A TBI can happen to anyone, whether it happens while playing sports, at work, or just slipping on an icy sidewalk. Injuries can range from “mild” to “severe”, with a majority of cases being concussions or mild TBI. The good news is that most cases are treatable and there are several ways to help prevent injury.
Archive for category TBI
“Brain injury can last a lifetime, but it doesn’t have to cost a lifetime.”
– Anonymous person with a brain injury
Living with a brain injury can require a range of resources, strategies and supports. The range of possible supports can be tremendous. This page hopes to offer links to articles and information about the supports and resources that are available to people with brain injury and their families to assist them.
Below is a list of common issues that can arise, with links to publications and/or other website with useful information. If you know of additional information or resources, or find something missing, please feel free to contact us to let us know. Also look in the BIAA Marketplace for additional resources, including personal accounts, webinars and more.
Assistive Technology Tip Card
Assistive Technology Checklist for PDA’s
Resources for Finding and Funding AT Devices
Family Caregivers article on Assistive Technology
What Are Your Options to Pay for Assistive Devices?
Family Caregiver Alliance
Brain Injury is a Family Affair
Caregiver Planning Tool
Family News and Views Letting Go
Tips for Dealing with Stress
Changes, Choices, Challenges- A Guide for Families to Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Impact of Brain Injury on the Family and How They Can Help
Cognition and Memory
Road to Rehabilitation Part 3- Cognition and Memory
Family News and Views: Cognition is the Key
Family News and Views Neuropsychological Assessment
Organizing Daily Life After Brain Injury
Cognitive Problems After Brain Injury
Brain Injury Association Cognitive Stimulation Resource Guide
Falls and Brain Injury
Fatigue and Brain Injury
Guide to Participating in Clinical Trials
Abstracts of TBI Model Systems Research
Knowledge Translation Center of TBI Model Systems
THE Challenge! newsletter issue on research (summer 2009)
Substance Abuse and Brain Injury
Substance Abuse Information from the Ohio Valley Center
TBI Model Systems Research: Substance Abuse and Brain Injury
Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center presentation on Substance Abuse and Brain Injury
Source: Brain Injury Resources
Source: TBI Basics | BrainLine
[Dissertation] Perceived Self-Efficacy in Individuals with Moderate-to-Severe Brain Injury: The Effects of Rehabilitation Outcomes and Depression – Full Text PDF
Brain injury represents a major public health issue in the United States, accounting for a largely underestimated figure of 2.5 million cases in 2010. The pervasive effects of this chronic medical condition contribute to a growing economic burden, as the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae of brain injury demand long-term care for those with moderate-to-severe brain injuries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently proposed new recommendations for improvements in monitoring the incidence of and research on brain injury. The goals of this public health initiative are to better inform health service delivery and ultimately improve quality of life for those affected, as well as their loved ones.
In addition to improved quality of life, community reintegration is a primary goal
of brain injury rehabilitation. Engagement in rehabilitation is largely dependent upon an individual’s level of impairment, as well as other personal factors. For example, research examining the relationship between targeted interventions and community participation has established support for the protective effects of self-efficacy, or personal belief in one’s abilities to achieve a desired goal. Additional research on the importance of selfefficacy to psychological health has provided further support for the protective effects of this construct against depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research into the relationship between rehabilitation outcomes, psychological health, and self-efficacy is necessary to inform recommendations for improving health service delivery and quality of life for this vulnerable population.
The aim of the present study is to examine factors that may be related to self
efficacy in persons with moderate-to-severe brain injury who receive treatment at along term post acute brain injury program. The implications of this research include baseline assessment of self-efficacy in this sample that could potentially inform future staff training and overall clinical practice geared towards cultivating self-efficacy in persons with brain injury. The primary limitations of this study are its small sample size and constrained external validity. Despite these limitations, more research is necessary to understand the role of psychological protective factors in brain injury rehabilitation and to inform strategies for improved health service delivery and increased quality of life.
[ARTICLE] Upper Limb Outcome Measures Used in Stroke Rehabilitation Studies: A Systematic Literature Review – Full Text
Establishing which upper limb outcome measures are most commonly used in stroke studies may help in improving consensus among scientists and clinicians.
In this study we aimed to identify the most commonly used upper limb outcome measures in intervention studies after stroke and to describe domains covered according to ICF, how measures are combined, and how their use varies geographically and over time.
Pubmed, CinHAL, and PeDRO databases were searched for upper limb intervention studies in stroke according to PRISMA guidelines and477 studies were included.
In studies 48different outcome measures were found. Only 15 of these outcome measures were used in more than 5% of the studies. The Fugl-Meyer Test (FMT)was the most commonly used measure (in 36% of studies). Commonly used measures covered ICF domains of body function and activity to varying extents. Most studies (72%) combined multiple outcome measures: the FMT was often combined with the Motor Activity Log (MAL), the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test, but infrequently combined with the Motor Assessment Scale or the Nine Hole Peg Test. Key components of manual dexterity such as selective finger movements were rarely measured. Frequency of use increased over a twelve-year period for the FMT and for assessments of kinematics, whereas other measures, such as the MAL and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Test showed decreased use over time. Use varied largely between countries showing low international consensus.
The results showed a large diversity of outcome measures used across studies. However, a growing number of studies used the FMT, a neurological test with good psychometric properties. For thorough assessment the FMT needs to be combined with functional measures. These findings illustrate the need for strategies to build international consensus on appropriate outcome measures for upper limb function after stroke.
[WEB SITE] Research Reports – Psychotropic medication use during rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury
Research Reports – Psychotropic medication use during rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury
OBJECTIVE: To describe psychotropic medication administration patterns during
inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relation to
patient preinjury and injury characteristics.
DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort.
SETTING: Multiple acute inpatient rehabilitation units or hospitals.
PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with TBI (N=2130; complicated mild, moderate, or
severe) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation.
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Not applicable.
RESULTS: Most frequently administered were narcotic analgesics (72% of sample),
followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), anxiolytics (33%),
hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents
(25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied
were administered to 95% of the sample, with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8%
receiving ≥6. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely
between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to
receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants,
antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, whereas those older were more likely to
receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to
receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to
Asians and more likely administered to those with more severe functional
impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some
point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more
likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression
(premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation.
Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the
course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except
for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration
within admission functional levels (defined by cognitive FIM scores), except for
those with higher admission FIM cognitive scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Many psychotropic medications are used during inpatient
rehabilitation. In general, lower admission FIM cognitive score groups were
administered more of the medications under investigation compared with those with
higher cognitive function at admission. Considerable site variation existed
regarding medications administered. The current investigation provides baseline
data for future studies of effectiveness.