Rehabilitation and assistive robotics are beneficial for chronic and subacute stroke patients with upper limb impairments. Rehabilitation robotics is the use of robotic machinery and devices during therapy sessions to motivate and optimize the patient’s upper limb motor functions. While assistive robotics is the use of portable robotic devices, which can assist the post stroke user with their upper limb movements along their daily tasks. Assistive robotic devices may also allow patients to “in-directly” improve their motor functions through encouraging them to utilize their affected limb on daily basis. Thus, an assistive device is seen to be essential complementary to a rehabilitation device. Before marketing these two types of devices, they should undergo evaluation studies and clinical trials. This process will not only ensure patient’s safety and optimal outcomes, but also help to overcome challenges in promoting the final product. The aim of this short article is to provide a brief review of current rehabilitation and assistive robotics, highlighting how they are complementary to each other, and how they can be evaluated and improved.
The development of upper limb and lower extremity robotic exoskeletons has emerged as a way to improve the quality of life as well as act as a primary rehabilitation device for individuals suffering from stroke or spinal cord injury. This paper contains extractions from the database of robotic exoskeleton for human upper limb rehabilitation and prime factors behind the burden of stroke. Various studies on stroke-induced deficiency from different countries were included in the review. The data were extracted from both clinical tests and surveys. Though there have been splendid advancements in this field, they still present enormous challenges. This paper provides the current developments, progress and research challenges in exoskeleton technology along with future research directions associated with the field of exoskeletons and orthosis. Robot-assisted training (RT) was found to be more effective than conventional training (CT) sessions. The present research articles in this field have many weaknesses as they do not cover the systematic review including the clinical studies and various surveys that lay a foundation for the requirement of robotic assistive devices. This review paper also discusses various exoskeleton devices that have been clinically evaluated.
via Developments and clinical evaluations of robotic exoskeleton technology for human upper-limb rehabilitation: Advanced Robotics: Vol 0, No 0
Use of assistive robotic devices and exoskeletons help to achieve the main purpose of
rehabilitation and increased functionality in medical sector. In order to treat patients after stroke or with a condition of myasthenia, physiotherapy is needed for rehabilitating the weakened set of muscles. The exoskeleton devices not only treat the patient well but also help them to relearn the basic movements of the affected limb. They help strengthen the weak part/limb of a person withcondition of partial paralysis / myasthenia with the help of assistive exoskeleton rehabilitation device via training sessions to improve daily primary activities.
In our country, every year there are almost a million people affected with paralysis and
myasthenia. According to social security disability (S.S.D.) myasthenia is a disability and there is no cure. But it can be treated with medication, physiotherapy and sometimes surgery. To avoid the surgery stage, in this condition the affected patient needs to take specific treatment to give considerable strength to the affected limb. Myasthenia is the state in which abnormal weakening of muscles takes place. It is caused due to severe strokes & accidental nerve damage. In most of the cases severe strokes & nerve damage leads to weakening of arm muscles & it becomes necessary to get expensive physiotherapies in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. Here a particular device that is perfectly designed to impart confidence in the patient to exercise by themselves and
work efficiently to strengthen the muscles of affected limb is beneficial, under the guidance of a physiotherapist. In this paper, we will discuss different devices/exoskeleton which are used for rehabilitation of weak muscles to find the most effective device and ways by which they achieve their objective of strengthening the weakened part or a limb and regain its functionality.
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The paper presents the working model of the face tracking system. The proposed solution may be used as one of the parts of the rehabilitation or assistive robotic system and serve as the robotic vision subsystem or as the module controlling robotic arm. It is a low-cost design, it is based on open source hardware and software components. As a hardware base the Raspberry Pi computer was used. The machine vision software is based on Python programming language and OpenCV computer vision library.
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via The Face Tracking System for Rehabilitation Robotics Applications | SpringerLink
In this paper, we present the combination of our soft supernumerary robotic finger i.e. Soft-SixthFinger with a commercially available zero gravity arm support, the SaeboMAS. The overall proposed system can provide the needed assistance during paretic upper limb rehabilitation involving both grasping and arm mobility to solve task-oriented activities. The Soft-SixthFinger is a wearable robotic supernumerary finger designed to be used as an active assistive device by post stroke patients to compensate the paretic hand grasp. The device works jointly with the paretic hand/arm to grasp an object similarly to the two parts of a robotic gripper. The SaeboMAS is a commercially available mobile arm support to neutralize gravity effects on the paretic arm specifically designed to facilitate and challenge the weakened shoulder muscles during functional tasks. The proposed system has been designed to be used during the rehabilitation phase when the arm is potentially able to recover its functionality, but the hand is still not able to perform a grasp due to the lack of an efficient thumb opposition. The overall system also act as a motivation tool for the patients to perform task-oriented rehabilitation activities.
With the aid of proposed system, the patient can closely simulate the desired motion with the non-functional arm for rehabilitation purposes, while performing a grasp with the help of the Soft-SixthFinger. As a pilot study we tested the proposed system with a chronic stroke patient to evaluate how the mobile arm support in conjunction with a robotic supernumerary finger can help in performing the tasks requiring the manipulation of grasped object through the paretic arm. In particular, we performed the Frenchay Arm Test (FAT) and Box and Block Test (BBT). The proposed system successfully enabled the patient to complete tasks which were previously impossible to perform.
Source: A soft supernumerary robotic finger and mobile arm support for grasping compensation and hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation
The rising number of the elderly incurs growing concern about healthcare, and in particular rehabilitation healthcare. Assistive technology and and assistive robotics in particular may help to improve this process. We develop a robot coach capable of demonstrating rehabilitation exercises to patients, watch a patient carry out the exercises and give him feedback so as to improve his performance and encourage him. We propose a general software architecture for our robot coach, which is based on imitation learning techniques using Gaussian Mixture Models. Our system is thus easily programmable by medical experts without specific robotics knowledge, as well as capable of personalised audio feedback to patients indicating useful information to improve on their physical rehabilitation exercise.
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This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015.
ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group.
The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other countries.
The conference featured 19 special sessions, plus a main/general robotics track. The special sessions were about: Agricultural Robotics and Field Automation; Autonomous Driving and Driver Assistance Systems; Communication Aware Robotics; Environmental Robotics; Social Robotics: Intelligent and Adaptable AAL Systems; Future Industrial Robotics Systems; Legged Locomotion Robots; Rehabilitation and Assistive Robotics; Robotic Applications in Art and Architecture; Surgical Robotics; Urban Robotics; Visual Perception for Autonomous Robots; Machine Learning in Robotics; Simulation and Competitions in Robotics; Educational Robotics; Visual Maps in Robotics; Control and Planning in Aerial Robotics, the XVI edition of the Workshop on Physical Agents and a Special Session on Technological Transfer and Innovation.
Source: Robot 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference: Advances in Robotics – Google Books