Posts Tagged gait speed

[Abstract] Examination of factors related to the effect of improving gait speed with functional electrical stimulation intervention for patients with stroke

Abstract

Background

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for patients with stroke and foot drop is an alternative to ankle foot orthoses. Characteristics of FES responders and non-responders have not been clarified.

Objectives

1. To investigate the effects of treatment with FES on patients with stroke and foot drop. 2. To determine which factors may relate to responders and non-responders.

Design

Multicenter, non-randomized, prospective study.

Setting

Multicenter clinical trial.

Participants

Participants, who experienced foot drop resulting from stroke, greater than 20 years old, and could provide consent to participate, were enrolled from hospitals between January 2013 and September 2015 and performed rehabilitation with FES.

Methods

Stroke Impairment Assessment Set Foot-Pat Test (SIAS-FP), Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Lower Extremity (FMA-LE), modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for ankle joint dorsiflexion and plantar flexion muscles, range of motion (ROM) for ankle joint, 10-m walking test (10mWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Age, sex, type of stroke, onset times of stroke, paretic side, Brunnstrom stage of the lower extremity (Br. stage-LE), functional independent measure (FIM), functional ambulation category (FAC), post-stroke months, number of interventions, total hours of interventions, and whether a brace was used were extracted from patients’ medical records and collected on the physiological examination day.

Main Outcome Measurements

We examined 10mWT and age, sex, type of stroke, onset times of stroke, paretic side, Br. stage-LE, FIM, FAC, post-stroke months, number of interventions, total hours of interventions, whether a brace was used, SIAS-FP, FMA-LE, MAS, ROM, TUG, and 6MWT before intervention. We divided participants into non-responders and responders with a change in 10mWT of <0.1 and ≧0.1 m/s, respectively. Single and multiple regression analyses were used for data analysis. Additionally, we compared the changes between groups.

Results

Fifty-eight responders and 43 non-responders were enrolled. The between-group differences, compared for changes between pre- and post-intervention, were significant in terms of changes in SIAS-FP (P=.02), 10mWT (P<.001), 10-m gait steps (P<.001), TUG (P=.04), and 6MWT (P=.006). In the adjusted regression model, sex (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.426–12.25; P=.007), number of interventions (OR, 1.028; 95% CI, 1.003–1.070; P=.03), and active ankle joint dorsiflexion ROM (OR, 1.047; 95% CI, 1.014–1.088; P=.005) remained significant.

Conclusion

The factors related to 10mWT showing changes beyond the minimally clinically important difference were found to be patient sex, number of interventions, and active ankle joint dorsiflexion ROM before intervention. When Patients with stroke who are greater active ankle joint ROM in female, use FES positively, they may benefit more from using FES.

 

via Examination of factors related to the effect of improving gait speed with functional electrical stimulation intervention for patients with stroke – PM&R

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[ARTICLE] Assessment of the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke patients and the time from stroke onset, the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, proprioception, visual field impairment and functional independence – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Introduction: Gait recovery is one of the main objectives in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The study aim was to assess the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke hemiparetic patients and the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, the time from stroke onset, the subjects’ age as well as the impairment of proprioception and visual field.

Materials and methods: This retrospective study was performed at the Clinical Rehabilitation Ward of the Regional Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszow. The study group consisted of 600 patients after a first stroke who walked independently. The measurements focused on gait speed assessed in a 10-meter walking test, motor control in the lower limb according to Brunnström recovery stages, proprioception in lower limbs, visual field as well as functional independence according to The Barthel Index.

Results: The study revealed a slight negative correlation between gait speed and the subjects’ age (r = − 0.25). No correlation was found between mean gait speed and the time from stroke onset. On the other hand, gait speed strongly correlated both with the level of motor control in the lower limb (p = 0.0008) and the incidence of impaired proprioception. Additionally, a strong statistically significant correlation between the patients’ gait speed and the level of functional independence was found with the use of The Barthel Index.

Conclusions: The level of motor control in the paretic lower limb and proprioception are vital factors affecting gait speed and functional independence. Patients with a higher level of functional independence demonstrated higher gait speed.

References

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[Poster] Sensory Amplitude Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Speed in Chronic Stroke

Purpose/Hypothesis: The objective of the study was to determine if sensory amplitude electrical stimulation (SES) delivered via sock electrode during task-specific leg exercises improved gait speed, sensation, balance, and participation in individuals with chronic stroke. It was hypothesized that SES would enhance the effectiveness of exercise, resulting in reduced impairment and improved function in individuals with post-stroke hemiplegia.

Source: Sensory Amplitude Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Speed in Chronic Stroke – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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[Abstract] Pilot study of intensive exercise on endurance, advanced mobility and gait speed in adults with chronic severe acquired brain injury – CNS

Brain Inj. 2016 Jul 28:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Effects of high-intensity exercise on endurance, mobility and gait speed of adults with chronic moderate-to-severe acquired brain injury (ABI) were investigated. It was hypothesized that intensive exercise would be associated with improvements in impairment and activity limitation measures.

PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen adults with chronic ABI in supported independent living who could stand with minimal or no assist and walk with or without ambulation device were studied. Eight presented with low ambulatory status.

METHODS: This was a single group pre- and post-intervention study. Participants received a 6-week exercise intervention for 60-90 minutes, 3 days/week assisted by personal trainers under physical therapist supervision. Measures (6MWT, HiMAT and 10MWT) were collected at baseline, post-intervention and 6 weeks later. Repeated measures T-test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were used.

RESULTS: Post-intervention improvements were achieved on average on all three measures, greater than minimal detectable change (MDC) for this population. Three participants transitioned from low-to-high ambulatory status and maintained the change 6 weeks later.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: People with chronic ABI can improve endurance, demonstrate the ability to do advanced gait and improve ambulatory status with 6 weeks of intensive exercise. Challenges to sustainability of exercise programmes for this population remain.

Source: Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide – Research Reports – Pilot study of intensive exercise on endurance, advanced mobility and gait speed in adults with chronic severe acquired brain injury

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[Doctoral Project] OUTPATIENT REHABILITATION FOR A PATIENT WITH A CHRONIC LEFT ISCHEMIC STROKE – Full Text PDF

ABSTRACT

A patient with a left middle cerebral artery stroke was seen for physical therapy treatment for 8 sessions from 4/17/15 to 5/15/15 at the Department of Physical Therapy at California State University, Sacramento. Treatment was provided by a student physical therapist under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist.

The patient was evaluated at the initial encounter with the Five Times Sit to Stand to assess lower extremity muscular strength, the Six Minute Walk Test to assess cardiovascular endurance, the 10 Meter Walk Test to measure ambulatory status and gait speed, the Timed Up and Go test to measure fall risk, and the Falls Efficacy ScaleInternational to measure fall risk, and a plan of care was established. Main goals for the patient were to improve lower extremity strength, neuromuscular control, cardiovascular endurance, gait speed, and decrease risk for falls. Main interventions used were repetition, task-specific training, over-ground gait training, and neuromuscular control training.

The patient improved lower extremity strength, cardiovascular endurance, gait speed, and reduced her risk for falls. The patient was discharged to remain living at home with a home exercise program.

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[ARTICLE] Long-Term Follow-up to a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Peroneal Nerve Functional Electrical Stimulation to an Ankle Foot Orthosis for Patients With Chronic Stroke

Abstract

Background. Evidence supports peroneal nerve functional electrical stimulation (FES) as an effective alternative to ankle foot orthoses (AFO) for treatment of foot drop poststroke, but few long-term, randomized controlled comparisons exist.

Objective. Compare changes in gait quality and function between FES and AFOs in individuals with foot drop poststroke over a 12-month period.

Methods. Follow-up analysis of an unblinded randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01087957) conducted at 30 rehabilitation centers comparing FES to AFOs over 6 months. Subjects continued to wear their randomized device for another 6 months to final 12-month assessments. Subjects used study devices for all home and community ambulation. Multiply imputed intention-to-treat analyses were utilized; primary endpoints were tested for noninferiority and secondary endpoints for superiority. Primary endpoints: 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and device-related serious adverse event rate. Secondary endpoints: 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), GaitRite Functional Ambulation Profile, and Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile (mEFAP). Results. A total of 495 subjects were randomized, and 384 completed the 12-month follow-up. FES proved noninferior to AFOs for all primary endpoints. Both FES and AFO groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvement for 10MWT compared with initial measurement. No statistically significant between-group differences were found for primary or secondary endpoints. The FES group demonstrated statistically significant improvements for 6MWT and mEFAP Stair-time subscore.

Conclusions. At 12 months, both FES and AFOs continue to demonstrate equivalent gains in gait speed. Results suggest that long-term FES use may lead to additional improvements in walking endurance and functional ambulation; further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Source: Long-Term Follow-up to a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Peroneal Nerve Functional Electrical Stimulation to an Ankle Foot Orthosis for Patients With Chronic Stroke

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[ARTICLE] Associations between lower limb strength and gait velocity following stroke: A systematic review – Full Text HTML

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to identify literature examining associations between isometric strength and gait velocity following stroke.

Methods: An electronic search was performed using six online databases. Targeted searching of reference lists of included articles and three relevant journals was also performed. Two independent reviewers identified relevant articles, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included articles. Inclusion criteria involved studies that assessed univariate correlations between gait velocity and isometric strength of individual lower limb muscle groups in a stroke population.

Results: Twenty-one studies were included for review. The majority of included studies had a relatively small sample size. After accounting for sample size and methodological quality, the knee extensors showed poor-to-moderate correlations with gait velocity while the ankle dorsiflexors showed the strongest association with gait velocity.

Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that the strength of the ankle dorsiflexors has a stronger correlation to gait velocity compared with other lower limb muscle groups. Consequently, a focus on increasing ankle dorsiflexor strength to improve gait velocity following stroke may be beneficial. However, due to limitations of the research identified, further research is needed to determine the associations between lower limb strength and gait velocity following stroke.

Continue —>  Associations between lower limb strength and gait velocity following stroke: A systematic review, Brain Injury, Informa Healthcare.

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[Doctoral Project] INPATIENT REHABILITATION FOR A PATIENT FOLLOWING A MILD RIGHT ISCHEMIC STROKE – Full Text PDF

Abstract

A patient with right anterior pons and superior cerebellar stroke was seen for
physical therapy treatment for 16 sessions from 6/11/14 to 6/23/14 at an inpatient
physical therapy clinic. Treatment was provided by a student physical therapist under the
supervision of a licensed physical therapist.
The patient was evaluated at the initial encounter with Timed Up and Go, 10 Meter
Walk Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Independence
Measure, and a plan of care was established. Main goals for the patient were to improve
strength, range of motion, motor control and sequencing during functional activities, gait
speed, static and dynamic standing balance, and functional independence. Main
interventions used were over-ground gait training, restorative training, task-specific
training, and functional training.

The patient improved strength, motor control and sequencing, gait speed, balance, and
functional independence. The patient was discharged to home with a home exercise
program and with follow up with outpatient physical therapy.

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[Systematic Review] A Decade of Progress Using Virtual Reality for Poststroke Lower Extremity Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Intervention Methods – Full Text PDF

Objective. To develop a systematic review of the literature, to describe the different virtual reality (VR) interventions and interactive videogames applied to the lower extremity (LE) of stroke patients, and to analyse the results according to the most frequently used outcome measures.

Material and Methods. An electronic search of randomized trials between January 2004 and January 2014 in different databases (Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, PEDro, and Cochrane) was carried out. Several terms (virtual reality, feedback, stroke, hemiplegia, brain injury, cerebrovascular accident, lower limb, leg, and gait) were combined, and finally 11 articles were included according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results.The reviewed trials showed a high heterogeneity in terms of study design and assessment tools, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the different types of interventions. However, most of them found a significant improvement on gait speed, balance and motor function, due to VR intervention.

Conclusions. Although evidence is limited, it suggests that VR intervention (more than 10 sessions) in stroke patients may have a positive impact on balance, and gait recovery. Better results were obtained when a multimodal approach, combining VR and
conventional physiotherapy, was used. Flexible software seems to adapt better to patients’ requirements, allowing more specific and individual treatments.

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[ARTICLE] Long-Term Follow-up to a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Peroneal Nerve Functional Electrical Stimulation to an Ankle Foot Orthosis for Patients With Chronic Stroke

Abstract

Background: Evidence supports peroneal nerve functional electrical stimulation (FES) as an effective alternative to ankle foot orthoses (AFO) for treatment of foot drop poststroke, but few long-term, randomized controlled comparisons exist.

Objective: Compare changes in gait quality and function between FES and AFOs in individuals with foot drop poststroke over a 12-month period.

Methods: Follow-up analysis of an unblinded randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01087957) conducted at 30 rehabilitation centers comparing FES to AFOs over 6 months. Subjects continued to wear their randomized device for another 6 months to final 12-month assessments. Subjects used study devices for all home and community ambulation. Multiply imputed intention-to-treat analyses were utilized; primary endpoints were tested for noninferiority and secondary endpoints for superiority. Primary endpoints: 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and device-related serious adverse event rate. Secondary endpoints: 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), GaitRite Functional Ambulation Profile, and Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile (mEFAP).

Results: A total of 495 subjects were randomized, and 384 completed the 12-month follow-up. FES proved noninferior to AFOs for all primary endpoints. Both FES and AFO groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvement for 10MWT compared with initial measurement. No statistically significant between-group differences were found for primary or secondary endpoints. The FES group demonstrated statistically significant improvements for 6MWT and mEFAP Stair-time subscore.

Conclusions: At 12 months, both FES and AFOs continue to demonstrate equivalent gains in gait speed. Results suggest that long-term FES use may lead to additional improvements in walking endurance and functional ambulation; further research is needed to confirm these findings.

via Long-Term Follow-up to a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Peroneal Nerve Functional Electrical Stimulation to an Ankle Foot Orthosis for Patients With Chronic Stroke.

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