Posts Tagged Adult

[WEB SITE] Human brains make new nerve cells — and lots of them — well into old age.

Previous studies have suggested neurogenesis tapers off or stops altogether

nerve cells in hippocampi

NEURON NURSERY  Roughly the same number of new nerve cells (dots) exist in the hippocampus of people in their 20s (three hippocampi shown, top row) as in people in their 70s (bottom). Blue marks the dentate gyrus, where new nerve cells are born.

Your brain might make new nerve cells well into old age.

Healthy people in their 70s have just as many young nerve cells, or neurons, in a memory-related part of the brain as do teenagers and young adults, researchers report in the April 5 Cell Stem Cell. The discovery suggests that the hippocampus keeps generating new neurons throughout a person’s life.

The finding contradicts a study published in March, which suggested that neurogenesis in the hippocampus stops in childhood (SN Online: 3/8/18). But the new research fits with a larger pile of evidence showing that adult human brains can, to some extent, make new neurons. While those studies indicate that the process tapers off over time, the new study proposes almost no decline at all.

Understanding how healthy brains change over time is important for researchers untangling the ways that conditions like depression, stress and memory loss affect older brains.

When it comes to studying neurogenesis in humans, “the devil is in the details,” says Jonas Frisén, a neuroscientist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm who was not involved in the new research. Small differences in methodology — such as the way brains are preserved or how neurons are counted — can have a big impact on the results, which could explain the conflicting findings. The new paper “is the most rigorous study yet,” he says.

Researchers studied hippocampi from the autopsied brains of 17 men and 11 women ranging in age from 14 to 79. In contrast to past studies that have often relied on donations from patients without a detailed medical history, the researchers knew that none of the donors had a history of psychiatric illness or chronic illness. And none of the brains tested positive for drugs or alcohol, says Maura Boldrini, a psychiatrist at Columbia University. Boldrini and her colleagues also had access to whole hippocampi, rather than just a few slices, allowing the team to make more accurate estimates of the number of neurons, she says.

To look for signs of neurogenesis, the researchers hunted for specific proteins produced by neurons at particular stages of development. Proteins such as GFAP and SOX2, for example, are made in abundance by stem cells that eventually turn into neurons, while newborn neurons make more of proteins such as Ki-67. In all of the brains, the researchers found evidence of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus, the part of the hippocampus where neurons are born.

Although the number of neural stem cells was a bit lower in people in their 70s compared with people in their 20s, the older brains still had thousands of these cells. The number of young neurons in intermediate to advanced stages of development was the same across people of all ages.

Still, the healthy older brains did show some signs of decline. Researchers found less evidence for the formation of new blood vessels and fewer protein markers that signal neuroplasticity, or the brain’s ability to make new connections between neurons. But it’s too soon to say what these findings mean for brain function, Boldrini says. Studies on autopsied brains can look at structure but not activity.

Not all neuroscientists are convinced by the findings. “We don’t think that what they are identifying as young neurons actually are,” says Arturo Alvarez-Buylla of the University of California, San Francisco, who coauthored the recent paper that found no signs of neurogenesis in adult brains. In his study, some of the cells his team initially flagged as young neurons turned out to be mature cells upon further investigation.

But others say the new findings are sound. “They use very sophisticated methodology,” Frisén says, and control for factors that Alvarez-Buylla’s study didn’t, such as the type of preservative used on the brains.

via Human brains make new nerve cells — and lots of them — well into old age | Science News

, , , , , , ,

Leave a comment

[Abstract] Botulinum Toxin Injection Techniques for the Management of Adult Spasticity


Spasticity is often experienced by individuals with injury or illness of the central nervous system from etiologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, brain injury, multiple sclerosis, or other neurologic conditions. Although spasticity may provide benefits in some patients, it more often leads to complications negatively impacting the patient. Nonpharmacologic treatment options often do not provide long-term reduction of spasticity, and systemic interventions, such as oral medications, can have intolerable side effects. The use of botulinum neurotoxin injections is one option for management of focal spasticity. Several localization techniques are available to physicians that allow for identification of the selected target muscles. These methods include anatomic localization in isolation or in conjunction with electromyography guidance, electrical stimulation guidance, or ultrasound guidance. This article will focus on further description of each of these techniques in relation to the treatment of adult spasticity and will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, as well as review the literature comparing the techniques.


via Botulinum Toxin Injection Techniques for the Management of Adult Spasticity – ScienceDirect

, , ,

Leave a comment

[Abstract] The management of epilepsy in children and adults.

The International League Against Epilepsy has recently published a new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies to reflect the major scientific advances in our understanding of the epilepsies since the last formal classification 28 years ago. The classification emphasises the importance of aetiology, which allows the optimisation of management. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main approach to epilepsy treatment and achieve seizure freedom in about two-thirds of patients. More than 15 second generation AEDs have been introduced since the 1990s, expanding opportunities to tailor treatment for each patient. However, they have not substantially altered the overall seizure-free outcomes. Epilepsy surgery is the most effective treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy and should be considered as soon as appropriate trials of two AEDs have failed. The success of epilepsy surgery is influenced by different factors, including epilepsy syndrome, presence and type of epileptogenic lesion, and duration of post-operative follow-up. For patients who are not eligible for epilepsy surgery or for whom surgery has failed, trials of alternative AEDs or other non-pharmacological therapies, such as the ketogenic diet and neurostimulation, may improve seizure control. Ongoing research into novel antiepileptic agents, improved techniques to optimise epilepsy surgery, and other non-pharmacological therapies fuel hope to reduce the proportion of individuals with uncontrolled seizures. With the plethora of gene discoveries in the epilepsies, “precision therapies” specifically targeting the molecular underpinnings are beginning to emerge and hold great promise for future therapeutic approaches.


via The management of epilepsy in children and adults. – Abstract – Europe PMC

, , , , , ,

Leave a comment

[ARTICLE] Gym-based exercise was more costly compared with home-based exercise with telephone support when used as maintenance programs for adults with chronic health conditions: cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised trial – Full Text



What is the comparative cost-effectiveness of a gym-based maintenance exercise program versus a home-based maintenance program with telephone support for adults with chronic health conditions who have previously completed a short-term, supervised group exercise program?


A randomised, controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The economic evaluation took the form of a trial-based, comparative, incremental cost-utility analysis undertaken from a societal perspective with a 12-month time horizon.


People with chronic health conditions who had completed a 6-week exercise program at a community health service.


One group of participants received a gym-based exercise program and health coaching for 12 months. The other group received a home-based exercise program and health coaching for 12 months with telephone follow-up for the first 10 weeks.

Outcome measures

Healthcare costs were collected from government databases and participant self-report, productivity costs from self-report, and health utility was measured using the European Quality of Life Instrument (EQ-5D-3L).


Of the 105 participants included in this trial, 100 provided sufficient cost and utility measurements to enable inclusion in the economic analyses. Gym-based follow-up would cost an additional AUD491,572 from a societal perspective to gain 1 quality-adjusted life year or 1 year gained in perfect health compared with the home-based approach. There was considerable uncertainty in this finding, in that there was a 37% probability that the home-based approach was both less costly and more effective than the gym-based approach.


The gym-based approach was more costly than the home-based maintenance intervention with telephone support. The uncertainty of these findings suggests that if either intervention is already established in a community setting, then the other intervention is unlikely to replace it efficiently.


Chronic conditions that are related to physical inactivity, such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and stroke, are estimated to result in direct healthcare costs of over AUD377 million per year in Australia.1 ;  2 Implementing strategies to increase physical activity in adults with chronic health conditions may be an effective way of reducing the economic impact in Australia. Short-term (ie, 4 to 6 week) supervised interventions, such as cardiac and pulmonary phase II rehabilitation programs, have been shown to be effective in improving quality of life and reducing morbidity and healthcare costs.3 ;  4However, there is evidence to suggest that once the program is completed, adherence to exercise declines along with the health benefits obtained.5 Hence, there is a need to provide interventions to promote long-term exercise adherence after the completion of a short-term exercise program.

A recent review of this field identified two commonly investigated approaches to improve ongoing exercise adherence for adults with chronic health conditions: home-based exercise programs with telephone follow-up, and gym-based exercise programs.6 That review and meta-analysis found no difference in exercise adherence rates between these interventions. Furthermore, it identified no economic evaluations examining the comparative efficiency of the two approaches.

There is an ongoing need to identify efficient means of promoting adherence to exercise in the long term, in order to improve the quality of life of adults with chronic health conditions. The aim of the current study was to examine the economic efficiency of home-based maintenance with telephone follow-up compared with gym-based maintenance exercise amongst adults with a variety of chronic conditions who had completed a short-term supervised exercise program led by a health professional.

Therefore, the study question for this economic analysis of that randomised trial was:

What is the comparative cost-effectiveness of a gym-based maintenance exercise program versus a home-based maintenance program with telephone support for adults with chronic health conditions who have previously completed a short-term, supervised group exercise program?


Continue —> Gym-based exercise was more costly compared with home-based exercise with telephone support when used as maintenance programs for adults with chronic health conditions: cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised trial

, , , , ,

Leave a comment

[Abstract] Effect of electrical stimulation as an adjunct to botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of adult spasticity: a systematic review

Objective: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects.

Data sources: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016.

Study selection: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered. RCTs were excluded if BTX plus ES was investigated in animals or healthy subjects; certain techniques were used as an adjunct to BTX-A, but ES was not used; BTX-A or ES were compared but were not used in combination. ES was divided into neuromuscular stimulation (NMS), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Two authors independently screened all search results and reviewed study characteristics using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale.

Results: Fifteen RCTs were pinpointed and nine studies were included. Trials varied in methodological quality, size, and outcome measures used. ES was used in the form of NMS and FES in seven and two studies, respectively. No study investigating BTX-A plus TENS was found. BTX-A plus ES produced significant reduction in spasticity on the Ashworth Scale (AS) and on the modified AS in seven studies, but only four showed high quality on the PEDro scale. Significant reduction in compound muscular action potential (CMAP) amplitude was detected after BTX-A plus ES in two studies.

Conclusions: ES as an adjunctive therapy to BTX-A may boost BTX-A action in reducing adult spasticity, but ES variability makes it difficult to recommend the combined therapy in clinical practice.

Implications for rehabilitation

  • Electrical stimulation (ES) as adjunct to botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections may boost neurotoxin action in treating adult spasticity.

  • Given the variability of ES characteristics and the paucity of high-quality trials, it is difficult to support definitively the use of BTX-A plus ES to potentiate BTX-A effect in clinical practice.

  • A vast array of rehabilitation interventions combined with BTX-A have been provided in reducing spasticity, but the present evidence is not sufficient to recommend any combined therapeutic strategy.

Source: Effect of electrical stimulation as an adjunct to botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of adult spasticity: a systematic review: Disability and Rehabilitation: Vol 0, No 0

, , , ,

Leave a comment

[WEB SITE] Constraint Induced Movement Therapy

  • Use it or lose it

    The human brain has been shown to modify itself constantly as a result of learning.
    Similar modifications take place after brain damage resulting in recovery of function.

    Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CIMT/ CIT) or CI therapy is a new therapeutic approach to rehabilitation of hand and arm movement after stroke, cerebral palsy, brachial plexus injury, multiple sclerosis (MS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). CI therapy consists of a family of treatments that teach the brain to “rewire” itself following a neurological injury. CI therapy is based on research by Prof. Edward Taub and his collaborators at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA that showed that patients can learn to improve movement of the weaker part of their bodies.CIMT is a 2-3 week treatment program that includes restraint of the non-affected hand for most of the waking hours and intensive practice of the affected one for specific hours per day. Practice is focused on everyday activities that are important for the patient and takes place in the clinic and at home. The daily home-based program is tailor made to match each person’s abilities and interests.

Continue —> Constraint Induced Movement Therapy | Constraint Induced Movement Therapy

, , , , , , , ,

Leave a comment

[ARTICLE] Measuring Spasticity and Fine Motor Control (Pinch) Change in the Hand After Botulinum Toxin-A Injection Using Dynamic Computerized Hand Dynamometry

…To evaluate change in fine motor hand performance and to investigate the relationship between existing clinical measures and dynamic computerized dynamometry (DCD) after botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injections for adults with upper limb spasticity…

, , , , , , , , , ,

Leave a comment

%d bloggers like this: