Posts Tagged Inpatient

[ARTICLE] In inpatient rehabilitation, large amounts of practice can occur safely without direct therapist supervision: an observational study – Full Text



When a hospital gymnasium used for inpatient rehabilitation is set up to allow semi-supervised practice: what percentage of practice is performed as semi-supervised practice, what percentage of patients in the gym are actively engaged in practice at one time, and is the semi-supervised practice that occurs safe?


An observational study using periodic behaviour mapping.


Patients in general and stroke rehabilitation units of a metropolitan hospital.

Outcome measures

Observations in the rehabilitation gym quantified the number of patients in the gym and the numbers of patients practising and resting. In observations of patients practising, the condition of practice was recorded as being with a therapist, with a family member, or with no direct supervision. The number of adverse events during the data collection period was collected from the hospital Incident Information Management System.


The rehabilitation gym was observed on 113 occasions, resulting in 1319 individual patient observations. An average of 12 patients were in the gym during the observations. Practice was being performed with family supervision in 15% of observations and with no direct supervision in 26% of observations, resulting in semi-supervised practice accounting for 41% of all observations of practice. The percentage of observations that were of patients taking part in active practice was 78%. There were no adverse events in the gym.


In an inpatient setting, a large percentage of practice can be performed as semi-supervised practice. This does not appear to compromise the time spent in active practice or patient safety.


Following orthopaedic injury or stroke, there is clear evidence that people who do more practice in rehabilitation achieve better outcomes.12345 In stroke survivors, a pooled analysis of eight trials3 established that if the therapy dose provided is increased by more than two times, the effect size on activity outcomes is 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.94). Scrivener et al established that the number of lower limb repetitions achieved in the first week of rehabilitation after a stroke is a good clinical predictor of walking speed at discharge from rehabilitation.4 This dose-response relationship has also been shown in people with orthopaedic conditions. Inpatients having rehabilitation following a hip fracture achieved better functional outcomes if they were more active in therapy sessions.6 Inpatients with lower limb orthopaedic conditions achieved better functional outcomes and had a shorter length of stay if they were more active throughout the entire day.2

Despite the evidence that increased amounts of practice result in better outcomes, patientsin rehabilitation do not generally engage in large amounts of physical practice. The time spent in physiotherapy for stroke survivors in inpatient rehabilitation ranges from 24 to 87 minutes per day.78910111213141516 Similarly, the time spent in physiotherapy for patients with orthopaedic conditions is only 45 minutes per day.13 Additionally, the time spent in active practice during therapy sessions is low, with many studies reporting that less than half of a therapy session is spent in active practice.1117181920 The main reason for these short times spent in therapy and in active practice is that the most common mode of delivery of therapy in the gym area is one-to-one therapy (ie, the patient practises under direct supervision of one or more therapists, therapy students or therapy assistants). This results in a very limited number of patients being in the therapy area at one time, and high therapist to patient ratios. A recent study on inpatient stroke rehabilitation reported that the mean number of staff per patient was two, and patients were participating in less than 30 minutes of physiotherapy a day.21 One potential solution to this problem is to provide opportunities for ‘semi-supervised practice’, meaning that patients practise in the therapy area without the direct supervision of a therapist. This provides the opportunity for patients to spend much longer periods of the day in the gym area with the potential for achieving more time in active practice.

The following strategies can be used to facilitate the provision of semi-supervised practice for patients in rehabilitation. First, the environment of the therapy area can be structured to provide permanent practice areas.22 For example, all the required equipment for different exercises can be placed at workstations, allowing efficient set up for practice. Second, the environment at these workstations can be modified to provide safety when patients are practising without a therapist (eg, the use of adjacent walls, benches and plinths). Third, therapists or therapy assistants can supervise many patients at the same time in class or group settings.7 Additionally, members of the patient’s family can provide assistance with practice. Interestingly, when families are involved in therapy, this not only improves outcomes for stroke survivors but decreases the caregiver strain experienced by the family members.23

Currently, in the risk-averse setting of a hospital, semi-supervised practice is generally not provided24 and in some settings is actually not permitted. To date, it appears that the provision of semi-supervised practice has not been evaluated to establish what percentage of practice occurs as semi-supervised practice when that option is provided, whether patients continue to practise when they are not under direct supervision of a therapist, and whether semi-supervised practice can be provided without compromising patient safety. This information could help to change current clinical management to include more semi-supervised practice, thereby enabling patients in rehabilitation to achieve greater amounts of practice and spend more of their time active.

Therefore, the research questions for this observational study were as follows. When a hospital gymnasium used for inpatient rehabilitation is set up to facilitate semi-supervised practice:

  1. What percentage of practice is performed as semi-supervised practice?
  2. What percentage of patients in the gym are actively engaged in practice (as opposed to resting) at any time?
  3. Is the semi-supervised practice that occurs safe?


Continue —>  In inpatient rehabilitation, large amounts of practice can occur safely without direct therapist supervision: an observational study – ScienceDirect

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[Abstract] A low cost kinect-based virtual rehabilitation system for inpatient rehabilitation of the upper limb in patients with subacute stroke: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot trial.



We designed this study to prove the efficacy of the low-cost Kinect-based virtual rehabilitation (VR) system for upper limb recovery among patients with subacute stroke.


A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial was performed. A total of 23 subjects with subacute stroke (<3 months) were allocated to sham (n = 11) and real VR group (n = 12). Both groups participated in a daily 30-minute occupational therapy for upper limb recovery for 10 consecutive weekdays. Subjects received an additional daily 30-minute Kinect-based or sham VR. Assessment was performed before the VR, immediately and 1 month after the last session of VR. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) (primary outcome) and other secondary functional outcomes were measured. Accelerometers were used to measure hemiparetic upper limb movements during the therapy.


FMA immediately after last VR session was not different between the sham (46.8 ± 16.0) and the real VR group (49.4 ± 14.2) (P = .937 in intention to treat analysis). Significant differences of total activity counts (TAC) were found in hemiparetic upper limb during the therapy between groups (F2,26 = 4.43; P = .22). Real VR group (107,926 ± 68,874) showed significantly more TACs compared with the sham VR group (46,686 ± 25,814) but there was no statistical significance between real VR and control (64,575 ± 27,533).


Low-cost Kinect-based upper limb rehabilitation system was not more efficacious compared with sham VR. However, the compliance in VR was good and VR system induced more arm motion than control and similar activity compared with the conventional therapy, which suggests its utility as an adjuvant additional therapy during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

PMID:29924029 DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000011173

via A low cost kinect-based virtual rehabilitation system for inpatient rehabilitation of the upper limb in patients with subacute stroke: A randomized… – PubMed – NCBI

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[WEB SITE] Strong Social Circles Shorten Stays in Stroke Rehab Facilities

When stroke or lower extremity surgery patients have strong social and family support, they often spend less time in an inpatient rehabilitation facility, according to findings presented in the journal Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Researchers from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston conducted a retrospective cohort study of inpatient rehabilitation facility patients recovering from strokes or lower extremity surgeries in order to discover the patterns in shorter and longer than expected lengths of stay in these facilities. The researchers additionally wanted to examine the independent effects of social support on deviations from expected lengths of stay. The study authors included 119,437 Medicare fee for service beneficiaries who were discharged from inpatient rehab centers in 2012 after their strokes, lower extremity fractures or lower extremity joint replacements.

Strong social support allowed the patients to spend less time in rehab, the investigators learned. Patients without a strong support system from family and friends typically needed extra time than predicted by Medicare, the researchers learned. This is particularly important for this patient population, as the researchers outlined in Medicare’s operating system – Medicare agrees to a certain allotment of days spent in recovery centers depending on a patient’s situation. Various factors affect release timetables, but never before had social systems been considered as a factor.

“When someone does not have the social support of family and friends, they take longer to return home to the community,” lead author Zakkoyya Lewis, a doctoral student in UTMB’s department of rehabilitation sciences, explained in a press release. “We believe that support from loved ones may lead to better recovery and better quality of life. Our study is one of the first to look at how level of social support impacts how long patients need to spend in a rehab facility.”

Stroke patients stayed in the rehabilitation facilities for an average of about 16 days, but half of the patients were discharged about one day earlier than expected. Patients without social support were typically associated with lower odds of a short stay in the group of stroke patients.

“Our findings provide new information to the growing body of evidence that inpatient rehabilitation experiences can be substantially impacted by a patient’s level of social support,” coauthor Catherine Cooper Hay, a doctoral student in UTMB’s department of rehabilitation sciences, added in the statement.


Source: Strong Social Circles Shorten Stays in Stroke Rehab Facilities

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A patient with right anterior pons and superior cerebellar stroke was seen for
physical therapy treatment for 16 sessions from 6/11/14 to 6/23/14 at an inpatient
physical therapy clinic. Treatment was provided by a student physical therapist under the
supervision of a licensed physical therapist.
The patient was evaluated at the initial encounter with Timed Up and Go, 10 Meter
Walk Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Independence
Measure, and a plan of care was established. Main goals for the patient were to improve
strength, range of motion, motor control and sequencing during functional activities, gait
speed, static and dynamic standing balance, and functional independence. Main
interventions used were over-ground gait training, restorative training, task-specific
training, and functional training.

The patient improved strength, motor control and sequencing, gait speed, balance, and
functional independence. The patient was discharged to home with a home exercise
program and with follow up with outpatient physical therapy.

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WEB SITE: Traumatic Brain Injury And Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation

…Inpatient rehabilitation is designed to help you improve function after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is usually provided by a team of people including physicians, nurses and other specialized therapists and medical professionals…

via Traumatic Brain Injury And Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation.

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