Posts Tagged gaming technologies

[Abstract] The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a low-cost, virtual-reality based, upper-limb stroke rehabilitation device: a mixed methods study.



To establish feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted version of a commercially available, virtual-reality gaming system (the Personalised Stroke Therapy system) for upper-limb rehabilitation with community dwelling stroke-survivors.


Twelve stroke-survivors (nine females, mean age 58 years, [standard deviation 7.1], median stroke chronicity 42 months [interquartile range 34.7], Motricity index 14-25 for shoulder and elbow) were asked to complete nine, 40-min intervention sessions using two activities on the system over 3 weeks. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through a semi-structured interview, recording of adverse effects, adherence, enjoyment (using an 11-point Likert scale), and perceived exertion (using the BORG scale). Assessments of impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper extremity), activity (ABILHAND, Action Research Arm Test, Motor Activity Log-28), and participation (Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome) were completed at baseline, following intervention, and at 4-week follow-up. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis of interview and intervention field-notes and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks. Side-by-side displays were used to integrate findings.


Participants received between 175 and 336 min of intervention. Thirteen non-serious adverse effects were reported by five participants. Participants reported a high level of enjoyment (8.1 and 6.8 out of 10) and rated exertion between 11.6 and 12.9 out of 20. Themes of improvements in impairments and increased spontaneous use in functional activities were identified and supported by improvements in all outcome measures between baseline and post-intervention (p < 0.05 for all measures).


Integrated findings suggested that the system is feasible and acceptable for use with a group of community-dwelling stroke-survivors including those with moderately-severe disability. Implications for rehabilitation To ensure feasibility of use and maintenance of an appropriate level of challenge, gaming technologies for use in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation should be personalised, dependent on individual need. Through the use of hands-free systems and personalisation, stroke survivors with moderate and moderately-severe levels of upper-limb impairment following stroke are able to use gaming technologies as a means of delivering upper-limb rehabilitation. Future studies should address issues of acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of personalised gaming technologies for delivery of upper-limb stroke rehabilitation in the home environment. Findings from this study can be used to develop future games and activities suitable for use in stroke rehabilitation.


via The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a low-cost, virtual-reality based, upper-limb stroke rehabilitation device: a mixed meth… – PubMed – NCBI

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[ARTICLE] Democratizing Neurorehabilitation: How Accessible are Low-Cost Mobile-Gaming Technologies for Self-Rehabilitation of Arm Disability in Stroke? – Full Text HTML


Motor-training software on tablets or smartphones (Apps) offer a low-cost, widely-available solution to supplement arm physiotherapy after stroke. We assessed the proportions of hemiplegic stroke patients who, with their plegic hand, could meaningfully engage with mobile-gaming devices using a range of standard control-methods, as well as by using a novel wireless grip-controller, adapted for neurodisability. We screened all newly-diagnosed hemiplegic stroke patients presenting to a stroke centre over 6 months. Subjects were compared on their ability to control a tablet or smartphone cursor using: finger-swipe, tap, joystick, screen-tilt, and an adapted handgrip. Cursor control was graded as: no movement (0); less than full-range movement (1); full-range movement (2); directed movement (3). In total, we screened 345 patients, of which 87 satisfied recruitment criteria and completed testing. The commonest reason for exclusion was cognitive impairment. Using conventional controls, the proportion of patients able to direct cursor movement was 38–48%; and to move it full-range was 55–67% (controller comparison: p>0.1). By comparison, handgrip enabled directed control in 75%, and full-range movement in 93% (controller comparison: p<0.001). This difference between controllers was most apparent amongst severely-disabled subjects, with 0% achieving directed or full-range control with conventional controls, compared to 58% and 83% achieving these two levels of movement, respectively, with handgrip. In conclusion, hand, or arm, training Apps played on conventional mobile devices are likely to be accessible only to mildly-disabled stroke patients. Technological adaptations such as grip-control can enable more severely affected subjects to engage with self-training software.


The most important intervention shown to improve physical function after stroke is repetitive, task-directed exercises, supervised by a physiotherapist, with higher intensity leading to faster and greater recovery. In practice, access to physiotherapy is significantly limited by resource availability . For example, 55% of UK stroke in-patients receive less than half the recommended physiotherapy time of 45 minutes per day.

One solution to inadequate physiotherapy is robotic technology, that enables patients to self-practice, with mechanical assistance, via interaction with adapted computer games. While a range of rehabilitation robotics have been marketed over the last decade, and shown to be efficacious, they are not widely used due to factors such as high-cost (typically, $10,000–100,000), cumbersome size, and restriction to patients with high baseline performance, and who have access to specialist rehabilitation centres.

An alternative approach to self-rehabilitation, are medical applications (Apps), or gaming software, run on mobile media devices e.g. tablets or smartphones. Because such devices are low-cost ($200–500), and ubiquitous, they have the potential to democratize computerized-physiotherapy, especially in under-resourced settings, e.g. chronically-disabled in the community. Furthermore, their portability enables home use, while their employment of motivational gaming strategies can potentiate high-intensity motor practice. Accordingly, increasing numbers of motor-training Apps for mobile devices have been commercialised in recent years, and clinical trials are under way. However, since these devices are designed for able-person use, it is questionable as to how well disabled people can access them, and engage meaningfully and repeatedly with rehabilitation software.

This study assesses the degree of motor interaction that can be achieved by hemiplegic stroke patients using four types of conventional hand-control methods (finger swipe, tap, joystick and tilt) for mobile devices. An adapted controller of the same mobile devices, whose materials cost ~$100, was evaluated alongside. Since the latter interface exploits the fact that handgrip is relatively spared in stroke hemiplegia, and is sensitive to subtle forces, we expected that this would increase the range of arm-disability severities able to achieve meaningful computer-game control. In order to assess motor control, with minimal cognitive confounding (given that many softwares also have cognitive demands), we used a simple 1-dimensional motor assessment for all controller types.

Continue —> PLOS ONE: Democratizing Neurorehabilitation: How Accessible are Low-Cost Mobile-Gaming Technologies for Self-Rehabilitation of Arm Disability in Stroke?

Fig 1. Control methods and devices trialled. Conventional control mechanisms were trialled using standard tablet and smartphone (A, B). Subjects were required only to move a cursor along a single vertical path, full-range, and then to an indicated vertical level (they were not tested on playing the underlying game). B shows software used for assessing swipe, with varying cursor size. There was no improvement in accessibility using a larger cursor. The novel control mechanism (C) is a wireless grip-force sensor that detects both finger-flexion and extension movements, the latter assisted by a fingerstrap holding the device within a partially-extended hand. Control software for C entailed moving a circle in a vertical plane towards a target star. Cursor and target stimuli dimensions and contrast are similar between all methods.

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[ARTICLE] Multimedia and Gaming Technologies for Telerehabilitation of Motor Disabilities- IEEE Xplore, Full-Text PDF

Rehabilitation for chronic conditions resulting from acute or progressive disease might be delivered in an outpatient facility as in the case of telerehabilitation, selfrehabilitation and, more generally, in the context of home-based rehabilitation to improve the patients’ quality of life.

Here we present the emerging field of home-based applications for continuous digital health, focusing in particular on low-cost rehabilitation systems for motor disabilities based on multimedia and gaming technologies. Innovative technologies for telerehabilitation are illustrated. We also present recent advances in telerehabilitation, considering the most relevant projects that best represent new trends for research and development of new technologies and applications in this context. Telerehabilitation (TRH) is the provision of rehabilitation services at a distance using information and communication technologies (ICT) [1]. TRH services might be needed for diagnosis, assessment, consultations, and monitoring, as well as to supervise therapies or therapeutic settings or to propose interactive therapies. Rather than being described as a super specialization of rehabilitation, therefore, TRH should be viewed as an alternative way to deliver rehabilitation services, particularly suited for chronic conditions that might benefit from home-based care. It has been demonstrated, in fact, that improving motor function, a major goal of any rehabilitative treatment, should be pursued even in the chronic stages of disabling condition, like stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, for which telemedicine could be seen as a great opportunity to allow remote diagnosis and clinical monitoring.

The aim of this article is to present the emerging field of homebased applications for continuous digital health, focusing in particular on low-cost TRH systems for motor disabilities that adopt diffused ICT for gaming and multimedia as well as the networking connection…

Get IEEE Xplore Full-Text PDF

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