Posts Tagged FES

[Abstract + References] A Wireless BCI-FES Based on Motor Intent for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Abstract

Recent investigations have proposed brain computer interfaces combined with functional electrical stimulation as a novel approach for upper limb motor recovery. These systems could detect motor intention movement as a power decrease of the sensorimotor rhythms in the electroencephalography signal, even in people with damaged brain cortex. However, these systems use a large number of electrodes and wired communication to be employed for gait rehabilitation. In this paper, the design and development of a wireless brain computer interface combined with functional electrical stimulation aimed at lower limb motor recovery is presented. The design requirements also account the dynamic of a rehabilitation therapy by allowing the therapist to adapt the system during the session. A preliminary evaluation of the system in a subject with right lower limb motor impairment due to multiple sclerosis was conducted and as a performance metric, the true positive rate was computed. The developed system evidenced a robust wireless communication and was able to detect lower limb motor intention. The mean of the performance metric was 75%. The results encouraged the possibility of testing the developed system in a gait rehabilitation clinical study.

References

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    Pfurtscheller, G., Mcfarland, D.: BCIs that use sensorimotor rhythms. In: Wolpaw, J.R., Wolpaw, E. (eds.) Brain-Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice, pp. 227–240. Oxford University Press (2012)Google Scholar
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    Carrere, L.C., Tabernig, C.B.: Detection of foot motor imagery using the coefficient of determination for neurorehabilitation based on BCI technology. IFMBE Proc. 49, 944–947 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13117-7_239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Sannelli, C., Vidaurre, C., Müller, K.R., Blankertz, B.: A large scale screening study with a SMR-based BCI: categorization of BCI users and differences in their SMR activity (2019)Google Scholar
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    Do, A.H., Wang, P.T., King, C.E., Schombs, A., Cramer, S.C., Nenadic, Z.: Brain-computer interface controlled functional electrical stimulation device for foot drop due to stroke, pp. 6414–6417 (2012)Google Scholar
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    Ramos-Murguialday, A., Broetz, D., Rea, M., Yilmaz, Ö., Brasil, F.L., Liberati, G., Marco, R., Garcia-cossio, E., Vyziotis, A., Cho, W., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N.: Brain-Machine-interface in chronic stroke rehabilitation: a controlled study. Ann. Neurol. 74, 100–108 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.23879.Brain-Machine-InterfaceCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Biasiucci, A., Leeb, R., Iturrate, I., Perdikis, S., Al-Khodairy, A., Corbet, T., Schnider, A., Schmidlin, T., Zhang, H., Bassolino, M., Viceic, D., Vuadens, P., Guggisberg, A.G., Millán, J.D.R.: Brain-actuated functional electrical stimulation elicits lasting arm motor recovery after stroke. Nat. Commun. 9, 1–13 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04673-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Tabernig, C.B., Lopez, C.A., Carrere, L.C., Spaich, E.G., Ballario, C.H.: Neurorehabilitation therapy of patients with severe stroke based on functional electrical stimulation commanded by a brain computer interface. J. Rehabil. Assist. Technol. Eng. 5, 205566831878928 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1177/2055668318789280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    McCrimmon, C.M., King, C.E., Wang, P.T., Cramer, S.C., Nenadic, Z., Do, A.H.: Brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation therapy for gait rehabilitation after stroke: a safety study. J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 12 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-015-0050-4
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    g.Nautilus wireless biosignal acquisition Homepage. http://www.gtec.at/Products/Hardware-and-Accessories/g.Nautilus-Specs-Features
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    Emotiv EpocFlex flexible wireless EEG system Homepage. https://www.emotiv.com/epoc-flex/
  11. 11.
    Vuckovic, A., Wallace, L., Allan, D.: Hybrid brain-computer interface and functional electrical stimulation for sensorimotor training in participants with tetraplegia: a proof-of-concept study. J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. 39, 3–14 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Schalk, G., McFarland, D.J., Hinterberger, T., Birbaumer, N., Wolpaw, J.R.: BCI2000: a general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1034–1043 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2004.827072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    McCrimmon, C.M., Fu, J.L., Wang, M., Lopes, L.S., Wang, P.T., Karimi-Bidhendi, A., Liu, C.Y., Heydari, P., Nenadic, Z., Do, A.H.: Performance assessment of a custom, portable, and low-cost brain-computer interface platform. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64, 2313–2320 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2017.2667579CrossRefGoogle Scholar

via A Wireless BCI-FES Based on Motor Intent for Lower Limb Rehabilitation | SpringerLink

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[Abstract + References] Functional Electrical Stimulation for Gait Rehabilitation – Conference paper

Abstract

Conditions that can lead to a full or partial motor function loss, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, leave people with disabilities that may interfere severely with lower body movements, such as gait. Drop Foot (DF) is a gait disorder that results in a reduced ability or total inability to contract the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle, causing an inability to raise the foot during gait. One of the most effective methods to correct DF is Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). FES is a technique used to reproduce the activation patterns of functional muscles, in order to create muscular contractions through electrical stimulation of the muscle’s nervous tissue.

FES has first been introduced in 1961. However, the available commercial FES systems still do not take into account the fact that the gait differs from subject to subject, depending on their physical conditionmuscular fatigue and rehabilitation stage. Therefore, they are unable to provide a personalized assistance to the user, delivering constant stimulation pulses that are only based on gait events. Consequently, they promote the early onset of fatigue and generate coarse movements. This dissertation aims to tackle the aforementioned issues by developing a FES system for personalized DF correction, tailored to each individual user’s needs through the use of a Neural Network (NN).

A Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Network with Exogenous inputs (NARX Neural Network) was used to model the dynamics of the electrically stimulated TA muscle, in a novel approach that uses both the foot angle and the foot velocity. The model was combined with a Proportional Derivative controller to help compensate for any external disturbances. In order to create more natural movements, reference trajectories were obtained by recording the foot angle and velocity of healthy subjects walking at different speeds.

The system has been validated with a healthy subject walking at 3 different speeds on a treadmill: 1 km/h, 1.5 km/h and 2 km/h. It was able to track the desired trajectory for every speed, thus creating a more natural movement and effectively correcting DF gait.

References

  1. 1.
    Melo, P.L., Silva, M.T., Martins, J.M., Newman, D.J.: Technical developments of functional electrical stimulation to correct drop foot: sensing, actuation and control strategies. Clin. Biomech. 30(2), 101–113 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kesar, T., Chou, L.W., Binder-Macleod, S.A.: Effects of stimulation frequency versus pulse duration modulation on muscle fatigue. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 18(4), 662–671 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Hunt, K.J., Munih, M., Donaldson, N.D.N., Barr, F.M.D.: Investigation of the hammerstein hypothesis in the modeling of electrically stimulated muscle. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 45(8), 998–1009 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Johnson, C.A., Burridge, J.H., Strike, P.W., Wood, D.E., Swain, I.D.: The effect of combined use of botulinum toxin type A and functional electric stimulation in the treatment of spastic drop foot after stroke: a preliminary investigation. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 85(June), 902–909 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Brend, O., Freeman, C., French, M.: Multiple-model adaptive control of functional electrical stimulation. IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 23(5), 1901–1913 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Luzio de Melo, P.: A novel functional electrical stimulation system and strategies for motor rehabilitation. Ph.D thesis, Universidade de Lisboa – Instituto Superior Técnico (2014)Google Scholar
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    Luzio de Melo, P., da Silva, M.T., Martins, J., Newman, D.: A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses. Artif. Organs 39(5), E56–E66 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Science, I., Hospital, M.N.: Learning control of hand posture with neural network in FES for hemiplegics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 2588–2589 (1998)Google Scholar
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    Imatz-ojanguren, E., Irigoyen, E., Valencia-blanco, D., Keller, T.: Electrical Stimulation in Able-bodied and Hemiplegic Subjects, vol. 0, pp. 1–9 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popov, N.S., Dozić, D.J., Stanković, M., Krajoski, G.M., Stanišić, D.: Development of a Closed Loop FES System Based on NARX Radial Based Network, pp. 70–74 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Previdi, F.: Identification of black-box nonlinear models for lower limb movement control using functional electrical stimulation. Control Eng. Pract. 10(1), 91–99 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chang, G.C., Luh, J.J., Liao, G.D., Lai, J.S., Cheng, C.K., Kuo, B.L., Kuo, T.S.: A neuro-control system for the knee joint position control with quadriceps stimulation. IEEE Trans. Rehabil. Eng. 5(1), 2–11 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chen, Y.L., Chen, S.C., Chen, W.L., Hsiao, C.C., Kuo, T.S., Lai, J.S.: Neural network and fuzzy control in FES-assisted locomotion for the hemiplegic. J. Med. Eng. Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Azura, N., Bin, S., Kamaruddin, A., Mohamed, N., Mohamed, N.B.: The Quadriceps Muscle of Knee Joint Modelling Using Neural Network Approach: Part 1, pp. 52–57 (2016)Google Scholar
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    Yassin, I.M., Jailani, R., Syahirul, M., Megat, A., Baharom, R., Huzaifah, A.: Comparison Between Cascade Forward and Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks for NARX Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) -Based Muscle Model, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 215–221 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yilei, W., Qing, S., Xulei, Y., Li, L.: Recurrent Neural Network Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation Systems, pp. 400–404 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ferrarin, M., D’Acquisto, E.: An experimental PID controller for knee movement restoration with closed loop FES system. In: Proceedings of 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 453–454 (1996)Google Scholar
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    Qiu, S., He, F., Tang, J., Xu, J., Zhang, L., Zhao, X., Qi, H., Zhou, P., Cheng, X., Wan, B., Ming, D.: Intelligent algorithm tuning PID method of function electrical stimulation using knee joint angle. In: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Annual Conference, vol. 2014, pp. 2561–2564 (2014)Google Scholar
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    Basith, A.L., Arifin, A., Arrofiqi, F., Watanabe, T., Nuh, M.: Embedded fuzzy logic controller for functional electrical stimulation system. In: 2016 International Seminar on Intelligent Technology and Its Applications (ISITIA), pp. 89–94 (2016)Google Scholar
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    Quintern, J., Riener, R., Rupprecht, S.: Comparison of simulation and experiments of different closed-loop strategies for functional electrical stimulation: experiments in paraplegics. Artif. Organs 21(3), 232–235 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tu, X., Li, J., Li, J., Su, C., Zhang, S., Li, H., Cao, J., He, J.: Model-based hybrid cooperative control of hip-knee exoskeleton and FES induced ankle muscles for gait rehabilitation. Int. J. Pattern Recognit. Artif. Intell. 31(09), 1759019 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

via Functional Electrical Stimulation for Gait Rehabilitation | SpringerLink

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[WEB PAGE] Treatments for foot drop compared

 

Continue —> Treatments for foot drop compared | MS Trust

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[Wikipedia audio article] Electrical stimulation

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functio…

00:01:21 1 Principles

00:09:14 2 History

00:10:01 3 Common applications

00:10:11 3.1 Spinal cord injury

00:11:09 3.1.1 Walking in spinal cord injury

00:15:01 3.2 Stroke and upper limb recovery

00:16:21 3.3 Drop foot

00:18:08 3.4 Stroke

00:18:58 3.5 Multiple sclerosis

00:20:06 3.6 Cerebral palsy

00:21:07 3.7 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines (NICE) (UK)

00:21:47 4 In popular culture

00:22:10 5 See also

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“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.” – Socrates

SUMMARY 

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low-energy electrical pulses to artificially generate body movements in individuals who have been paralyzed due to injury to the central nervous system. More specifically, FES can be used to generate muscle contraction in otherwise paralyzed limbs to produce functions such as grasping, walking, bladder voiding and standing. This technology was originally used to develop neuroprostheses that were implemented to permanently substitute impaired functions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), head injury, stroke and other neurological disorders. In other words, a person would use the device each time he or she wanted to generate a desired function. FES is sometimes also referred to as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).FES technology has been used to deliver therapies to retrain voluntary motor functions such as grasping, reaching and walking. In this embodiment, FES is used as a short-term therapy, the objective of which is restoration of voluntary function and not lifelong dependence on the FES device, hence the name functional electrical stimulation therapy, FES therapy (FET or FEST). In other words, the FEST is used as a short-term intervention to help the central nervous system of the person to re-learn how to execute impaired functions, instead of making the person dependent on neuroprostheses for the rest of her or his life.

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[VIDEO] Stroke Rehabilitation: Use of electrical stimulation to help arm and hand recovery

This video demonstrates how to use FES, Functional Electrical Stimulation, to engage the muscles of the arm to extend the fingers.

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[Abstract] Bi-cephalic transcranial direct current stimulation combined with functional electrical stimulation for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

Highlights

Bi-cephalic transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) plus functional electrical stimulation (FES) slightly improves reaching motor performance after stroke.

Bi-cephalic tDCS plus FES does not enhance reaching movement quality after stroke.

Bi-cephalic tDCS plus FES improves handgrip strength after stroke.

Abstract

Background

Stroke survivors often present poor upper-limb (UL) motor performance and reduced movement quality during reaching tasks. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) are widely used strategies for stroke rehabilitation. However, the effects of combining these two therapies to rehabilitate individuals with moderate and severe impairment after stroke are still unknown.

Objective

Our primary aim was to evaluate the effects of concurrent bi-cephalic tDCS and FES on UL kinematic motor performance and movement quality. Our secondary aim was to verify the effects of the combined therapies on handgrip force and UL motor impairment.

Methods

We randomized 30 individuals with moderate and severe chronic hemiparesis after stroke into tDCS plus FES (n = 15) and sham tDCS plus FES (n = 15) groups. Participants were treated 5 times a week for 2 weeks. Kinematic UL motor performance (movement cycle time, velocity profile) and movement quality (smoothness, trunk contribution, joint angles), handgrip force and motor impairment were assessed before and after the intervention.

Results

For those participants allocated to the tDCS plus FES group, therapy was effective to improve movement cycle time (P = 0.039), mean reaching phase velocity (P = 0.022) and handgrip force (P = 0.034). Both groups showed improved mean returning phase velocity (P = 0.018), trunk contribution (P = 0.022), and movement smoothness (P = 0.001) as well as alleviated UL motor impairment (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Concurrent bi-cephalic tDCS and FES slightly improved reaching motor performance and handgrip force of individuals with moderate and severe UL impairment after stroke.

via Bi-cephalic transcranial direct current stimulation combined with functional electrical stimulation for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial – ScienceDirect

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[Conference Paper] Modelling of a wearable jacket with sensors and actuators for upper limb rehabilitation

Abstract

Introduction Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) affects a large number of young people and, if left  untreated, can deal irreversible damage to the human body. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of physical therapy to the rehabilitation process, promoting neuro-plasticity and thus at least partial restoration of functionality of the body and gait. These studies focus on the implementation of engineered solutions, such as robotic exoskeletons and virtual reality training regimens. The common denominator in most of them is the implementation of some form of Human-Machine Interface (HMI), for the control of these modalities by direct user feedback. These HMIs are based on a plethora of sensor arrays, ranging from direct motion-specific body data, such as Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electromyography (EMG) to more common sensor devices, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. These sensors can provide direct measurements, tailored to the application at hand and provide the necessary data for the desired functionality. Materials and Methods The proposed device will function as a sensor array for the upper-body, providing live data for muscle activity, through the use of Electromyography (EMG) electrodes, as well as relative joint positioning and rotation, utilizing Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), for the purpose of monitoring and Augmented Reality (AR) integration. Said motion data will be then used to enhance the users desired movement, through the use of Functional Electronic Stimulation (FES), by providing the necessary impulse to each muscle group, from the measured feedback. The relationship between sensor input and stimulation will allow for reinforcement of the users’ movements, promoting neuroplasticity and ease of movement in the process of neuro-rehabilitation. Furthermore, this modality will act as a platform for several other physiological measurements, such as heart rate and perspiration, essentially creating a functional Body-Area Network (BAN) of sensors. Integration with external motion actuators will be investigated, as a means to provide upper-body support, providing the necessary strength, as a means of easing the rehabilitation process and removing unnecessary stress from the user. Finally, interactions with implanted medical devices will be explored. Such devices could provide telemetry data from inside the body, to be used as a form of direct feedback for the designed Body Area Network (BAN), and the aforementioned stimulation and actuation.

via Modelling of a wearable jacket with sensors and actuators for upper limb rehabilitation

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[VIDEO] FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) System by FES Center India – YouTube

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES): Best and latest treatment for Neurological rehabilitation/ Physiotherapy

FES is a technique that utilizes patterned electrical stimulation of neural tissue with the purpose of restoring or enhancing a lost or diminished function. It produces contractions in paralysed muscles by the application of small pulses of electrical stimulation to nerves that supply the paralysed muscle. The stimulation is controlled in such a way that the movement produced provides useful function.

FES is used as a tool to assist walking and also as a means of practicing various functional movements for therapeutic benefit. FES may be used to replace the natural electrical signals from the brain, helping the weak or paralyzed limbs move again. With continued stimulation over time, the brain may even be able to recapture and relearn this movement without the stimulation.

Use of “FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) System India” for treatment of Foot Drop due to Hemiplegia. FES is a novel device for treatment/ rehabilitation of Neurological diseases. FES System India has many applications like

  1. Sit to stand training
  2. Pre Gait Training
  3. Correction of Foot Drop,
  4. Correction of Circumductory Gait

  5. for Paraplegia (Incomplete SCI) using FES unit on both sides

  6. Shoulder subluxation and shoulder rehabilitation

  7. Hand Function (Grasp and release)

This novel treatment is useful for all type of UMN disorders like hemiplegia (Cerebro Vascular Accident, Head Injury, Traumatic Brain injury, Brain tumor ), multiple scerosis, cerebral palsy, incomplete paraplegia etc.

contact “FES Center India” to buy FES System.

mail: fescenterindia@gmail.com

For more details visit: http://www.fescenterindia.com

via FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) System by FES Center India – YouTube

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[VIDEO] Functional Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehab – YouTube

Combo video including patients participating in contralaterally controlled FES therapy followed by a patient performing a grasp-release test before CCFES therapy and the same patient performing the same test after 12 weeks of CCFES therapy. All patients were participating in research studies at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland.

via  Functional Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehab – YouTube

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[VIDEO] Foot Drop and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) – YouTube

PhysioFunction are recognised as international experts in the use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). We ensure our clients receive the most clinically correct rehabilitation technology suited to their needs. Jon Graham, Clinical Director at PhysioFunction talks about Foot Drop and Functional Electrical Stimulation.

via Foot Drop and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) – YouTube

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