Posts Tagged Arm

[Abstract] Improving Healthcare Access: a Preliminary Design of a Low Cost Arm Rehabilitation Device

Abstract

A low cost continuous passive motion (CPM) machine, the Gannon Exoskeleton for Arm Rehabilitation (GEAR), was designed. The focus of the machine is on the rehabilitation of primary functional movements of the arm. The device developed integrates two mechanisms consisting of a four-bar linkage and a sliding rod prismatic joint mechanism that can be mounted to a normal chair. When seated, the patient is connected to the device via a padded cuff strapped on the elbow. A set of springs have been used to maintain the system stability and help the lifting of the arm. A preliminary analysis via analytical methods is used to determine the initial value of the springs to be used in the mechanism given the desired gravity compensatory force. Subsequently, a multi-body simulation was performed with the software SimWise 4D by Design Simulation Technologies (DST). The simulation was used to optimize the stiffness of the springs in the mechanism to provide assistance to raising of the patient’s arm. Furthermore, the software can provide a finite element analysis of the stress induced by the springs on the mechanism and the external load of the arm. Finally, a physical prototype of the mechanism was fabricated using PVC pipes and commercial metal springs, and the reaching space was measured using motion capture. We believed that the GEAR has the potential to provide effective passive movement to individuals with no access to post-operative or post-stroke rehabilitation therapy.

via Improving Healthcare Access: a Preliminary Design of a Low Cost Arm Rehabilitation Device | Journal of Medical Devices | ASME Digital Collection

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[Abstract] Roles of Lesioned and Nonlesioned Hemispheres in Reaching Performance Poststroke

Background. Severe poststroke arm impairment is associated with greater activation of the nonlesioned hemisphere during movement of the affected arm. The circumstances under which this activation may be adaptive or maladaptive remain unclear.

Objective. To identify the functional relevance of key lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere motor areas to reaching performance in patients with mild versus severe arm impairment.

Methods. A total of 20 participants with chronic stroke performed a reaching response time task with their affected arm. During the reaction time period, a transient magnetic stimulus was applied over the primary (M1) or dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of either hemisphere, and the effect of the perturbation on movement time (MT) was calculated.

Results. For perturbation of the nonlesioned hemisphere, there was a significant interaction effect of Site of perturbation (PMd vs M1) by Group (mild vs severe; P < .001). Perturbation of PMd had a greater effect on MT in the severe versus the mild group. This effect was not observed with perturbation of M1. For perturbation of the lesioned hemisphere, there was a main effect of site of perturbation (P < .05), with perturbation of M1 having a greater effect on MT than PMd.

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that, in the context of reaching movements, the role of the nonlesioned hemisphere depends on both impairment severity and the specific site that is targeted. A deeper understanding of these individual-, task-, and site-specific factors is essential for advancing the potential usefulness of neuromodulation to enhance poststroke motor recovery.

  

via Roles of Lesioned and Nonlesioned Hemispheres in Reaching Performance Poststroke – Rachael M. Harrington, Evan Chan, Amanda K. Rounds, Clinton J. Wutzke, Alexander W. Dromerick, Peter E. Turkeltaub, Michelle L. Harris-Love,

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[ARTICLE] Musical Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation Yields Limited Benefits – Full Text

Neurologic music therapy in rehabilitation of stroke patients has been shown to be a promising supplement to the often strenuous conventional rehabilitation strategies. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) replicate results from a previous study with a sample from one clinic (henceforth called Site 1; N = 12) using an already established recording system, and (ii) conceptually replicate previous findings with a less costly hand-tracking system in Site 2 (N = 30), and (iii) compare both sub-studies’ outcomes to estimate the efficiency of neurologic music therapy. Stroke patients in both sites were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups and received daily training of guided sequential upper limb movements additional to their standard stroke rehabilitation protocol. Treatment groups received sonification (i.e., changes in musical pitch) of their movements when they moved their affected hand up and down to reproduce a sequence of the first six notes of a C major scale. Controls received the same movement protocol, however, without auditory feedback. Sensors at the upper arm and the forearm (Xsens) or an optic sensor device (Leapmotion) allowed to measure kinematics of movements and movement smoothness. Behavioral measures pre and post intervention included the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and movement data. Bayesian regression did not show evidence supporting an additional effect of sonification on clinical mobility assessments. However, combined movement data from both sites showed slight improvements in movement smoothness for the treatment group, and an advantage for one of the two motion capturing systems. Exploratory analyses of EEG-EMG phase coherence during movement of the paretic arm in a subset of patients suggested increases in cortico-muscular phase coherence specifically in the ipsilesional hemisphere after sonification therapy, but not after standard rehabilitation therapy. Our findings show that musical sonification is a viable treatment supplement to current neurorehabilitation methods, with limited clinical benefits. However, given patients’ enthusiasm during training and the low hardware price of one of the systems it may be considered as an add-on home-based neurorehabilitation therapy.

Introduction

Stroke survivors frequently suffer from severe disabilities. Stroke may lead to impairments in motor and sensory systems, emotion regulation, language perception, and cognitive functions (Morris and Taub, 2008). Impaired arm function caused by gross-motor disability is also a common consequence of stroke immensely affecting quality of life in a considerable number of patients. In this case, regaining control over body movements is one of the crucial components in post-stroke recovery. There is an urgent need for effective motor rehabilitation approaches to improve quality of life in stroke survivors. Different therapeutic approaches such as Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT), mental practice, robot-aided therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, and repetitive task training have been applied to improve arm function after stroke (Langhorne et al., 2009). Of note, in a recent review it has been suggested that neurologic music therapy might be more effective than conventional physiotherapy (for a recent review see Sihvonen et al., 2017).

Motivational factors seem to play an important role for the beneficial effects of neurologic music therapy. From the patients’ informal descriptions of their experience with music-supported training, it appears that this is frequently highly enjoyable and a highlight of their rehabilitation process, regardless of the form of auditory stimulation, be it piano tones, or sonification of movement with other timbres [for a review see Altenmüller and Stewart (2018)]. However, effects of music supported therapy in stroke rehabilitation are not always consistent. In a recent review, seven controlled studies that evaluated the efficacy of music as an add-on therapy in stroke rehabilitation were identified (Sihvonen et al., 2017). In these studies, training of finger dexterity of the paretic hand was done using either a piano-keyboard, or, for wrist movements, drum-pads tuned to a C major scale. Superiority of the music group over fine motor training without music and over conventional physiotherapy was evident in one study after intervention comprising five 30-min sessions per week for 3 weeks (Schneider et al., 2010). The beneficial effect seen in the music group could be specifically attributed to the musical component of the training rather than the motor training per se, since patients practicing with mute instruments remained inferior to the music group. Here, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) was applied before and after 20 sessions of either music supported therapy on a keyboard or equivalent therapy without sound. FMA scores of the motor functions of the upper limb improved by 16 in the music group and by 5 in the control group, both improvements being statistically significant although to a lesser degree in the control group (p = 0.02 vs. p = 0.04; Tong et al. (2015)).

With regard to the neurophysiological mechanisms of neurological music therapy, it was demonstrated that patients undergoing music supported therapy not only regained their motor abilities at a faster rate but also improved in timing, precision and smoothness of fine motor skills as well as showing increases in neuronal connectivity between sensorimotor and auditory cortices as assessed by means of EEG-EEG-coherence (Altenmüller et al., 2009Schneider et al., 2010).

These findings are corroborated by a case study of a patient who underwent music supported training 20 months after suffering a stroke. Along with the clinical improvement, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) demonstrated activation of motor and premotor areas, when listening to simple piano tunes, thus providing additional evidence for the establishment of an auditory-sensorimotor co-representation due to the training procedure (Rojo et al., 2011). Likewise, in a larger group of 20 chronic stroke patients, increases in motor cortex excitability following 4 weeks of music-supported therapy were demonstrated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which were accompanied by marked improvements of fine motor skills (Amengual et al., 2013).

In addition to functional reorganization of the auditory-sensorimotor network, recent findings have reported changes in cognition and emotion after music-supported therapy in chronic stroke patients. Fujioka et al. (2018) demonstrated in a 10-week-long randomized controlled trial (RCT), including 14 patients with music supported therapy and 14 patients receiving conventional physiotherapy, that both groups only showed minor improvements. However, the music group performed significantly better in the trail making test, indicating an improvement in cognitive flexibility, and furthermore showed enhanced social and communal participation in the Stroke Impairment Scale and in PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Watson et al., 1988), lending support to the prosocial and motivational effects of music. In another RCT with an intervention of only 4 weeks, Grau-Sánchez et al. (2018) demonstrated no superiority in fine motor skills in the music group as compared to a control group, but instead an increase in general quality of life as assessed by the Profile of Mood states and the stroke specific quality of live questionnaire. Despite growing evidence, the neurophysiological mechanisms of neurological music therapy remain poorly understood.

Most of the existing studies on music-supported therapy have focused on rehabilitation of fine motor functions of the hand. Much less evidence exists on post-stroke rehabilitation of gross motor functions of the upper limbs. In a previous study we thus developed a movement sonification therapy in order to train upper arm and shoulder functions (Scholz et al., 2015). Gross movements of the arm were transformed into discrete sounds, providing a continuous feedback in a melodic way, tuned to a major scale (i.e., patients could use movements of their paretic arms as a musical instrument). In this way, sound perception substituted for defective proprioception. In a first pilot study in subacute stroke patients we were able to demonstrate that musical sonification therapy reduced joint pain in the Fugl-Meyer pain subscale (difference between groups: −10; d = 1.96) and improved smoothness of movements (d = 1.16) in comparison to movement therapy without sound (Scholz et al., 2016). Here, we extend these findings by comparing the effects of the established musical sonification setup (Scholz et al., 2016) with a newly developed, less expensive sonification device in a group of subacute stroke patients with upper limb motor impairments. The only apparent differences between both data acquisition methods were the improved sound quality and the loss of need to strap sensors to patient limbs. In order to further elucidate the neurophysiological underpinnings of musical sonification therapy we simultaneously recorded EEG and EMG data from a subset of patients to analyze cortico-muscular phase coherence during upper limb movements (Chen et al., 2018Pan et al., 2018). According to previous studies (Pan et al., 2018) we hypothesized that cortico-muscular phase coherence increases in the ipsilesional hemisphere after musical sonification therapy. […]

 

Continue —->  Frontiers | Musical Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation Yields Limited Benefits | Neuroscience

Figure 2. Experimental setup. (A) three-dimensional space (the Leapmotion controller at Site 2 was placed on the board at the position marked in purple), with axis labels describing qualitative sound changes when the hand was moved relative to the frame (and hence, the body). (B) Xsens sensors as used at Site 1, attached to wrist and upper arm of patient. (C) Leapmotion controller as used at Site 2, with the space axes superimposed. Panel (A) taken from Scholz et al. (2016).

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[Abstract] Predicting Improved Daily Use of the More Affected Arm Poststroke Following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy

Abstract

Background

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) produces, on average, large and clinically meaningful improvements in the daily use of a more affected upper extremity in individuals with hemiparesis. However, individual responses vary widely.

Objective

The study objective was to investigate the extent to which individual characteristics before treatment predict improved use of the more affected arm following CI therapy.

Design

This study was a retrospective analysis of 47 people who had chronic (> 6 months) mild to moderate upper extremity hemiparesis and were consecutively enrolled in 2 CI therapy randomized controlled trials.

Methods

An enhanced probabilistic neural network model predicted whether individuals showed a low, medium, or high response to CI therapy, as measured with the Motor Activity Log, on the basis of the following baseline assessments: Wolf Motor Function Test, Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Test of touch threshold, Motor Activity Log, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Then, a neural dynamic classification algorithm was applied to improve prognostic accuracy using the most accurate combination obtained in the previous step.

Results

Motor ability and tactile sense predicted improvement in arm use for daily activities following intensive upper extremity rehabilitation with an accuracy of nearly 100%. Complex patterns of interaction among these predictors were observed.

Limitations

The fact that this study was a retrospective analysis with a moderate sample size was a limitation.

Conclusions

Advanced machine learning/classification algorithms produce more accurate personalized predictions of rehabilitation outcomes than commonly used general linear models.

 

via Predicting Improved Daily Use of the More Affected Arm Poststroke Following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy | Physical Therapy | Oxford Academic

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[Abstract] Optimization Design of Support Arm of an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot – Full Text PDF

Abstract

According to the structural design requirements of upper limb rehabilitation robot, the static analysis and harmonic response analysis are made in this paper. The structure of the upper limb rehabilitation robot is simplified in different ways according to the importance of each part of the structure. Selecting different element types and establishing finite element model Based on its analysis results, some unnecessary parts are removed and simplified, and the main forced parts are optimized by defining parameters to optimize and re-design the structure. The static analysis and harmonious response analysis of the modified model, comparing the structure before and after optimization, show that the modified structural mechanical properties are obviously improved and the design requirements are fully met.

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via Optimization Design of Support Arm of an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot – IOPscience

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[Abstract] The effects of a robot-assisted arm training plus hand functional electrical stimulation on recovery after stroke: a randomized clinical trial

Abstract

Objective

To compare the effects of unilateral, proximal arm robot-assisted therapy combined with hand functional electrical stimulation to intensive conventional therapy for restoring arm function in subacute stroke survivors.

Design

This was a single blinded, randomized controlled trial.

Setting

Inpatient Rehabilitation University Hospital.

Participants

Forty patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke (time since stroke <8 weeks) and upper limb impairment were enrolled.

Interventions

Participants randomized to the experimental group received 30 sessions (5 sessions/week) of robot-assisted arm therapy and hand functional electrical stimulation (RAT + FES). Participants randomized to the control group received a time-matched intensive conventional therapy (ICT).

Main outcome measures

The primary outcome was arm motor recovery measured with the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. Secondary outcomes included motor function, arm spasticity and activities of daily living. Measurements were performed at baseline, after 3 weeks, at the end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Presence of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was also measured at baseline.

Results

Both groups significantly improved all outcome measures except for spasticity without differences between groups. Patients with moderate impairment and presence of MEPs who underwent early rehabilitation (<30 days post stroke) demonstrated the greatest clinical improvements.

Conclusions

A robot-assisted arm training plus hand functional electrical stimulation was no more effective than intensive conventional arm training. However, at the same level of arm impairment and corticospinal tract integrity, it induced a higher level of arm recovery.

 

via The effects of a robot-assisted arm training plus hand functional electrical stimulation on recovery after stroke: a randomized clinical trial – ScienceDirect

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[Abstract] Robot-Assisted Arm Training in Chronic Stroke: Addition of Transition-to-Task Practice

Abstract

Background. Robot-assisted therapy provides high-intensity arm rehabilitation that can significantly reduce stroke-related upper extremity (UE) deficits. Motor improvement has been shown at the joints trained, but generalization to real-world function has not been profound.

Objective. To investigate the efficacy of robot-assisted therapy combined with therapist-assisted task training versus robot-assisted therapy alone on motor outcomes and use in participants with moderate to severe chronic stroke-related arm disability.

Methods. This was a single-blind randomized controlled trial of two 12-week robot-assisted interventions; 45 participants were stratified by Fugl-Meyer (FMA) impairment (mean 21 ± 1.36) to 60 minutes of robot therapy (RT; n = 22) or 45 minutes of RT combined with 15 minutes therapist-assisted transition-to-task training (TTT; n = 23). The primary outcome was the mean FMA change at week 12 using a linear mixed-model analysis. A subanalysis included the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), with significance P <.05.

Results. There was no significant 12-week difference in FMA change between groups, and mean FMA gains were 2.87 ± 0.70 and 4.81 ± 0.68 for RT and TTT, respectively. TTT had greater 12-week secondary outcome improvements in the log WMFT (-0.52 ± 0.06 vs -0.18 ± 0.06; P = .01) and SIS hand (20.52 ± 2.94 vs 8.27 ± 3.03; P = .03).

Conclusion. Chronic UE motor deficits are responsive to intensive robot-assisted therapy of 45 or 60 minutes per session duration. The replacement of part of the robotic training with nonrobotic tasks did not reduce treatment effect and may benefit stroke-affected hand use and motor task performance.

 

via Robot-Assisted Arm Training in Chronic Stroke: Addition of Transition-to-Task Practice. – PubMed – NCBI

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[VIDEO] Arm Range of Motion – Karuna Labs: Virtual Embodiment Training for Chronic Pain – YouTube

via Arm Range of Motion – Karuna Labs: Virtual Embodiment Training for Chronic Pain – YouTube

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[ARTICLE] Methods for an Investigation of Neurophysiological and Kinematic Predictors of Response to Upper Extremity Repetitive Task Practice in Chronic Stroke – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Objective

To demonstrate the feasibility of algorithmic prediction utilizing a model of baseline arm movement, genetic factors, demographic characteristics, and multi-modal assessment of the structure and function of motor pathways. To identify prognostic factors and the biological substrate for reductions in arm impairment in response to repetitive task practice.

Design

This prospective single-group interventional study seeks to predict response to a repetitive task practice program using an intent-to-treat paradigm. Response is measured as a change of ≥5 points on the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer from baseline to final evaluation (at the end of training).

Setting

General community

Participants

Anticipated enrollment of 96 community-dwelling adults with chronic stroke (onset ≥6 months) and moderate to severe residual hemiparesis of the upper limb as defined by a score of 10-45 points on the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer.

Intervention

The intervention is a form of repetitive task practice using a combination of robot-assisted therapy coupled with functional arm use in real-world tasks administered over 12 weeks.

Main outcome measures

Upper extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (primary outcome), Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test, Stroke Impact Scale, questionnaires on pain and expectancy, magnetic resonance imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, arm kinematics, accelerometry, and a saliva sample for genetic testing.

Results

Methods for this trial are outlined and an illustration of inter-individual variability is provided by example of two participants who present similarly at baseline but achieve markedly different outcomes.

Conclusion

This article presents the design, methodology, and rationale of an ongoing study to develop a predictive model of response to a standardized therapy for stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Applying concepts from precision medicine to neurorehabilitation is practicable and needed to establish realistic rehabilitation goals and to effectively allocate resources.

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via Methods for an Investigation of Neurophysiological and Kinematic Predictors of Response to Upper Extremity Repetitive Task Practice in Chronic Stroke – ScienceDirect

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