Posts Tagged Immersive

[NEWS] New Virtual Reality Therapy game could offer relief for patients with chronic pain, mobility issues

News-MedicalA Virtual Reality Therapy game (iVRT) which could introduce relief for patients suffering from chronic pain and mobility issues has been developed by a team of UK researchers.

Dr Andrew Wilson and colleagues from Birmingham City University built the CRPS app in collaboration with clinical staff at Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust for a new way to tackle complex regional pain syndrome and to aid people living with musculoskeletal conditions.

Using a head mounted display and controllers, the team created an immersive and interactive game which mimics the processes used in traditional ‘mirror therapy’ treatment. Within the game, players are consciously and subconsciously encouraged to stretch, move and position the limbs that are affected by their conditions.

Mirror therapy is a medical exercise intervention where a mirror is used to create areflective illusion that encourages patient’s brain to move their limb more freely. This intervention is often used by occupational therapists and physiotherapists to treat CRPS patients who have experienced a stroke. This treatment has proven to be successful exercises are often deemed routine and mundane by patients, which contributes to decline in the completion of therapy.

Work around the CRPS project, which could have major implications for other patient rehabilitation programmes worldwide when fully realised, was presented at the 12th European Conference on Game Based Learning (ECGBL) in France late last year.

Dr Wilson, who leads Birmingham City University’s contribution to a European research study into how virtual reality games can encourage more physical activity, and how movement science in virtual worlds can be used for both rehabilitation and treatment adherence, explained, “The first part of the CRPS project was to examine the feasibility of being able to create a game which reflects the rehabilitation exercises that the clinical teams use on the ground to reduce pain and improve mobility in specific patients.”

“By making the game enjoyable and playable we hope family members will play too and in doing so encourage the patient to continue with their rehabilitation. Our early research has shown that in healthy volunteers both regular and casual gamers enjoyed the game which is promising in terms of our theory surrounding how we may support treatment adherence by exploiting involvement of family and friends in the therapy processes.”

The CRPS project was realized through collaborative working between City Hospital, Birmingham, and staff at the School of Computing and Digital Technology, and was developed following research around the provision of a 3D virtual reality ophthalmoscopy trainer.

Andrea Quadling, Senior Occupational Therapist at Sandwell Hospital, said “The concept of using virtual reality to treat complex pain conditions is exciting, appealing and shows a lot of potential. This software has the potential to be very helpful in offering additional treatment options for people who suffer with CRPS.”

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[Abstract + References] Project Star Catcher: A Novel Immersive Virtual Reality Experience for Upper Limb Rehabilitation


Modern immersive virtual reality experiences have the unique potential to motivate patients undergoing physical therapy for performing intensive repetitive task-based treatment and can be utilized to collect real-time user data to track adherence and compliance rates. This article reports the design and evaluation of an immersive virtual reality game using the HTC Vive for upper limb rehabilitation, titled “Project Star Catcher” (PSC), aimed at users with hemiparesis. The game mechanics were adapted from modified Constraint Induced Therapy (mCIT), an established therapy method where users are asked to use the weaker arm by physically binding the stronger arm. Our adaptation changes the physical to psychological binding by providing various types of immersive stimulation to influence the use of the weaker arm. PSC was evaluated by users with combined developmental and physical impairments as well as stroke survivors. The results suggest that we were successful in providing a motivating experience for performing mCIT as well as a cost-effective solution for real-time data capture during therapy. We conclude the article with a set of considerations for immersive virtual reality therapy game design.


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Victor W. Mark and Edward Taub. 2004. Constraint-induced movement therapy for chronic stroke hemiparesis and other disabilities. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 22, 3–5 (2004), 317–336.
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Marco Pasch, Nadia Berthouze, Betsy Dijk, and Anton Nijholt. 2008. Motivations, strategies, and movement patterns of video gamers playing Nintendo Wii boxing. In Proceedings of the Facial and Bodily Expressions for Control and Adaptation of Games Workshop.
Lamberto Piron, Andrea Turolla, Michela Agostini, Carla Zucconi, Feliciana Cortese, Mauro Zampolini, Mara Zannini, Mauro Dam, Laura Ventura, Michela Battauz, et al. 2009. Exercises for paretic upper limb after stroke: A combined virtual-reality and telemedicine approach. J. Rehabil. Med. 41, 12 (2009), 1016–1020.
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Youssef Shiban, Iris Schelhorn, Paul Pauli, and Andreas Mühlberger. 2015. Effect of combined multiple contexts and multiple stimuli exposure in spider phobia: A randomized clinical trial in virtual reality. Behav. Res. Ther. 71 (2015), 45–53.
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[WEB SITE] Benefits of Virtual Reality for Stroke Rehabilitation – Saebo

Virtual reality (VR) is the new must-have technology tool for gaming, training, or just trying to immerse yourself in a new and virtual environment. From Google Cardboard to Oculus Rift, this technology is becoming more and more accessible to the everyday person. Now anyone can put on a headset and suddenly be transported to a world where they have full control and no consequences.

VR technology isn’t just useful for gaming. It has been shown to help in a variety of applications, from military training activities to treatment for anxiety disorders and phobias to functioning as an art form. Another application where VR shows a lot of promise is stroke recovery.

Virtual Reality and Stroke Recovery

Virtual Reality has emerged as a new approach to treatment in stroke rehabilitation settings over the last ten years. By simulating real-life activities, stroke patients are able to work on self-care skills in a setting that is usually impossible to create in a hospital environment.

There are two main types of VR:


In immersive VR, the virtual environment is delivered by equipment worn by the user (like goggles) or the person is situated within a virtual environment. This fully immersive system gives the user a strong sense of presence through the use of head-mounted displays, special gloves, and large, concave screen projections to create the sense of immersion.


Non-immersive VR is usually two-dimensional and delivered through a computer screen. The user can control what is happening on screen by using a device such as a joystick, mouse, or sensor.

After a stroke, mass practice, task-oriented arm training of the upper and lower limbs can help the brain “re-program” itself and form new neural connections. These new connections stimulate recovery of motor skills in patients following stroke. So VR may be useful to augment rehabilitation of the upper and lower limbs in patients suffering from stroke and other neurological injuries.

In some studies, therapists have manipulated the image onscreen to make the patient’s limb appear to be moving faster and more accurately than it was in real life. Doing this increased the patient’s confidence and made them more likely to use their affected limb spontaneously. Spontaneous use of the affected limb can help the limb recover more completely.


SaeboVR is the world’s only virtual rehabilitation system exclusively focusing on ADL’s (activities of daily living). The proprietary platform was specifically designed to engage clients in both physical and cognitive challenges involving daily functional activities. In addition to interacting with meaningful every-day tasks, the SaeboVR uses a virtual assistant that appears on the screen to educate and facilitate performance by providing real-time feedback.



SaeboVR’s ADL-focused virtual world provides clients with real-life challenges. Users will incorporate their impaired upper limb to perform simulated self-care tasks that involve picking up, transferring, and manipulating virtual objects.


Why SaeboVR?

  • It’s the only virtual system available that focuses on real-life self-care tasks.
  • Let’s you practice repetitive movements with fun and motivating activities.
  • Activities are adaptable to the individual client to maximize success and outcomes.
  • ADL tasks can be customized to challenge endurance, speed, range of motion, coordination, timing, and cognitive demand.
  • It includes a clinical provider dashboard to view client performance and participation trends.
  • Reports are graphically displayed for easy viewing.

Saebo’s other products can also be used in conjunction with the SaeboVR to facilitate recovery. The SaeboMAS and SaeboMAS mini use unweighting technology that will allow clients with proximal weakness to participate in proven treatment techniques that would otherwise have been impossible. The SaeboGlove can engage and position the hand so it can be incorporated in virtual grasp-and-release activities.

The Future of Stroke Rehabilitation

Virtual reality is here to stay, and we have likely only scratched the surface of its medical applications. It’s having a powerful impact on those who have had strokes. Stroke survivors are taking advantage of how VR enables them to practice necessary routine activities, create new connections in the brain, and build up their confidence. With more and more survivors retraining their limbs using this technology, the future of VR in stroke recovery looks bright.


All content provided on this blog is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 911 immediately. Reliance on any information provided by the Saebo website is solely at your own risk.

Source: Benefits of Virtual Reality for Stroke Rehabilitation | Saebo

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[OPINION ARTICLE] Enhancing Our Lives with Immersive Virtual Reality – Full Text


Virtual reality (VR) started about 50 years ago in a form we would recognize today [stereo head-mounted display (HMD), head tracking, computer graphics generated images] – although the hardware was completely different. In the 1980s and 1990s, VR emerged again based on a different generation of hardware (e.g., CRT displays rather than vector refresh, electromagnetic tracking instead of mechanical). This reached the attention of the public, and VR was hailed by many engineers, scientists, celebrities, and business people as the beginning of a new era, when VR would soon change the world for the better. Then, VR disappeared from public view and was rumored to be “dead.” In the intervening 25 years a huge amount of research has nevertheless been carried out across a vast range of applications – from medicine to business, from psychotherapy to industry, from sports to travel. Scientists, engineers, and people working in industry carried on with their research and applications using and exploring different forms of VR, not knowing that actually the topic had already passed away.

The purpose of this article is to survey a range of VR applications where there is some evidence for, or at least debate about, its utility, mainly based on publications in peer-reviewed journals. Of course not every type of application has been covered, nor every scientific paper (about 186,000 papers in Google Scholar): in particular, in this review we have not covered applications in psychological or medical rehabilitation. The objective is that the reader becomes aware of what has been accomplished in VR, where the evidence is weaker or stronger, and what can be done. We start in Section 1 with an outline of what VR is and the major conceptual framework used to understand what happens when people experience it – the concept of “presence.” In Section 2, we review some areas where VR has been used in science – mostly psychology and neuroscience, the area of scientific visualization, and some remarks about its use in education and surgical training. In Section 3, we discuss how VR has been used in sports and exercise. In Section 4, we survey applications in social psychology and related areas – how VR has been used to throw light on some social phenomena, and how it can be used to tackle experimentally areas that cannot be studied experimentally in real life. We conclude with how it has been used in the preservation of and access to cultural heritage. In Section 5, we present the domain of moral behavior, including an example of how it might be used to train professionals such as medical doctors when confronting serious dilemmas with patients. In Section 6, we consider how VR has been and might be used in various aspects of travel, collaboration, and industry. In Section 7, we consider mainly the use of VR in news presentation and also discuss different types of VR. In the concluding Section 8, we briefly consider new ideas that have recently emerged – an impossible task since during the short time we have written this page even newer ideas have emerged! And, we conclude with some general considerations and speculations.

Throughout and wherever possible we have stressed novel applications and approaches and how the real power of VR is not necessarily to produce a faithful reproduction of “reality” but rather that it offers the possibility to step outside of the normal bounds of reality and realize goals in a totally new and unexpected way. We hope that our article will provoke readers to think as paradigm changers, and advance VR to realize different worlds that might have a positive impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide, and maybe even help a little in saving the planet.

Continue —> Frontiers | Enhancing Our Lives with Immersive Virtual Reality | Virtual Environments

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[ARTICLE] Rehabilitation System for Stroke Patients using Mixed-Reality and Immersive User Interfaces – Full Text PDF


The work presented in this paper addresses stroke, a disease costing the healthcare in Europe and USA over 3% of their entire healthcare expenditure, including inpatient treatments, outpatient hospital visits and long-term rehabilitation and care.

The StrokeBack project is a response to those needs offering an effective long term care and rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients, which would actively involve patients in the rehabilitation process while minimizing costly human support. The game based training system has been proposed allowing physicians to supervise the rehabilitation of patents at home. The proposed approach empowers patients and their caretakers to execute effectively rehabilitation protocols in their home settings, while leading physicians are able to monitor the rehabilitation progress remotely via Personal Health Record (PHR) system.

The increased rehabilitation speed and ability to perform training at home directly improves quality of life of patients.

more –> Full Text PDF

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