Posts Tagged driving

[Abstract] Impaired force control contributes to car steering dysfunction in chronic stroke

Purpose: Precise control of a car steering wheel requires adequate motor capability. Deficits in grip strength and force control after stroke could influence the ability steer a car. Our study aimed to determine the impact of stroke on car steering and identify the relative contribution of grip strength and grip force control to steering performance.

Methods: Twelve chronic stroke survivors and 12 controls performed three gripping tasks with each hand: maximum voluntary contraction, dynamic force tracking, and steering a car on a winding road in a simulated driving environment. We quantified grip strength, grip force variability, and deviation of the car from the center of the lane.

Results: The paretic hand exhibited reduced grip strength, increased grip force variability, and increased lane deviation compared with the non-dominant hand in controls. Grip force variability, but not grip strength, significantly predicted (R2 = 0.49, p < 0.05) lane deviation with the paretic hand.

Conclusion: Stroke impairs the steering ability of the paretic hand. Although grip strength and force control of the paretic hand are diminished after stroke, only grip force control predicts steering accuracy. Deficits in grip force control after stroke contribute to functional limitations in performing skilled tasks with the paretic hand.

  1. Implications for rehabilitation
  2. Driving is an important goal for independent mobility after stroke that requires motor capability to manipulate hand and foot controls.

  3. Two prominent stroke-related motor impairments that may impact precise car steering are reduced grip strength and grip force control.

  4. In individuals with mild-moderate impairments, deficits in grip force modulation rather than grip strength contribute to compromised steering performance with the paretic hand.

  5. We recommend that driving rehabilitation should consider re-educating grip force modulation for successful driving outcomes post stroke.

via Impaired force control contributes to car steering dysfunction in chronic stroke: Disability and Rehabilitation: Vol 0, No 0

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[Information/Educational Page] Driving After Mild Stroke – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

First page of article

In the U.S. over 305,000 people have a mild stroke each year.1 Even mild stroke may lead to difficulties with physical function, thinking, and vision.2 Because of these challenges, people with mild stroke can complete basic tasks fairly easily, but may have difficulty returning to complex tasks like driving.2 Approximately 1 out of every 5 adults with mild stroke report difficulty with driving.3

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via Driving After Mild Stroke – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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[ARTICLE] Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE): A pilot clinical trial for chronic traumatic brain injury – Full Text

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Virtual reality (VR) technology may provide an effective means to integrate cognitive and functional approaches to TBI rehabilitation. However, little is known about the effectiveness of VR rehabilitation for TBI-related cognitive deficits. In response to these clinical and research gaps, we developed Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE), an intervention designed to improve cognitive performance, driving safety, and neurobehavioral symptoms.

OBJECTIVE:

This pilot clinical trial was conducted to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of NeuroDRIVE for rehabilitation of chronic TBI.

METHODS:

Eleven participants who received the intervention were compared to six wait-listed participants on driving abilities, cognitive performance, and neurobehavioral symptoms.

RESULTS:

The NeuroDRIVE intervention was associated with significant improvements in working memory and visual search/selective attention— two cognitive skills that represented a primary focus of the intervention. By comparison, no significant changes were observed in untrained cognitive areas, neurobehavioral symptoms, or driving skills.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results suggest that immersive virtual environments can provide a valuable and engaging means to achieve some cognitive rehabilitation goals, particularly when these goals are closely matched to the VR training exercises. However, additional research is needed to augment our understanding of rehabilitation for driving skills, cognitive performance, and neurobehavioral symptoms in chronic TBI.

1. Introduction

Each year, emergency departments treat approximately 2.5 million traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (). TBI can affect a wide range of brain systems, resulting in sensorimotor deficits (e.g., coordination, visual perception), cognitive deficits (e.g., memory, attention), emotional dysregulation (e.g., irritability, depression), and somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, fatigue) (). These TBI-related impairments can have significant life consequences. Studies conducted across a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions show that neuropsychological abilities are strongly associated with functional skills and employment outcomes (). For example, challenges in attention and concentration could result in distractibility and errors in work settings, and deficits in executive functions could lead to poor organization and problems with setting and achieving occupational goals. As many as 3.2–5.3 million people in the US are living with TBI-related disability ().

Rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes for those experiencing chronic effects of TBI (). Previously-validated rehabilitation approaches for TBI include both ‘cognitive’ and ‘functional’ approaches. ‘Cognitive’ methods of rehabilitation are focused on improving performance on individual cognitive tasks, with the hope that these gains will generalize to functional activities (). Restorative cognitive training approaches have been shown to improve cognitive functioning across multiple conditions such as schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and normal aging (). Some of the most promising results to date have been demonstrated for training of attention and working memory, which have been shown to correspond to changes in functional brain activity (). Evidence suggests that the format of therapist-guided rehabilitation is able to harness some of the well-established benefits of the therapeutic relationship, and may be preferable to computer-guided training (). While there is some evidence indicating that benefits of cognitive remediation extend to untrained tasks, a number of studies have shown that improvements in performance on individual cognitive tasks tend to generalize very weakly, if at all, to other cognitive tasks and functional abilities (). This weak transfer of training might be attributable to low levels of correspondence between the cognitive and sensorimotor demands of rehabilitation tasks and those encountered during challenging real-world situations.

In contrast to methods of rehabilitation that rely upon generalization of cognitive benefits to functional outcomes, ‘functional’ methods of rehabilitation focus on improving performance on real-life activities through direct practice of those activities (). This approach requires effective targeting of specific functional tasks that are relevant to each patient and may be limited by the physical environments available within the treatment setting (e.g., a simulated home environment used to practice activities of daily living). However, the basic functional tasks that are often emphasized in functional rehabilitation (e.g., self-care, food preparation) may not be sufficiently challenging to address more subtle or ‘higher order’ cognitive and functional deficits that many mild to moderate TBI patients experience in the long-term phase of recovery ().

Virtual reality (VR) technology may provide an effective means to integrate cognitive and functional approaches to TBI rehabilitation (). The guiding concept for VR rehabilitation is to provide an immersive, engaging, and realistic environment in which to practice cognitive, sensorimotor, and functional skills. VR scenarios can simulate a wide range of real or imagined tasks and environments. While VR may not be necessary for tasks that are easily recreated in existing therapy environments, it is particularly well-suited for tasks that are challenging or dangerous to recreate within real-world treatment environments, such as driving an automobile ().

Driving is one of the most universal, cognitively challenging, and potentially-dangerous activities of everyday life. Safe driving requires continuous synchronization of processes like reaction time, visuo-spatial skills, attention, executive function, and planning (). Whereas it would be obviously unsafe to place an impaired patient into many real-world driving situations, VR allows for safe assessment and rehabilitation of driving-relevant skills at the true limits of the individual’s current capabilities. Individuals with TBI are at elevated risk for motor vehicle accidents and other driving difficulties (). Many individuals with severe TBI never return to driving (), and an estimated 63% of those with severe TBI who do return to driving are involved in motor vehicle accidents (). Available evidence suggests that deficits in attention and visual search may underlie these driving impairments. While most of this research has been conducted with moderate-to-severe TBI populations, these issues are not exclusive to severe forms of TBI. Individuals recovering from mild TBI have also been found to exhibit slower detection of driving hazards in simulated driving experiments () and to be at increased risk for real-world motor vehicle accidents ().

Previous results suggest that VR driving rehabilitation can be effective for improving driving skills among those with moderate-to-severe TBI (). However, these findings have not been replicated or validated for those with symptomatic mild TBI. Additionally, little is known about the effectiveness of VR rehabilitation programs for TBI-related cognitive deficits (). In response to these clinical and research gaps, we developed an intervention known as Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE), which was designed to improve cognitive performance and overall driving safety by providing integrated training in these skills. In contrast to intervention approaches that are geared toward more severely impaired individuals, NeuroDRIVE was designed for use with a wide range of TBI patients (i.e., mild, moderate, or severe TBI) who are seeking treatment in these areas and have the capability to engage in the driving process. This pilot clinical trial examined feasibility and preliminary efficacy of NeuroDRIVE for improving VR driving performance, cognitive performance, and symptom outcomes among those with chronic TBI. Given the focus of the intervention, effects on attention and working memory were of particular interest. Additionally, we have provided the NeuroDRIVE treatment manual as a supplementary document to facilitate continued development of VR rehabilitation for those with TBI.

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Continue —-> Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE): A pilot clinical trial for chronic traumatic brain injury

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Fig.2
T3 VR Driving Simulator.

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[WEB SITE] Driving after brain injury

Although we may take it for granted, driving is a very complex activity requiring a number of cognitive and physical skills, as well as the ability to co-ordinate these. Any of these skills may be impaired after a brain injury.

Can I drive after brain injury?

Fortunately, many people who have sustained a brain injury retain most of their previous driving abilities, and are able to return to driving soon afterwards. However, there are legal requirements which must be adhered to.

It is sensible to take precautions such as having a driving assessment, even if you feel that your driving skills remain intact. It should be remembered that a car is a potentially lethal weapon: many people with a brain injury were themselves injured in a road traffic collision.

It can be relatively straightforward to make adaptations to a vehicle in order to compensate for physical disabilities. However, the less obvious effects of brain injury – on thinking, memory, judgement, decision making and emotions – can be more difficult to overcome.

Ultimately, the decision on whether someone is safe to drive lies with the licensing authorities. This booklet explains the processes involved in reporting a medical condition and provides advice on minimising cognitive and physical impairments.

What are the legal requirements for driving after brain injury?

If you drive and have had a brain injury, you must inform the licensing authorities. This applies to any ‘notifiable’ condition which could affect your ability to drive and failure to inform the authorities could result in a fine of up to £1000. It would also mean that your licence is not valid and that you would be uninsured in the event of an accident.

As a general rule, the medical standards state that after a traumatic brain injury drivers with an ordinary car or motorcycle (Group 1) licence should cease driving for 6 to 12 months, depending on factors such as post-traumatic amnesia, seizures, and clinical recovery. Other forms of acquired brain injury have slightly different rules, but if there are lasting impairments which affect driving ability then the licence is likely to be removed for a period.

However, because every brain injury is different, each case is considered on an individual basis.

Further information on the legal requirements, rules for professional drivers and how to inform the authorities is contained in the Headway booklet Driving after brain injury, which is available to download in the Related resources section.

Support with driving after brain injury

As your driving ability can change after a brain injury, you may need support to get back on the road.

If you are receiving the higher rate mobility component of Disability Living Allowance or the enhanced rate moving around component of Personal Independence Payment, you may be able to get a car through Motability. They also have a list of accredited suppliers who can make adaptations to your car if you find it hard to operate because of a physical disability.

You might need to get an assessment before getting back on the road, to see if you are fit to drive and/or to get advice on adaptations you might need. For more information, contact Driving Mobility.

Further information

Our booklet Driving after brain injury (PDF) provides detailed information on the subject, from the legal requirements and the effect of brain injury on driving, to the process of returning to driving and financial support for those who wish to do so.

You can download it now using the link above or through our information library.

via Driving after brain injury | Headway

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[Abstract] Driving rules : first seizure and epilepsy.

For patients with epilepsy, the occurrence of a traffic accident due to an epileptic seizure is a major problem. In order to reduce the risk of an accident, the Road Traffic Commission of the Swiss League against Epilepsy has issued guidelines concerning the driving ability of a vehicle in case of epilepsy. These directives were last modified in 2015. According to these directives, the waiting period differs according to the category of the vehicle concerned and the origin of the event (first crisis provoked or not provoked). At the occurrence of the first episode, an exhaustive evaluation is mandatory in order to avoid unnecessarily prolonged restrictions. These directives are available on : http://www.epi.ch/wp-content/uploads/flyer-Epilepsie_fuehrerschein-licence-conduire-2016.pdf

 

via [Driving rules : first seizure and epilepsy]. – Abstract – Europe PMC

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[WEB SITE] Driving and Epilepsy: Issues to Discuss With Your Patients

epilepsy, driving

Dr Sanchez is Assistant Professor and Dr Krumholz is Professor Emeritus, Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Worldwide there are more than 65 million individuals with epilepsy.1In the US because driving an automobile is such an important aspect of our culture, driving restriction is an enormous problem for many of these individuals and their families. Indeed, surveys find individuals with epilepsy report driving as a major concern.2 Physicians and other medical providers play an important role educating and counseling people with seizures and their families regarding driving. Here, we provide some background and guidance regarding this issue.

Individuals with seizures are restricted from driving because of concerns that a seizure while driving might result in loss of control of the vehicle and a crash, potentially injuring the driver or others, and damaging property. Tragically, such crashes cause fatalities.3 Therefore every state in the US restricts some individuals with epilepsy from driving. Driving restrictions vary by state and are ultimately determined by the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).4 Physicians and other medical providers are involved to varying degrees throughout this process of driving regulation and restriction. They serve as advisers to patients, with a duty to inform patients regarding rules and regulations as well as consultants to state regulatory authorities.

To properly counsel patents, it is important that physicians and other medical providers are familiar with the rules governing driving for patients with seizure disorders. Our recommended approach to counseling patients with seizures and epilepsy regarding driving is illustrated in some of the following examples and discussion.

Case example
A 23-year-old woman presents to your office with new-onset seizures. She generally feels well, has no other relevant history, and her examination is normal. Brain MRI with and without contrast and EEG were performed and were normal.

Question: As the medical provider, how would you counsel this patient regarding driving after her first unprovoked seizure (a seizure not related to an acute precipitating cause)?

Answer: She should be informed that a seizure while driving could be dangerous and result in a motor vehicle crash. Since she has had a seizure, she is at risk for further seizures. Regulations exist in an effort to prevent injury, death, or property damage that might result if a seizure were to occur while driving. She should be informed to stop driving and that patients are required by law to report their seizures to the DMV in their state. In some states, physicians and other medical providers are also required to report (Table 1) that a patient has had a seizure.4 The DMV will determine when she may resume driving.

A seizure-free interval is typically necessary for the DMV to approve a person to drive after a first seizure, this too varies by state. The typically required seizure-free interval may be as short as three months to as long as one year.4 There may be positive or negative modifiers that shorten or lengthen the seizure-free interval (Table 2).5 Antiseizure medication (ASM) is not always prescribed after a first seizure; this is a variable that may be considered on a case by case basis.6

After reporting her seizures to the DMV, the patient and the medical provider are required to complete paperwork regarding the condition. A medical advisory board or similar type of state review will consider the case and make recommendations. Then a final decision regarding any driving restrictions will be made by the DMV. Decisions may be appealed by the patient.

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via Driving and Epilepsy: Issues to Discuss With Your Patients | Neurology Times

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[VIDEO] Epilepsy is manageable but beware the risks

A person with a seizure disorder may put lives of others at risk. Photo: Thato Mahlangu.

Being epileptic doesn’t mean you cannot drive a car, according to Epilepsy SA.

It is, however, important for people with epilepsy to understand that the decision to drive is a great responsibility since they could be putting the public at risk if they lose consciousness while behind the wheel.

It was not only a seizure itself that could cause an accident but the anticonvulsant medication epilepsy sufferers take could result in drowsiness and lead to loss of control of consciousness.

ALSO READ: Urgent search launched for man with epilepsy

“Not all people who appear to have seizures have epilepsy,” said ER24 chief medical officer Dr. Robyn Holgate.

“About ten percent of the population will have seizures, and only one percent will be diagnosed with epilepsy.”

Holgate said that while some epilepsies were genetic there were many causes.

The condition can be traced to various factors, including:

– Head trauma as a result of a car accident or other injury.

– Brain conditions such as brain tumours or strokes can cause epilepsy. (Stroke is a leading cause of epilepsy in adults older than age 35.)

– Infectious diseases, such as meningitis, AIDS, and viral encephalitis.

– Prenatal injury. Before birth, babies are sensitive to brain damage that could be caused by things such as an infection in the mother, poor nutrition or oxygen deficiencies.

Watch the video here:

The myths about epilepsy that should be debunked, include:

– Swallowing one’s tongue during a seizure.

“It is physically impossible to swallow your tongue. If left on your back, your tongue may obstruct your airway, but it’s not possible to swallow your tongue,” she said.

– You should force something into victim’s mouth when they are having a seizure.

“Absolutely not. This could damage teeth, the patient’s jaw and gums. The correct first aid technique is to gently roll somebody onto their side and put something soft under their head (such as a pillow). You should also never restrain somebody having a seizure.”

– Epilepsy is contagious.

“You cannot catch epilepsy from another person.”

– Only kids get epilepsy.

ALSO READ: Why did 94 psychiatric patients have to die?

“Epilepsy may affect people of any age, but in our older population, the causes may be as a result of health rather than genetics.”

– People with epilepsy should not be in jobs with any responsibility.

“Epilepsy is a chronic medical problem, which can be managed with medication. When this condition is well-managed, those suffering from epilepsy can be active and valuable members of society. Some people may be able to identify what triggers their epilepsy. This may include lack of sleep, illness, stress, bright or flashing lights, caffeine or alcohol, and skipping meals. Where a trigger is identified, these triggers should be avoided if possible.”[…]

 

via VIDEO: Epilepsy is manageable but beware the risks | Centurion Rekord

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[WEB SITE] Local rehabilitation center uses virtual reality to help patients

SPOKANE, Wash. — Virtual reality technology makes it possible to visit a new world, or test drive a new ride from the comfort of your home. But it offers more than just a good time.

Saint Luke’s Rehabilitation Institute is using our region’s first ever virtual reality driving simulator to provide patients with rehab exercises.

“There’s a lot of anxiety of even though they’ve been told by a therapist that they can drive, or that they might be ok to drive, they still have that question of ‘am I ready’ or ‘is this safe?'” St. Luke’s Occupational Therapist Devin Hatch said. “This allows them to get more comfortable.”

Hatch said their virtual reality simulator helps patients who have suffered a stroke, spinal cord or brain injury re-learn safe driving skills before trying it out in reality.

“There was no real good bridge between actual driving and in-clinic stuff,” Hatch said. “So this has given us the bridge to cover the gap of what we do in the clinic and actual on the road driving.”

The VR driving simulator allows Hatch to assess his patient’s brain injury with steering and braking, and how they manage typical distractions they would experience on the road. Scenarios range from city driving to country roads.

“It’s nice to see what people are coming up with and how we can apply that to a health care setting to let people practice things without putting anyone at danger,” Hatch said.

© 2018 KREM-TV

via Local rehabilitation center uses virtual reality to help patients | KREM.com

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[WEB SITE] Driving after Stroke: What You Must Know

Sometimes the side effects of a stroke can impair your ability to drive. The good news is that 80% of stroke survivors will work their way back to driving safely again. Here’s a comprehensive guide on how to get there.

Warning Signs

First, evaluate your warning signs. This will help you determine if you can drive safely right now or if you need to do some training first. Here are some warning signs of unsafe driving:

  • Driving too fast or too slow for road conditions or posted speed
  • Needing help or instructions from passengers
  • Making slow or poor distance decisions
  • Becoming easily frustrated or confused
  • Getting lost frequently in familiar areas
  • Having accidents or close calls
  • Drifting unintentionally across lane markings

If you’ve experienced any of these signs while driving after stroke, then you aren’t ready to drive yet. And if you can’t attempt driving but want to know if you’ll be able to do so safely, you can ask friends and family members if they’ve seen a change in your communication, thinking, judgement, or behavior. Those who observe you frequently can provide a good outside opinion.

Driving Evaluations

To properly determine if you’re able to drive again, you need to participate in a driver evaluation. During this evaluation, a trained professional can help you determine your readiness and, if you’re not ready, help train you to do so.

A driver’s evaluation will usually include:

  • Assessment of functional availability
  • Reaction time testing
  • Visual testing
  • Perceptual testing
  • In-car testing

To find a qualified driver education training program, ask your doctor or occupational therapist for a recommendation; or you can search for a driver specialist on the AOTA website.

Driving Adaptations

Some physical impairments can be temporarily solved with the use of assistive devices or car adaptations. For example, if you can only use one hand, a spinner knob can be attached to the steering wheel to enable steering with one hand. Also, if your right side is impaired, then a left gas pedal and spinner knob can be installed on your car.

Wheelchair-Loading

There are also adaptive solutions for stroke survivors in wheelchairs. The National Mobility Equipment Dealers Association is a great resource for adaptive transportation that can help you reclaim independence behind the wheel. Choosing a modified vehicle is a big decision, so be sure to do extensive research before investing.

With the help of trained specialists and adaptive equipment, driving after stroke is a possibility that many stroke survivors can successfully work towards.

Source: Driving after Stroke: What You Must Know – Flint Rehab

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[BLOG POST] Driving After Stroke: Is it Safe? – Saebo

After having a stroke, many survivors are eager to start driving again. Driving offers independence and the ability to go where you want to go on your own schedule, so it is no surprise that survivors want to get back behind the wheel rather than rely on someone else for their transportation needs.

Unfortunately, having a stroke can have lasting effects that make driving more difficult. A survivor might not be aware of all of the effects of their stroke and could misjudge their ability to drive safely. Driving against a doctor’s orders after a stroke is not only dangerous, it may even be illegal. Many stroke survivors successfully regain their ability to safely drive after a stroke, but it is important that they do not attempt to drive until they are cleared by their healthcare provider.

 

How Stroke Affects the Ability to Drive

Having a stroke can affect an individual’s ability to drive in numerous ways, whether it be because of physical challenges, cognitive changes, or other challenges.

 

Physical Challenges

Physical-Challenges

After a stroke, it’s common to experience weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, depending on which side of the brain the stroke occurred. More than half of all stroke survivors also experience post-stroke pain. Minor physical challenges may be overcome with adaptive driving equipment, but severe challenges like paralysis or contracture can seriously affect an individual’s ability to drive.

 

Cognitive Effects

cognitive

Driving requires a combination of cognitive skills, including memory, concentration, problem solving, judgement, multitasking, and the ability to make quick decisions. A stroke can cause cognitive changes that limit the ability to do many of those things.

 

Vision Problems

vision

As many as two-thirds of stroke victims experience vision impairments as a result of a stroke. This can include vision loss, blurred vision, and visual processing problems. Stroke survivors with vision problems should not drive until their problems are resolved and they have been cleared by a doctor.

 

Fatigue

fatigue

Fatigue is a common physical condition after a stroke that affects between 40 and 70 percent of stroke survivors. Fatigue can arrive without warning, so it is dangerous to drive when suffering from post-stroke fatigue.

 

Warning Signs of Unsafe Driving

 

Stroke survivors are not always aware of how their stroke has limited their ability to drive. If they are choosing to drive after their stroke against their doctor’s advice, it is important for them and their loved ones to look out for warning signs that they might not be ready to start driving. Here are some of the common warning signs to look out for:

  • Driving faster or slower than the posted speed or the wrong speed for the current driving conditions
  • Consistently asking for instruction and help from passengers
  • Ignoring posted signs or signals
  • Making slow or poor decisions
  • Becoming easily frustrated or confused
  • Getting lost in familiar areas
  • Being in an accident or having close calls
  • Drifting into other lanes

 

If you or your loved one is showing any of these warning signs, immediately stop yourself or them from driving until your or their driving is tested.

 

Driving Again After a Stroke

Before a stroke survivor begins driving again, they should speak with their doctor or therapist to discuss whether or not it would be safe for them to continue driving. Many states require mandatory reporting by a physician to the DMV if their patient has impairments that may affect their driving after a stroke. Even if their doctor clears them to drive, they still will likely need to be evaluated by the DMV before they regain their driving privileges.

 

Driver rehabilitation specialists are available to help stroke survivors evaluate their driving ability from behind the wheel. There are also driver’s training programs that provide a driving evaluation, classroom instruction, and suggestions for modifying a car to the individual driver’s needs. For instance, an occupational therapist can provide a comprehensive in-clinic evaluation of a client’s current skills and deficits relative to driving.

 

From there a client could be sent for an in-vehicle assessment for further evaluation by a certified driver rehabilitation specialist (CDRS). They can assess driving skills in a controlled and safe environment. An in-vehicle driving test is the most thorough way to gauge a driver’s abilities. Each assessment takes about 1 hour and involves driving with a trained evaluator or driving in a computer simulator.

 

The “behind-the-wheel” evaluation will include testing for changes in key performance areas such as attention, memory, vision, reaction time, and coordination. After this assessment the CDRS can determine if the client is safe to drive, can not drive at all, or may drive with additional recommendations.

 

Often times clients may require certain modifications to their car in order to drive safely. In addition, some clients may benefit from on-going classroom training and simulation training in order to meet safety standards. These are all services that a driver rehabilitation specialist can provide. To help find these resources, The Association for Driver Rehabilitation Specialists has a directory of certified driver rehabilitation specialists, driver rehabilitation specialists, and mobility equipment dealers and manufacturers.

 

Get Back Behind the Wheel

Many stroke survivors successfully drive after a stroke; however, not all are able to. While reclaiming independence is important, staying safe is the greatest concern. It is important for stroke survivors to listen to their doctors and wait until they are fully ready before attempting to drive again. With some hard work and patience, getting back behind the wheel is possible.

 


All content provided on this blog is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 911 immediately. Reliance on any information provided by the Saebo website is solely at your own risk.

Source: Driving After Stroke: Is it Safe? | Saebo

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