Posts Tagged cognitive training
[ARTICLE] Technology-based cognitive training and rehabilitation interventions for individuals with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review
Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at heightened risk of developing dementia. Rapid advances in computing technology have enabled researchers to conduct cognitive training and rehabilitation interventions with the assistance of technology. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of technology-based cognitive training or rehabilitation interventions to improve cognitive function among individuals with MCI.
We conducted a systematic review using the following criteria: individuals with MCI, empirical studies, and evaluated a technology-based cognitive training or rehabilitation intervention. Twenty-six articles met the criteria.
Studies were characterized by considerable variation in study design, intervention content, and technologies applied. The major types of technologies applied included computerized software, tablets, gaming consoles, and virtual reality. Use of technology to adjust the difficulties of tasks based on participants’ performance was an important feature. Technology-based cognitive training and rehabilitation interventions had significant effect on global cognitive function in 8 out of 22 studies; 8 out of 18 studies found positive effects on attention, 9 out of 16 studies on executive function, and 16 out of 19 studies on memory. Some cognitive interventions improved non-cognitive symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and ADLs.
Technology-based cognitive training and rehabilitation interventions show promise, but the findings were inconsistent due to the variations in study design. Future studies should consider using more consistent methodologies. Appropriate control groups should be designed to understand the additional benefits of cognitive training and rehabilitation delivered with the assistance of technology.
Due to the aging of the world’s population, the number of people who live with dementia is projected to triple to 131 million by the year 2050 [1, 2]. Development of preventative strategies for individuals at higher risk of developing dementia is an international priority [3, 4]. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is regarded as an intermediate stage between normal cognition and dementia [5, 6]. Individuals with MCI usually suffer with significant cognitive complaints, yet do not exhibit the functional impairments required for a diagnosis of dementia. These people typically have a faster rate of progression to dementia than those without MCI , but the cognitive decline among MCI subjects has the potential of being improved [7, 8]. Previous systematic reviews of cognitive intervention studies, both cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation, have demonstrated promising effects on improving cognitive function among subjects with MCI [3, 7, 9, 10].
Recently, rapid advances in computing technology have enabled researchers to conduct cognitive training and rehabilitation interventions with the assistance of technology. A variety of technologies, including virtual reality (VR), interactive video gaming, and mobile technology, have been used to implement cognitive training and rehabilitation programs. Potential advantages to using technology-based interventions include enhanced accessibility and cost-effectiveness, providing a user experience that is immersive and comprehensive, as well as providing adaptive responses based on individual performance. Many computerized cognitive intervention programs are easily accessed through a computer or tablet, and the technology can objectively collect data during the intervention to provide real-time feedback to participants or therapists. Importantly, interventions delivered using technology have shown better effects compared to traditional cognitive training and rehabilitation programs in improving cognitive function and quality of life [11–13]. The reasons for this superiority are not well-understood but could be related to the usability and motivational factors related to the real-time interaction and feedback received from the training system .
Three recent reviews of cognitive training and rehabilitation for use with individuals with MCI and dementia suggest that technology holds promise to improve both cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes [14–16]. The reviews conducted by Coyle, et al.  and Chandler, et al.  were limited by accessing articles from only two databases, and did not comprehensively cover available technologies. Hill, et al.  limited their review to papers published until July 2016 and included only older adults aged 60 and above. More technology-based intervention studies have been conducted since then, and only including studies with older adults 60 and above could limit the scope of the review given that adults can develop early-onset MCI in their 40s . Therefore, the purpose of this review is to 1) capture more studies using technology-based cognitive interventions by conducting a more comprehensive search using additional databases 2) understand the effect of technology-based cognitive interventions on improving abilities among individuals with MCI; and 3) examine the effects of multimodal technology-based interventions and their potential superiority compared to single component interventions.[…]
Over the last decade, neural transplantation has emerged as one of the more promising, albeit highly experimental, potential therapeutics in neurodegenerative disease. Preclinical studies in rat lesion models of Huntington’s disease (HD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have shown that transplanted precursor neuronal tissue from a fetus into the lesioned striatum can survive, integrate, and reconnect circuitry. Importantly, specific training on behavioral tasks that target striatal function is required to encourage functional integration of the graft to the host tissue. Indeed, “learning to use the graft” is a concept recently adopted in preclinical studies to account for unpredicted profiles of recovery posttransplantation and is an emerging strategy for improving graft functionality.
Clinical transplant studies in HD and PD have resulted in mixed outcomes. Small sample sizes and nonstandardized experimental procedures from trial to trial may explain some of this variability. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that simply replacing the lost neurons may not be sufficient to ensure the optimal graft effects. The knowledge gained from preclinical grafting and training studies suggests that lifestyle factors, including physical activity and specific cognitive and/or motor training, may be required to drive the functional integration of grafted cells and to facilitate the development of compensatory neural networks. The clear implications of preclinical studies are that physical activity and cognitive training strategies are likely to be crucial components of clinical cell replacement therapies in the future.
In this chapter, we evaluate the role of general activity in mediating the physical ability of cells to survive, sprout, and extend processes following transplantation in the adult mammalian brain, and we consider the impact of general and specific activity at the behavioral level on functional integration at the cellular and physiological level. We then highlight specific research questions related to timing, intensity, and specificity of training in preclinical models and synthesize the current state of knowledge in clinical populations to inform the development of a strategy for neural transplantation rehabilitation training.
[REVIEW] Video games, cognitive exercises, and the enhancement of cognitive abilities – Full Text HTML
• Cognitive training tools fall into two bins: video games and cognitive exercises.
• Factors such as fun, motivation, and adaptivity often differ across approaches.
• Expectancy and dose size can influence study effects during validation experiments.
• Hybrid tools leveraging the strengths of each approach may guide this field forward.
In this review we explore the emerging field of cognitive training via distinct types of interactive digital media: those designed primarily for entertainment (‘video games’) and those created for the purpose of cognitive enhancement (‘cognitive exercises’). Here we consider how specific design factors associated with each tool (e.g., fun, motivation, adaptive mechanics) and the study itself (e.g., participant expectancy, dose effects) can influence cognitive enhancement effects. We finally describe how the development of hybrid interventions that capitalize on strengths of each type of interactive digital media are anticipated to emerge as this field matures.
There are a number of interventions that have demonstrated the potential to enhance cognitive abilities, ranging from the more traditional (e.g., nutrition, exercise) to the more technological (e.g., pharmaceuticals, genetic therapies, neurostimulation). One approach, although still controversial , that has been gaining momentum is the use of interactive digital media to augment cognition, typically referred to as cognitive training. Over the last decade, there has been a surge in the number of interactive software programs created with claims of their ability to improve fundamental aspects of cognition known as cognitive control (i.e., attention, working memory, and goal management (multi-tasking/task-switching)). Although there have been promising results, few studies have successfully demonstrated clear improvements on untrained cognitive tasks (what we refer to as cognitive enhancement, generalized benefits or transfer 2• and 3]), and often not even for abilities that are highly related to training itself (i.e., near transfer 3, 4, 5 and 6]). In this review we differentiate between two types of interactive digital media: those designed primarily for entertainment [7•] (‘video games’) and those created for the purpose of cognitive enhancement (‘cognitive exercises’). Exploring this dichotomy, we will consider how certain factors associated with each type of intervention and corresponding study designs may influence the potential for cognitive enhancement and for validating it experimentally.
Video games and cognitive exercises