – Brain Injury News Feb 1, 2018 to April 5, 2019

Brain Injury News

Date Title
04/05/2019 Mental health issues often progress after brain injury
04/04/2019 Head injuries in soccer
04/03/2019 Researchers discover gene suppressing stroke and brain injury recovery
04/02/2019 8 Warning Signs That a Stroke Is Coming On – Look for Little Things
04/01/2019 Near-infrared energy used as therapy during recovery of traumatic brain injury
03/29/2019 Behavioral markers of recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury
03/28/2019 These concussion-preventing bike helmets mimic the brain’s protective fluid
03/27/2019 Scientists discover unique tau filament structures in head-injury associated dementia
03/26/2019 New study reshapes understanding of how the brain recovers from injury
03/25/2019 Fewer boys are suffering head injuries, but rate rises for girls
03/22/2019 Risk of attempted suicide among adolescents and young adults with traumatic brain injury
03/21/2019 Mild traumatic brain injury and psychopathology in adolescence
03/20/2019 New traumatic brain injury blood test approved by FDA
03/19/2019 Football, soccer lead to the most brain injuries in kids
03/18/2019 New approach to stroke treatment could minimize brain damage
03/15/2019 Researchers outline the role of a deep brain structure in concussion
03/14/2019 Scientists teach machines to predict recovery time from sports-related concussions
03/13/2019 The contribution of social support, professional support, and financial hardship to family caregiver life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury
03/12/2019 Decreased risk of dementia among patients with traumatic brain injury receiving acupuncture treatment
03/11/2019 Cognitive reserve protects against memory decrements associated with neuropathology
03/08/2019 Brain injury rampant among domestic violence survivors
03/07/2019 Estimated life-time savings in the cost of ongoing care following specialist rehabilitation for severe traumatic brain injury
03/06/2019 Should we assess pituitary function in children after a mild traumatic brain injury?
03/05/2019 Global outcome trajectories up to 10 years after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury
03/04/2019 Sex differences in traumatic brain injury
03/01/2019 Factors contributing to parent-child interaction quality following mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood
02/28/2019 March is brain injury awareness month
02/27/2019 Brain injuries in women prisoners are linked to mental illness and reoffending
02/26/2019 Nixing neuron receptor improves recovery from brain injury
02/25/2019 Blood test being developed to better diagnose traumatic brain injuries
02/22/2019 Alcohol has a dose-dependent effect on the outcomes of traumatic brain injury patients
02/21/2019 ‘I hit my head.’ Let’s talk about traumatic brain injury
02/20/2019 Amantadine may be effective treatment for headaches after traumatic brain injury
02/19/2019 Traumatic brain injuries linked to epilepsy development
02/18/2019 Amantadine may be effective treatment for headaches after traumatic brain injury
02/15/2019 New study shows chronic head injuries lead to mental health issues
02/14/2019 Pill that reverses brain damage could be on the horizon
02/13/2019 Association of concussion with the risk of suicide
02/12/2019 Drug combo makes neurons to replace damaged ones
02/11/2019 Nearly 65% of prisoners at women’s jail ‘show signs of brain injury’
02/08/2019 Concussed adolescent athletes ‘prescribed’ aerobic exercise recovered faster
02/07/2019 New monitoring software suggests sub-concussive blows cause brain function changes
02/06/2019 Cancer drug shows promise in mitigating concussive brain injuries
02/05/2019 Mild traumatic brain injury linked to higher risk of PTSD, depression
02/04/2019 Wrestling with uncertainty after mild traumatic brain injury
02/01/2019 The frequency and the diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury
01/31/2019 Self-awareness following a traumatic brain injury in childhood
01/30/2019 Concussion and its consequences
01/29/2019 Pharmacotherapy effectiveness in treating depression after traumatic brain injury
01/28/2019 Pituitary dysfunction due to sports-related traumatic brain injury
01/25/2019 How concussions may lead to epilepsy
01/24/2019 Quality of life in adolescents recovering from sports-related concussion
01/23/2019 Smartphone app that can rapidly monitor the brain for signs of concussion
01/22/2019 Brain vital signs capture undetected impairments in ice hockey players with concussions
01/21/2019 Life after my traumatic brain injury will never be the same again, but I’m taking it one step at a time
01/18/2019 Traumatic brain injury and psychiatric co-morbidity
01/17/2019 Employment probability trajectories up to 10 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury
01/16/2019 Sleep-wake disturbances in childhood traumatic brain injury
01/15/2019 Predictors of community integration following traumatic brain injury
01/14/2019 Moderate to severe gambling problems and traumatic brain injury
01/11/2019 Behavioral therapies may treat headache and post-concussive symptoms
01/10/2019 Childhood socioeconomic status predicts cognitive outcomes across adulthood following traumatic brain injury
01/09/2019 Prevalence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities following traumatic brain injury
01/08/2019 Forget baseline tests, eye-tracking brings greater clarity to concussion diagnosis
01/07/2019 Effect of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression and cognition of patients with traumatic brain injury
01/04/2019 I suffered from 2 traumatic brain injuries, but it took 13 years to get a diagnosis
01/03/2019 Traumatic brain injury bill set to become federal law
01/02/2019 Are traumatic brain injuries associated with criminality after taking account of childhood family Social Status and Disruptive Behaviors?
12/31/2018 Tackle football poses a grave risk to young athletes
12/28/2018 Intimate partner violence and traumatic brain injury: An “invisible” public health epidemic
12/27/2018 Effects of cerebrolysin on functional outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury
12/26/2018 Understanding repetitive head impacts in sports
12/21/2018 Researchers find lasting impact of concussions on young adults
12/20/2018 Computers determine states of consciousness
12/19/2018 Study makes significant findings related to traumatic brain injury
12/18/2018 There may be a surprising link between depression and concussions in kids who play football
12/17/2018 A new strategy for brain regeneration after stroke
12/14/2018 Dialysis patients at risk of progressive brain injury
12/13/2018 Experts address sleep disorders following traumatic brain injury
12/12/2018 ‘Before, I was quite a shy person’: life after brain damage
12/11/2018 Rethinking treatment of traumatic brain injuries among children with disabilities
12/10/2018 Rural youth with mild head injuries face higher medical costs but get less care
12/07/2018 Kids with concussions can phase in exercise, screen time sooner than before
12/06/2018 Youth football changes nerve fibers in brain
12/05/2018 Commonly used concussion test useful in confirming—but not making—diagnosis for pro athletes
12/04/2018 Brain changes seen in MRIs of young football players
12/03/2018 How I got my life back on track after a brain injury
11/30/2018 EEG response to speech identifies severe brain injury patients with preserved cognition
11/29/2018 The search for a pill that treats concussions
11/28/2018 New way to ID cognitively aware yet unresponsive people with severe brain injury
11/27/2018 Head injuries lead to serious brain diseases- Here’s all you need to know
11/26/2018 Reprogrammed cells could tackle brain damage
11/21/2018 Suicide after concussion rare, but risk is higher
11/20/2018 New concussion recommendations for kids
11/19/2018 Researchers find further link between a-fib, brain injury, and possible neurodegeneration
11/16/2018 Mild blast forces cause brain pathology and deficits, despite lack of macroscopic damage
11/15/2018 Blood test may one day help track concussion recovery
11/14/2018 One type of brain cell might hold key to inflammation after head injury
11/13/2018 Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers mark 30 years of research
11/12/2018 New research shows symptom improvement after concussion in children varies
11/09/2018 Good sleep quality encourages better recovery after sport-related concussion
11/08/2018 Traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-term neurological and psychiatric disorders
11/07/2018 Evidence of brain injuries present in football players at young ages
11/06/2018 Socioeconomic status affects outcomes after traumatic brain injury
11/05/2018 Transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of depression in a patient with traumatic brain injury
11/02/2018 Changes in growth factor levels over a 7-day period predict the functional outcomes of traumatic brain injury
11/01/2018 pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury
10/31/2018 Gender differences in employment and economic quality of life following traumatic brain injury
10/30/2018 Concussion and college football: how many hits to the head is too much?
10/29/2018 Cerebral atrophy following traumatic brain injury
10/26/2018 Globally recognised treatment to cool the brain after a head injury does not reduce the risk of permanent damage
10/25/2018 Feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms underlie the relationship between traumatic brain injury and gut microbiota
10/24/2018 With dangers of everyday concussions revealed, scientists race to find solutions
10/23/2018 Sleep disruption following mild traumatic brain injury
10/22/2018 Quality of life and symptom burden 1 month after concussion in children and adolescents
10/19/2018 A systematic review and meta-analysis of return to work after mild Traumatic brain injury
10/18/2018 Kids’ concussion symptoms may persist for a year
10/17/2018 Sugar, a “sweet” tool to understand brain injuries
10/16/2018 Neck device shows promise in protecting the brain of female soccer players
10/15/2018 Patterns of pituitary dysfunction three months or more after traumatic brain injury
10/12/2018 Are eyes a window to diagnosing acute concussion in youth?
10/11/2018 Scientists design new methodology of motor assessment for patients with acquired brain injury
10/10/2018 Every cell has a story to tell in brain injury
10/09/2018 Concussion history and cognitive function
10/08/2018 Traumatic brain injury as an independent risk factor for problem gambling
10/05/2018 Prevalence of TBI 2.5 percent among U.S. children
10/04/2018 What happens to the brain after a traumatic injury?
10/03/2018 Researchers discover possible cause for Alzheimer’s and traumatic brain injury
10/02/2018 Neurobehavioral symptoms predictive of employment outcome after traumatic brain injury
10/01/2018 White matter repair and traumatic brain injury
09/28/2018 1 in 6 Americans over 40 has been knocked unconscious
09/27/2018 Traumatic brain injury as an independent risk factor for problem gambling
09/26/2018 New attention being paid to emotional toll of traumatic brain injuries
09/25/2018 Brain recovery: Activity, not rest, may speed recovery after brain injury
09/24/2018 Researchers find children experience concussion symptoms three times longer than adults
09/21/2018 Life after concussion
09/20/2018 For kids with concussions, less time alone in a dark room
09/19/2018 An improvement in outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury
09/18/2018 Clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder and premorbid traumatic brain injury
09/17/2018 What happens inside an injured brain?
09/14/2018 Outcomes of subjective sleep-wake disturbances 20 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood
09/13/2018 Indicators of long-term return to work after severe traumatic brain injury
09/12/2018 The CDC just released new concussion guidelines for kids
09/11/2018 New guidelines for traumatic brain injury — Built with input from rehabilitation professionals
09/10/2018 Benefits of methylphenidate for long-term attention problems after traumatic brain injury in childhood
09/07/2018 Concussions loosen insulation around brain cells
09/06/2018 The effect of antidepressants on depression after traumatic brain injury
09/05/2018 Helmets may not protect skiers from traumatic brain injury
09/04/2018 Device aims to detect concussion symptoms in the blink of an eye
08/31/2018 Different, but still whole: A young scientist reflects on his journey back from a brain injury
08/30/2018 Traumatic brain injury recovery via electrically stimulating neuron cells
08/29/2018 Head and neck positioning affects concussion risk
08/28/2018 Protecting against brain injuries
08/27/2018 Diagnosed: Under-reported brain injuries and their lasting effects
08/24/2018 Traumatic brain injury and incarceration: Ending a vicious cycle
08/23/2018 Association between traumatic brain injury and risk of suicide
08/22/2018 Genetic risk for ADHD not linked to ADHD symptoms after TBI
08/21/2018 How concussion stresses the heart, to protect the brain
08/20/2018 Immune Tolerance Therapy: A new method for treatment of traumatic brain injury
08/17/2018 Marriage breakdown after brain injury
08/16/2018 Suicide risk higher in people with brain injury
08/15/2018 ognitive training can reduce depressive symptoms in individuals with traumatic brain injury
08/14/2018 Researchers link residential characteristics with productivity one year after brain injury
08/13/2018 Serum magnesium as a marker of neurological outcome in traumatic brain injury patients
08/10/2018 Employment stability in the first 5 years after traumatic brain injury
08/09/2018 Concussion symptoms: take them seriously
08/08/2018 How severe brain injury might trigger dementia
08/07/2018 Head injury risk higher for female soccer players
08/06/2018 Scientists develop blood-drop test for concussion
08/03/2018 Finding lost emotions after brain injury
08/02/2018 Poor sleep is linked to impeded recovery from traumatic brain injury
08/01/2018 Sleep disturbance in children with traumatic brain injury compared with children with orthopedic injury
07/31/2018 The relationship between mental health and quality of life in children with traumatic brain injury three months after the injury
07/30/2018 Traumatic brain injury: Discovery of two molecules could lead to new drug treatments
07/27/2018 Study supports blood test to help diagnose brain injury
07/26/2018 ADHD tied to increased concussion risk for kids
07/25/2018 Developmental outcomes after traumatic brain injury in young children: Are infants more vulnerable than toddlers?
07/24/2018 Acupuncture for treatment of persistent disturbed sleep: A randomized clinical trial in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder
07/23/2018 8-year outcome after severe traumatic brain injury
07/20/2018 Scientists hunt for a test to diagnose chronic brain injury in living people
07/19/2018 TBI biomarker shows promise to support rapid damage evaluation & predict outcomes
07/18/2018 Exosomes in blood indicate mild TBI
07/17/2018 Concussion may bring greater risks for athletes with ADHD
07/16/2018 Emotional reserve and prolonged post-concussive symptoms and disability
07/13/2018 Concussion pill shows promise in pre-clinical pilot study
07/12/2018 Do mild concussions increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease?
07/11/2018 Obesity and overweight linked to long-term health problems after traumatic brain injury
07/10/2018 People with traumatic brain injury are at increased risk of dementia
07/09/2018 Sex-based differences in affective and cognitive empathy following severe traumatic brain injury
07/06/2018 Time-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury
07/05/2018 Psychological resilience is associated with participation outcomes following traumatic brain injury
07/03/2018 Starting physical therapy earlier may benefit adolescents with concussion
07/02/2018 Scientists identify immune cells that remove degenerating neurons after brain injury
06/29/2018 The influence of yoga on individuals with traumatic brain injury related to sleep and mood
06/28/2018 Clinical validation of S100B in the management of a mild traumatic brain injury
06/27/2018 Barriers and enablers to aligning rehabilitation goals to patient life roles following acquired brain injury
06/26/2018 Deficits in saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in adults with traumatic brain injury
06/25/2018 ‘Antifreeze’ molecules may stop and reverse damage from brain injuries
06/22/2018 Simple cognitive task after brain injury improves memory function
06/21/2018 Melatonin as a treatment after traumatic brain injury
06/20/2018 Disability and quality of life 20 years after traumatic brain injury
06/19/2018 One-year outcome following brain injury: a comparison of younger versus elderly major trauma patients
06/19/2018 Concussion symptoms vary depending on your sex, & here’s why it matters
06/18/2018 Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in moderate to severe head injured patients: Pure DAI vs. non-pure DAI
06/18/2018 Targeting inflammation may protect and restore the brain after stroke
06/15/2018 The incidence of anosmia after traumatic brain injury
06/14/2018 Characterization of balance control after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury
06/13/2018 Sedentary behavior predicts headache pain following mild traumatic brain injury
06/12/2018 The relationship between agitation and impairments of orientation and memory during the PTA period after traumatic brain injury
06/11/2018 Relationship between hispanic nativity, residential environment, and productive activity among individuals with traumatic brain injury
06/08/2018 Traumatic brain injury and the risk for subsequent crime perpetration
06/07/2018 Predictors of neuropsychological outcome after pediatric concussion
06/07/2018 Scientists work to dissolve the NETs that worsen TBI damage
06/06/2018 Risk of depression following traumatic brain injury in a large national sample
06/05/2018 Traumatic brain injury history and progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease
06/04/2018 Efficacy of the resilience and adjustment intervention after traumatic brain injury
06/01/2018 Obsessive-compulsive disorder due to traumatic brain injury
05/31/2018 Melatonin as a therapy for traumatic brain injury
05/31/2018 After a concussion, waiting for the sense of smell to return
05/30/2018 Positive psychology perspective on traumatic brain injury recovery and rehabilitation
05/30/2018 Traumatic brain injury without loss of consciousness associated with increased dementia risk
05/29/2018 Role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy for prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury
05/24/2018 Assessing the longer-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on self-reported driving ability
05/24/2018 Strategic training may cut symptoms of depression post-brain injury
05/23/2018 Onset, time course and prediction of spasticity after stroke or traumatic brain injury
05/23/2018 Unmet therapy needs common in children with traumatic brain injury
05/22/2018 The effectiveness of physical exercise as an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms following traumatic brain injury
05/22/2018 How can we help children with brain injuries transition back to school?
05/21/2018 The experience of return to work in individuals with traumatic brain injury
05/18/2018 Amantadine did not positively impact cognition in chronic traumatic brain injury
05/17/2018 Frequency and prognostic factors of olfactory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury
05/17/2018 Even mild concussion tied to greater dementia risk later
05/16/2018 Methylphenidate-mediated motor control enhancement in patients with traumatic brain injury
05/16/2018 A life shattered by brain injury
05/15/2018 Outcomes in nursing home patients with traumatic brain injury
05/15/2018 Changes to tiny blood vessels may help diagnose traumatic brain injuries
05/14/2018 Brain plasticity and modern neurorehabilitation technologies
05/14/2018 Acute and chronic changes in myelin following mild traumatic brain injury
05/11/2018 Extra practice outside therapy sessions to maximize training opportunity during inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury
05/11/2018 Playing football young may mean earlier cognitive, emotional problems
05/10/2018 A case report of guardian-consent forced paliperidone palmitate for behavioral disturbance due to traumatic brain injury
05/10/2018 How injuries change our brain and how we can help it recover
05/09/2018 Psychological well-being in individuals living in the community with traumatic brain injury
05/09/2018 One concussion could increase risk of Parkinson’s disease
05/08/2018 Fatigue and associated factors in traumatic brain injury and its correlation with insomnia and depression
05/08/2018 Soccer heading — not collisions — cognitively impairs players
05/07/2018 Prediction of persistent post-concussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury
05/07/2018 The scientific reason a brain injury can change your personality
05/04/2018 The experience of a recreational camp for families with a child or young person with acquired brain injury
05/04/2018 Blood biomarkers may allow easier detection, confirmation of concussions
05/03/2018 Traumatic brain injury-related symptoms reported by parents: clinical, imaging, and host predictors in children with impairments in consciousness <24 hours
05/03/2018 Many U.S. kids with brain injuries not getting needed rehab
05/02/2018 Plasma metabolomic biomarkers accurately classify acute mild traumatic brain injury from controls
05/02/2018 Blood test reveals progress of concussion recovery in athletes
05/01/2018 Is electroconvulsive therapy a treatment for depression following traumatic brain injury?
05/01/2018 Starting aerobic exercise soon after concussion improves recovery time
04/30/2018 Behavioral interventions for inappropriate sexual behavior in individuals with acquired brain injury
04/30/2018 Does concussion recovery and symptom severity differ between men and women?
04/27/2018 Fear avoidance and clinical outcomes from mild traumatic brain injury
04/27/2018 Research suggests that kids with brain injuries have a higher risk of ADHD
04/26/2018 Unmet rehabilitation needs after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury
04/26/2018 Traumatic brain injury—the unseen impact of domestic violence
04/25/2018 Effects of electrical stimulation in people with post-concussion syndromes
04/25/2018 Researchers chart a new way to look at concussion
04/24/2018 Acute prediction of outcome and cognitive-communication impairments following traumatic brain injury: the influence of age, education and site of lesion
04/24/2018 Scientists watch in real time as the lining of the brain heals itself after traumatic injury
04/23/2018 Behavioral and neurophysiological abnormalities during cued continuous performance tasks in patients with mild traumatic brain injury
04/23/2018 Reversing brain injury in newborns and adults
04/19/2018 Understanding divergent trajectories in pediatric patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury
04/19/2018 Receptor that feels the heat of a red chili pepper may be target for TBI recovery
04/18/2018 Behavioral and brain imaging changes in patients receiving bright light therapy following a mild traumatic brain injury
04/18/2018 Brain injuries increase dementia risk, study finds
04/17/2018 Distinct 6-Month functional outcome trajectories and predictors after traumatic brain injury
04/17/2018 Scientists have discovered a new stem cell that could heal brain damage
04/16/2018 Neuroendocrine abnormalities following traumatic brain injury: An important contributor to neuropsychiatric sequelae
04/16/2018 Concussion increases the risk of prolonged headache woes
04/13/2018 MLC901 (NeuroAiD II™ ) for cognition after traumatic brain injury
04/13/2018 Multiple, smaller head blows can be worse than concussions
04/12/2018 The impact of cultural background on outcome following traumatic brain injury
04/12/2018 Waking up “sleeping” stem cells in the brain could improve its ability to repair injury
04/11/2018 Perceived stigma and its association with participation following traumatic brain injury
04/11/2018 Could this drug help the brain recover after a stroke?
04/10/2018 Trajectories in health recovery in the 12 months following a mild traumatic brain injury in children
04/09/2018 Interpersonal stressors and resources as predictors of adolescent adjustment following traumatic brain injury
04/06/2018 Effects of web-based parent training on caregiver functioning following pediatric traumatic brain injury
04/05/2018 The association of rehospitalization with participation 5 years after traumatic brain injury
04/05/2018 Gene therapy may help brain heal from stroke
04/04/2018 Exercise rehabilitation attenuates cognitive deficits with traumatic brain injury
04/04/2018 Prosthetic memories help brain injury patients with short-term recall
04/03/2018 Altruistic decisions following penetrating traumatic brain injury
04/02/2018 Imagining the future in children with severe traumatic brain injury
03/30/2018 Depression in the first year after traumatic brain injury
03/29/2018 Fatigue following pediatric acquired brain injury and its impact on functional outcomes
03/28/2018 Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents 5 to 10 years after traumatic brain injury
03/27/2018 Predictors of post-discharge seizures in children with traumatic brain injury
03/27/2018 Kids with severe brain injuries may develop ADHD
03/26/2018 Longitudinal recovery of executive control functions after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury
03/23/2018 Use of an errorless learning approach in a person with concomitant traumatic spinal cord injury and brain injury
03/22/2018 Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injuries to oculomotor tracking performances and reaction times to simple environmental stimuli
03/21/2018 Relax while you rehabilitate: A pilot study integrating a novel, yoga-based mindfulness group intervention into a residential military brain injury rehabilitation program
03/20/2018 Association of post-traumatic stress symptom severity with health-related quality of life and self-reported functioning across 12-months after severe traumatic brain injury
03/19/2018 Persistent symptoms and activity changes three months after mild traumatic brain injury
03/16/2018 Interventions to enhance coping after traumatic brain injury
03/15/2018 Is there a correlation between family functioning and functional recovery in patients with acquired brain injury?
03/14/2018 Efficacy of a micro-prompting technology in reducing support needed by people with severe acquired brain injury in activities of daily living
03/13/2018 Assessment of recovery following pediatric traumatic brain injury
03/12/2018 Magnesium administration after experimental traumatic brain injury improves decision-making skills
03/09/2018 Hearing loss after traumatic brain injury
03/08/2018 Persistent symptoms and activity changes three months after mild traumatic brain injury
03/07/2018 Aerobic exercise for adolescents with prolonged symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury
03/07/2018 Girls’ concussion symptoms last twice as long as those in boys
03/06/2018 Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury
03/05/2018 Lifelong behavioral and neuropathological consequences of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury
03/02/2018 Cognitive function and participation in children and youth with mild traumatic brain injury two years after injury
03/01/2018 Trajectory of functional independent measurements during first 5-years following traumatic brain injury
02/28/2018 Safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of dextromethorphan for pseudobulbar affect following traumatic brain injury
02/27/2018 Blood biomarkers in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury
02/26/2018 Cerebral blood vessel damage in traumatic brain injury
02/23/2018 Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury in bone metabolism
02/23/2018 All children do not follow the same path to concussion recovery
02/22/2018 Traumatic brain injury, sleep disorders, and psychiatric disorders: An underrecognized relationship
02/22/2018 Positive psychology helps brain injury survivors recover with a better outlook on life
02/21/2018 Virtual reality for pediatric traumatic brain injury rehabilitation
02/21/2018 Genetic risk score could help predict patient’s quality of life after traumatic brain injury
02/20/2018 A review of sleep disturbances following traumatic brain injury
02/20/2018 FDA approves first blood test to help diagnose brain injuries
02/16/2018 Recovery following pediatric traumatic brain injury
02/15/2018 The effects of timing and intensity of neurorehabilitation on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury
02/14/2018 Effectiveness of occupation and activity-based interventions for people with traumatic brain injury
02/13/2018 Traumatic brain injury history is associated with an earlier age of dementia onset
02/13/2018 Women more likely to suffer sports-related concussions
02/12/2018 Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury
02/09/2018 Predicting the trajectory of participation after traumatic brain injury
02/09/2018 A tiny pulse of electricity can help the brain form lasting memories
02/08/2018 A systematic review and meta-analysis of sleep architecture and chronic traumatic brain injury
02/07/2018 Changes in oculomotor function in young adults with mild traumatic brain injury
02/06/2018 Transcranial ultrasound stimulation improves long-term functional outcomes and protects against brain damage in traumatic brain injury
02/06/2018 Could a vaccine protect football players from concussion?
02/02/2018 Impaired theory of mind in adults with traumatic brain injury
02/01/2018 Headache following head injury: a population-based longitudinal cohort study
02/01/2018 Concussions tied to rise in dementia risk decades later
01/31/2018 Effects of fatigue, driving status, cognition, and depression on participation in adults with traumatic brain injury
01/30/2018 Impact & blast traumatic brain injury: Implications for therapy
01/29/2018 The potential of stem cells in treatment of traumatic brain injury
01/26/2018 Efficacy of melatonin for sleep disturbance following traumatic brain injury
01/25/2018 A case of traumatic brain injury presenting with musical hallucinations
01/24/2018 Depression: The often overlooked sequela of head trauma
01/23/2018 The association between premorbid conditions in school-aged children with prolonged concussion recovery
01/22/2018 Risk of erectile dysfunction after traumatic brain injury
01/22/2018 Repeated head hits, not just concussions, may lead to a type of chronic brain damage
01/19/2018 Association between bipolar disorder and subsequent traumatic brain injury
01/19/2018 Brain protein changes could explain how concussions affect patients
01/18/2018 Traumatic Brain Injury: A potential cause of violent crime?
01/17/2018 Effect of age and sex on hospital readmission in traumatic brain injury
01/17/2018 Research uncovers new link between head trauma, CTE, and ALS
01/16/2018 Cognitive behavioral intervention compared to telephone counseling early after mild traumatic brain injury
01/15/2018 Effects of neurofeedback on the short-term memory and continuous attention of patients with moderate traumatic brain injury
01/12/2018 Growing literature but limited evidence: A systematic review regarding prebiotic and probiotic interventions for those with traumatic brain injury
01/12/2018 Team finds that brain implants can rely on more than neurons to function
01/11/2018 A retrospective analysis of the relationship between facial injury and mild traumatic brain injury
01/10/2018 Psychosocial and executive function recovery trajectories one year after pediatric traumatic brain injury: The influence of age and injury severity
01/09/2018 Concussion in adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis
01/08/2018 Dizziness-related disability following mild-moderate traumatic brain injury
01/05/2018 Predicting fatigue 12 months after child traumatic brain injury
01/04/2018 The prevalence of traumatic brain injury, comorbid anxiety and other psychiatric disorders in an outpatient child and adolescent mental health service
01/03/2018 Does the fear avoidance model explain persistent symptoms after traumatic brain injury?
01/02/2018 Self-awareness four years after severe traumatic brain injury

via Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide – Brain Injury News

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[WEB SITE] Intimate partner violence and traumatic brain injury: An “invisible” public health epidemic

While studying brain injuries in the mid-1990s, I began volunteering in a domestic violence shelter. I noticed that the abuse and problems many women reported were consistent with possibly experiencing concussions. Women reported many acts of violence that could cause trauma to the brain, as well as many post-concussive symptoms. Shockingly, my search for literature on this topic yielded zero results.

When I decided to focus my graduate work on this topic, I was even more shocked by what I learned from women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Of the 99 women I interviewed, 75% reported at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained from their partners and about half reported more than one — oftentimes many more than one. Also, as I predicted, the more brain injuries a woman reported, the more poorly she tended to perform on cognitive tasks such as learning and remembering a list of words. Additionally, having more brain injuries was associated with higher levels of psychological distress such as worry, depression, and anxiety.

When I published these results, I was excited about the possibility of bringing much needed awareness and research attention to this topic. Unfortunately, over 20 years later — despite the plethora of concussion-related research in athletics and the military — concussion-related research in the context of intimate partner violence remains scant, representing a barely recognized and highly understudied public health epidemic.

What do we know about intimate partner violence-related traumatic brain injuries?

First, we need to understand that an estimated one in three women experience some type of physical or sexual partner violence in their lifetimes. IPV is not a rare event, and it traverses all socioeconomic boundaries. It is the number one cause of homicide for women and the number one cause of violence to women. For many reasons, including the stigma of being abused, many women hide their IPV — so the chances that we all know personally at least a few people who have sustained IPV are quite high.

Though we lack good epidemiological data on the number of women sustaining brain injuries from their partners, the limited data that we do have suggest that the numbers are in the millions in the US alone. Most of these TBIs are mild and are unacknowledged, untreated, and repetitive. Consequently, many women are at risk for persistent post-concussive syndrome with completely unknown longer-term health risks.

What are the signs and symptoms of IPV-related TBI?

A concussion, by definition, is a traumatic brain injury (TBI). All that is required for someone to sustain a TBI or concussion is an alteration in consciousness after some type of external trauma or force to the brain. For example, either being hit in the head with a hard object (such as a fist), or having a head hit against a hard object (such as a wall or floor), can cause a TBI. If this force results in confusion, memory loss around the event, or loss of consciousness, this is a TBI. Dizziness or seeing stars or spots following such a force can also indicate a TBI. A loss of consciousness is not required, and in fact does not occur in the majority of mild TBIs.

There are often no physical signs that a TBI has occurred. Recognizing that an IPV-related TBI has occurred will typically involve asking the woman about her experience following a blow to the head or violent force to the brain, and then listening for signs of an alteration of consciousness (such as confusion, memory loss, loss of consciousness). Within the next days or week, a range of physical, emotional, behavioral, or cognitive issues may indicate post-concussive symptoms that could include

  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • feeling depressed or tearful
  • being irritable or easily angered
  • frustration
  • restlessness
  • having poor concentration
  • sleep disturbances
  • forgetfulness
  • taking longer to think.

If a TBI is suspected, a woman should see a doctor if possible. Sustaining additional TBIs while still symptomatic will likely increase the time to recovery, and possibly increase the likelihood of more long-term difficulties.

What can we do?

An important component of addressing IPV-related TBI is to raise awareness and destigmatize intimate partner violence. IPV is unfortunately quite common, and some estimates suggest that millions of women may be sustaining unacknowledged, unaddressed, and often repetitive mild TBIs or concussions from their partners. Talking openly and honestly about this problem, especially in cases were abuse may be suspected, is critical. As we open up this conversation about the commonality of IPV with nonjudgmental acceptance of a woman’s experience, we will be in a better place to hear, understand, and support women who may be unknowing members of this invisible public health epidemic.

Resources

If you or someone you know is experiencing intimate partner violence, The Hotline is a 24/7 support service that has a wealth of resources, including access to service providers and shelters across the US.

Follow me on Twitter @EveValera2

 

via Intimate partner violence and traumatic brain injury: An “invisible” public health epidemic – Harvard Health Blog – Harvard Health Publishing

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