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Hemianopia leads to severe impairment of spatial orientation and mobility. In cases without macular sparing an additional reading disorder occurs. Persistent visual deficits require rehabilitation. The goal is to compensate for the deficits to regain independence and to maintain the patient’s quality of life. Spontaneous adaptive mechanisms, such as shifting the field defect towards the hemianopic side by eye movements or eccentric fixation, are beneficial, but often insufficient. They can be enhanced by training, e.g., saccadic training to utilize the full field of gaze in order to improve mobility and by special training methods to improve reading performance. At present only compensatory interventions are evidence-based.
Source: PHYSIOTHERAPY BOOKS
The coupling of several areas of the medical field with recent advances in robotic systems has seen a paradigm shift in our approach to selected sectors of medical care, especially over the last decade. Rehabilitation medicine is one such area. The development of advanced robotic systems has ushered with it an exponential number of trials and experiments aimed at optimising restoration of quality of life to those who are physically debilitated. Despite these developments, there remains a paucity in the presentation of these advances in the form of a comprehensive tool. This book was written to present the most recent advances in rehabilitation robotics known to date from the perspective of some of the leading experts in the field and presents an interesting array of developments put into 33 comprehensive chapters. The chapters are presented in a way that the reader will get a seamless impression of the current concepts of optimal modes of both experimental and ap- plicable roles of robotic devices.
- Chapter 1 Robotic Solutions in Pediatric Rehabilitation
- Chapter 2 Biomechanical Constraints in the Design of Robotic Systems for Tremor Suppression
- Chapter 3 Robotics and Virtual Reality Applications in Mobility Rehabilitation
- Chapter 4 Designing Safety-Critical Rehabilitation Robots
- Chapter 5 Work Assistive Mobile Robot for the Disabled in a Real Work Environment
- Chapter 6 The Evolution and Ergonomics of Robotic-Assisted Surgical Systems
- Chapter 7 Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Rehabilitation Robotic Systems
- Chapter 8 A 3-D Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs “EMUL”, and a 6-DOF Rehabilitation System “Robotherapist” and Other Rehabilitation Systems with High Safety
- Chapter 9 The Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I & II: Daily Life Independency through Semi-Autonomous Task-Execution
- Chapter 10 Functional Rehabilitation: Coordination of Artificial and Natural Controllers
- Chapter 11 Passive-type Intelligent Walker Controlled Based on Caster-like Dynamics
- Chapter 12 Powered Human Gait Assistance
- Chapter 13 Task-oriented and Purposeful Robot-Assisted Therapy
- Chapter 14 Applications of Robotics to Assessment and Physical Therapy of Upper Limbs of Stroke Patients
- Chapter 15 Applications of a Fluidic Artificial Hand in the Field of Rehabilitation
- Chapter 16 Upper-Limb Exoskeletons for Physically Weak Persons
- Chapter 17 Cyberthosis: Rehabilitation Robotics With Controlled Electrical Muscle Stimulation
- Chapter 18 Haptic Device System For Upper Limb Motor Impairment Patients: Developing And Handling In Healthy Subjects
- Chapter 19 Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed Lower Limbs Using Functional Electrical Stimulation: Robust Closed Loop Control
- Chapter 20 Risk Evaluation of Human-Care Robots
- Chapter 21 Robotic Exoskeletons for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation
- Chapter 22 Upper Limb Rehabilitation System for Self-Supervised Therapy: Computer-Aided Daily Performance Evaluation for the Trauma and Disorder in the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves
- Chapter 23 PLEIA: A Reconfigurable Platform for Evaluation of HCI Acting
- Chapter 24 Facial Automaton for Conveying Emotions as a Social Rehabilitation Tool for People with Autism
- Chapter 25 Upper-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Exoskeleton: Tremor Suppression
- Chapter 26 Lower-Limb Wearable Exoskeleton
- Chapter 27 Exoskeleton-Based Exercisers for the Disabilities of the Upper Arm and Hand
- Chapter 28 Stair Gait Classification from Kinematic Sensors
- Chapter 29 The ALLADIN Diagnostic Device: An Innovative Platform for Assessing Post-Stroke Functional Recovery
- Chapter 30 Synthesis of Prosthesis Architectures and Design of Prosthetic Devices for Upper Limb Amputees
- Chapter 31 An Embedded Control Platform of a Continuous Passive Motion Machine for Injured Fingers
- Chapter 32 A Portable Robot for Tele-Rehabilitation: Remote Therapy and Outcome Evaluation
- Chapter 33 Bio-Inspired Interaction Control of Robotic Machines for Motor Therapy
Informatics For Health Professionals Is An Excellent Resource To Provide Healthcare Students And Professionals With The Foundational Knowledge To Integrate Informatics Principles Into Practice. The Theoretical Underpinning Of This Text Is The Foundation Of Knowledge Model, Which Explains How Informatics Relates To Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Processing, Knowledge Generation, Knowledge Dissemination, And Feedback. Once Readers Understand Informatics And The Way In Which It Supports Practice, Education, Administration, And Research, They Can Apply These Principles To Improve Patient Care At All Levels. Key Content Focuses On Current Informatics Research And Practice Including But Not Limited To: •Technology Trends •Information Security Advances •Health Information Exchanges •Care Coordination •Transition Technologies •Ethical And Legislative Aspects •Social Media Use •Mobile Health •Bioinformatics •Knowledge Management •Data Mining, And More Helpful Learning Tools Include: Case Studies, Provoking Discussion Questions, Research Briefs, And Call Outs On Cutting-Edge Innovations, Meaningful Use, And Patient Safety. INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES: Instructor’S Manual, Slides In Powerpoint Format, And A Test Bank. STUDENT RESOURCES: Each New Print Copy Includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access That Unlocks An Interactive Ebook, Student Practice Activities And Assessments, And A Dashboard That Reports Actionable Data. Some Ebook And Electronic Versions Do Not Include Navigate 2 Advantage Access.
Neuroplasticity – or brain plasticity – is the ability of the brain to modify its connections or re-wire itself. Without this ability, any brain, not just the human brain, would be unable to develop from infancy through to adulthood or recover from brain injury.
What makes the brain special is that, unlike a computer, it processes sensory and motor signals in parallel. It has many neural pathways that can replicate another’s function so that small errors in development or temporary loss of function through damage can be easily corrected by rerouting signals along a different pathway.
The problem becomes severe when errors in development are large, such as the effects of the Zika virus on brain development in the womb, or as a result of damage from a blow to the head or following a stroke. Yet, even in these examples, given the right conditions the brain can overcome adversity so that some function is recovered.
The brain’s anatomy ensures that certain areas of the brain have certain functions. This is something that is predetermined by your genes. For example, there is an area of the brain that is devoted to movement of the right arm. Damage to this part of the brain will impair movement of the right arm. But since a different part of the brain processes sensation from the arm, you can feel the arm but can’t move it. This “modular” arrangement means that a region of the brain unrelated to sensation or motor function is not able to take on a new role. In other words, neuroplasticity is not synonymous with the brain being infinitely malleable.
Part of the body’s ability to recover following damage to the brain can be explained by the damaged area of the brain getting better, but most is the result of neuroplasticity – forming new neural connections. In a study ofCaenorhabditis elegans, a type of nematode used as a model organism in research, it was found that losing the sense of touch enhanced the sense of smell. This suggests that losing one sense rewires others. It is well known that, in humans, losing one’s sight early in life can heighten other senses, especially hearing.
As in the developing infant, the key to developing new connections is environmental enrichment that relies on sensory (visual, auditory, tactile, smell) and motor stimuli. The more sensory and motor stimulation a person receives, the more likely they will be to recover from brain trauma. For example, some of the types of sensory stimulation used to treat stroke patients includes training in virtual environments, music therapy and mentally practising physical movements.
The basic structure of the brain is established before birth by your genes. But its continued development relies heavily on a process called developmental plasticity, where developmental processes change neurons and synaptic connections. In the immature brain this includes making or losing synapses, the migration of neurons through the developing brain or by the rerouting and sprouting of neurons.
There are very few places in the mature brain where new neurons are formed. The exceptions are the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (an area involved in memory and emotions) and the sub-ventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, where new neurons are generated and then migrate through to the olfactory bulb (an area involved in processing the sense of smell). Although the formation of new neurons in this way is not considered to be an example of neuroplasticity it might contribute to the way the brain recovers from damage. …
Visit Web Site —> What Is Brain Plasticity and Why Is It So Important? | SciTech Connect
For acute, subacute, or chronic stroke, and neurotrauma, a range of rehabilitation strategies will be essential to optimize possible benefits of molecular, cellular, and novel pharmacological restorative approaches. The neurorehabilitation strategies must be chosen to engage the targeted networks of these novel approaches, drawing upon studies of motor and cognitive learning-related neural adaptations that accompany progressive practice. Regulatory agencies and the pharma/biotech industry will need to keep an open mind about the likely synergy that will come from interleaving repair strategies and rehabilitation interventions.
For clinical trials aimed at motor restoration, outcome measurement tools should be relevant to the anticipated targets of repair-enhanced rehabilitation. Most outcomes to date have been drawn from disease-specific and rehabilitation toolboxes. In studies that include participants who are more than a few weeks beyond acquiring profound impairments and disabilities, outcome measures will likely have to go beyond off-the-shelf tools that were not designed to detect modest clinical evidence of sensorimotor system repair. This chapter describes specific rehabilitation strategies and outcome assessments in the context of interfacing them with neurorestoration approaches.
By Susan B O’Sullivan, Thomas J Schmitz
Here is a practical, step-by-step guide to understanding the treatment process and selecting the most appropriate intervention for your patient. Superbly illustrated, in-depth coverage shows you how to identify functional deficits, determine what treatments are appropriate, and then to implement them to achieve the best functional outcome for your patients.