Posts Tagged Couplings

[Abstract + References] Auto-LEE: A Novel Autonomous Lower Extremity Exoskeleton for Walking Assistance – IEEE Conference Publication


Wearable exoskeletons have been proven to be efficacious in aiding walking for individuals suffering from lower limb mobility disorder. However, the application of most existing devices is limited to inconvenience of usage, e.g., complicated training and unnatural gait. This paper presents a novel autonomous lower extremity exoskeleton, Auto-LEE, for the purpose of improving the practicality of walking assistive devices as well as simplifying their application process. The developed exoskeleton consists of two robotic legs, and each of them has 5 active degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) to independently control the rotations of hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal and coronal planes, which enables the device to possess self-balancing ability and flexible gait. The modular design concept is introduced into the structure and hardware development of Auto-LEE, making it more convenient to be assembled and maintained. In order to validate the self-balancing walking ability, virtual prototype simulation and preliminary experiment on flat terrain are implemented.
1. “Spinal cord injury facts and figures at a glance”, 2018, [online] Available:

2. J. W. Mcdonald, C. Sadowsky, “Spinal-cord injury”, Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9304, pp. 417-425, 2002.

3. D. L. Brown-Triolo, M. J. Roach, K. Nelson, R. J. Triolo, “Consumer perspectives on mobility: implications for neuroprosthesis design”, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 659-669, 2002.

4. A. Tsukahara, Y. Hasegawa, K. Eguchi, Y. Sankai, “Restoration of gait for spinal cord injury patients using hal with intention estimator for preferable swing speed”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 308-318, 2015.

5. A. D. Gardner, J. Potgieter, F. K. Noble, “A review of commercially available exoskeletons’ capabilities”, International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, pp. 1-5, 2017.

6. M. Talaty, A. Esquenazi, J. E. Briceno, “Differentiating ability in users of the rewalk(tm) powered exoskeleton: an analysis of walking kinematics”, IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, pp. 6650469, 2013.

7. “Indego”, 2018, [online] Available:

8. “Ekso”, 2018, [online] Available:

9. K. A. Strausser, T. A. Swift, A. B. Zoss, H. Kazerooni, “Prototype medical exoskeleton for paraplegic mobility: First experimental results”, ASME 2010 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, pp. 453-458, 2010.

10. Y. Mori, T. Taniguchi, K. Inoue, Y. Fukuoka, N. Shiroma, “Development of a standing style transfer system able with novel crutches for a person with disabled lower limbs”, Jsdd, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 83-93, 2011.

11. K. Kong, D. Jeon, “Design and control of an exoskeleton for the elderly and patients”, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 428-432, 2006.

12. K. Kong, H. Moon, B. Hwang, D. Jeon, M. Tomizuka, “Impedance compensation of subar for back-drivable force-mode actuation”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 512-521, 2009.

13. Y. Fang, Y. Yu, F. Chen, Y. Ge, “Dynamic analysis and control strategy of the wearable power assist leg”, IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, pp. 1060-1065, 2008.

14. S. Zhang, C. Wang, X. Wu, Y. Liao, X. Hu, C. Wu, “Real time gait planning for a mobile medical exoskeleton with crutche”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, pp. 2301-2306, 2016.

15. D. Zanotto, P. Stegall, S. K. Agrawal, “Alex iii: A novel robotic platform with 12 dofs for human gait training”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3914-3919, 2013.

16. M. Cenciarini, A. M. Dollar, “Biomechanical considerations in the design of lower limb exoskeletons”, IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, pp. 5975366, 2011.

17. B. Protection, M. Labour, “Gb10000-88 human dimensions of chinese adults”.

18. S. Gao, Practical anatomical atlas: lower limbs volume, 2004.

19. S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Yokoi, “The 3d linear inverted pendulum mode: a simple modeling for a biped walking pattern generation”, Ieee/rsj International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2001. Proceedings, vol. 1, pp. 239-246, 2001.

via Auto-LEE: A Novel Autonomous Lower Extremity Exoskeleton for Walking Assistance – IEEE Conference Publication

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[Abstract] Robotic Exoskeleton for Wrist and Fingers Joint in Post-Stroke Neuro-Rehabilitation for Low-Resource Settings


Robots have the potential to help provide exercise therapy in a repeatable and reproducible manner for stroke survivors. To facilitate rehabilitation of the wrist and fingers joint, an electromechanical exoskeleton was developed that simultaneously moves the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints.
The device was designed for the ease of manufacturing and maintenance, with specific considerations for countries with limited resources. Active participation of the user is ensured by the implementation of electromyographic control and visual feedback of performance. Muscle activity requirements, movement parameters, range of motion, and speed of the device can all be customized to meet the needs of the user.
Twelve stroke survivors, ranging from the subacute to chronic phases of recovery (mean 10.6 months post-stroke) participated in a pilot study with the device. Participants completed 20 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. Overall, subjects exhibited statistically significant changes (p < 0.05) in clinical outcome measures following the treatment, with the Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment score for the upper extremity increasing from 36 to 50 and the Barthel Index increasing from 74 to 89. Active range of wrist motion increased by 190 while spasticity decreased from 1.75 to 1.29 on the Modified Ashworth Scale.
Thus, this device shows promise for improving rehabilitation outcomes, especially for patients in countries with limited resources.

via Robotic Exoskeleton for Wrist and Fingers Joint in Post-Stroke Neuro-Rehabilitation for Low-Resource Settings – IEEE Journals & Magazine

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[Abstract + References] Design and Kinematics Analysis of a Bionic Finger Hand Rehabilitation Robot Mechanism


The rehabilitation process of human fingers is a coupling movement of wearable hand rehabilitation equipment and human fingers, and its design must be based on the kinematics of human fingers. In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics models are established for the index finger. Kinematics analysis is carried out. Then a bionic finger rehabilitation robot is designed according to the movement characteristics of the finger, A parallelogram linkage mechanism is proposed to make the joint independent drive, realize the flexion/extension movement, and perform positive kinematics and inverse kinematics analysis on the mechanism. The results show that it conforms to the kinematics of the index finger and can be used as the mechanism model of the finger rehabilitation robot.
1. Ibrahim Yildiz, “A Low-Cost and Lightweight Alternative to Rehabilitation Robots: Omnidirectional Interactive Mobile Robot for Arm Rehabilitation” in Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering, Springer Science & Business Media B.V., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1053-1059, 2018.

2. Bai Shaoping, Gurvinder S. Virk, Thomas G. Sugar, Wearable Exoskeleton Systems: Design control and applications[M], Institution of Engineering and Technology Control, pp. 1-406, 2018.

3. Kai Zhang, Xiaofeng Chen et al., “System Framework of Robotics in Upper Limb Rehabilitation on Poststroke Motor Recovery”, Behavioural Neurology, vol. 12, pp. 1-14, 2018.

4. Yang Haile, Zhu Huiying, Lin Xingyu, “Review of Exoskeleton Wearable Rehabilitation System[J]”, Metrology and testing technology, vol. 46, no. 03, pp. 40-44, 2019.

5. Xiang Shichuan, Meng Qiaoling, Yu Hongliu, Meng Qingyun, “Research status of compliant exoskeleton rehabilitation manipulator [J]”, Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 33, no. 04, pp. 461-465+474, 2018.

6. Wu Hongjian, Li Lina, Li Long, Liu Tian, Jue Wang, “Review of comprehensive intervention by hand rehabilitation robot after stroke [J]”, Journal of biomedical engineering, vol. 36, no. 01, pp. 151-156, 2019.

7. Yu Junwei, Xu Hongbin, Xu Taojin, Zhang Chengjie, Lu Shiqing, “Structure Design and Finite Element Analysis of a Rope Traction Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot [J]”, Mechanical transmission, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 93-97, 2018.

8. Chang Ying, Meng Qingyun, Yu Hongliu, “Research progress on the development of hand rehabilitation robot [J]”, Beijing Biomedical Engineering, vol. 37, no. 06, pp. 650-656, 2018.

9. N A I M Rosli, M A A Rahman, S A Mazlan et al., “Electrocardiographic (ECG) and Electromyographic (EMG) signals fusion for physiological device in rehab application[C]”, IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, pp. 1-5, 2015.

10. K O Thielbar, K M Triandafilou, H C Fischer et al., “Benefits of using a voice and EMG- Driven actuated glove to support occupational therapy for stroke survivors”, IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297-305, 2017.


via Design and Kinematics Analysis of a Bionic Finger Hand Rehabilitation Robot Mechanism – IEEE Conference Publication

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[Abstract] Design and development of a portable exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation


Improvement in hand function to promote functional recovery is one of the major goals of stroke rehabilitation. This paper introduces a newly developed exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation with a user-centered design concept, which integrates the requirements of practical use, mechanical structure and control system. The paper also evaluated the function with two prototypes in a local hospital. Results of functional evaluation showed that significant improvements were found in ARAT (P=0.014), WMFT (P=0.020) and FMA_WH (P=0.021). Increase in the mean values of FMA_SE was observed but without significant difference (P=0.071). The improvement in ARAT score reflects the motor recovery in hand and finger functions. The increased FMA scores suggest there is motor improvement in the whole upper limb, and especially in the hand after the training. The product met patients’ requirements and has practical significance. It is portable, cost effective, easy to use and supports multiple control modes to adapt to different rehabilitation phases.


via Design and development of a portable exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation – IEEE Journals & Magazine

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[Abstract] Hand rehabilitation after stroke using a wearable, high DOF, spring powered exoskeleton.


Stroke patients often have inappropriate finger flexor activation and finger extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. The goal was to develop a passive, lightweight, wearable device to enable improved hand function during performance of activities of daily living. The device, HandSOME II, assists with opening the patient’s hand using 11 elastic actuators that apply extension torques to finger and thumb joints. Device design and initial testing are described. A novel mechanical design applies forces orthogonal to the finger segments despite the fact that all of the device DOFs are not aligned with human joint DOF. In initial testing with seven stroke subjects with impaired hand function, use of HandSOME II significantly increased maximum extension angles and range of motion in all of the index finger joints (P<0.05). HandSOME II allows performance of all the grip patterns used in daily activities and can be used as part of home-based therapy programs.

Source: IEEE Xplore Document – Hand rehabilitation after stroke using a wearable, high DOF, spring powered exoskeleton

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