Posts Tagged intervention

[ARTICLE] Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies – Full Text

Abstract

The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials.

Introduction

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability. Although much has been learned about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of TBI in the past 20 years, these advances have failed to translate into a successful clinical trial, and thus there has been no significant improvement in treatment. Among the numerous barriers to finding effective interventions to improve outcomes after TBI, the heterogeneity of the injury and identification and classification of patients most likely to benefit from the treatment are considered some of the most significant challenges (Doppenberg et al., 2004; Marshall, 2000; Narayan et al., 2002).

The type of classification one develops depends on the available data and the purpose of the classification system. An etiological classification describes the factors to change in order to prevent the condition. A symptom classificationdescribes the clinical manifestation of the problem to be solved. A prognostic classification describes the factors associated with outcome, and a pathoanatomic classification describes the abnormality to be targeted by the treatment. Most diseases were originally classified on the basis of the clinical picture using a symptom-based classification system. Beginning in the 18th century, autopsies became more routine, and an increasing number of disease conditions were classified by their pathoanatomic lesions. With improvement of diagnostic tools, modern disease classification in most fields of medicine uses a mixture of anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, immunologically, and genetically defined parameters.

Currently, the primary selection criterion for inclusion in a TBI clinical trial is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), a clinical scale that assesses the level of consciousness after TBI. Patients are typically divided into the broad categories of mild, moderate, and severe injury. While the GCS has proved to be extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the neurological deficits. This is clearly demonstrated in Figure 1, in which all six patients are classified as having a severe TBI. Given the heterogeneity of the pathoanatomic features depicted in these computed tomography (CT) scans, it is difficult to see how a therapy targeted simply for severe TBI could effectively treat all of these different types of injury. Many tools such as CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) already exist to help differentiate the multiple types of brain injury and variety of host factors and other confounders that might influence the yield of clinical trials. In addition, newer advances in neuroimaging, biomarkers, and bioinformatics may increase the effectiveness of clinical trials by helping to classify patients into groups most likely to benefit from specific treatments.

 

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Heterogeneity of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) scans of six different patients with severe TBI, defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale score of <8, highlighting the significant heterogeneity of pathological findings. CT scans represent patients with epidural hematomas (EDH), contusions and parenchymal hematomas (Contusion/Hematoma), diffuse axonal injury (DAI), subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (SAH/IVH), and diffuse brain swelling (Diffuse Swelling).

Continue —>  Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies

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[ARTICLE] Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies. Journal of Neurotrauma – Full Text

Abstract

The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials.

Introduction

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability. Although much has been learned about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of TBI in the past 20 years, these advances have failed to translate into a successful clinical trial, and thus there has been no significant improvement in treatment. Among the numerous barriers to finding effective interventions to improve outcomes after TBI, the heterogeneity of the injury and identification and classification of patients most likely to benefit from the treatment are considered some of the most significant challenges (Doppenberg et al., 2004; Marshall, 2000; Narayan et al., 2002).

The type of classification one develops depends on the available data and the purpose of the classification system. An etiological classification describes the factors to change in order to prevent the condition. A symptom classificationdescribes the clinical manifestation of the problem to be solved. A prognostic classification describes the factors associated with outcome, and a pathoanatomic classification describes the abnormality to be targeted by the treatment. Most diseases were originally classified on the basis of the clinical picture using a symptom-based classification system. Beginning in the 18th century, autopsies became more routine, and an increasing number of disease conditions were classified by their pathoanatomic lesions. With improvement of diagnostic tools, modern disease classification in most fields of medicine uses a mixture of anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, immunologically, and genetically defined parameters.

Currently, the primary selection criterion for inclusion in a TBI clinical trial is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), a clinical scale that assesses the level of consciousness after TBI. Patients are typically divided into the broad categories of mild, moderate, and severe injury. While the GCS has proved to be extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the neurological deficits. This is clearly demonstrated in Figure 1, in which all six patients are classified as having a severe TBI. Given the heterogeneity of the pathoanatomic features depicted in these computed tomography (CT) scans, it is difficult to see how a therapy targeted simply for severe TBI could effectively treat all of these different types of injury. Many tools such as CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) already exist to help differentiate the multiple types of brain injury and variety of host factors and other confounders that might influence the yield of clinical trials. In addition, newer advances in neuroimaging, biomarkers, and bioinformatics may increase the effectiveness of clinical trials by helping to classify patients into groups most likely to benefit from specific treatments. […]

 

Continue —> Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies

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[Systematic Review] Complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue management after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review – Full Text

We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the Jadad scale, and the quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A descriptive review was performed.

Ten RCTs of interventions for post-TBI fatigue (PTBIF) that included 10 types of complementary and alternative interventions were assessed in our study. There were four types of physical interventions including aquatic physical activity, fitness-center-based exercise, Tai Chi, and aerobic training. The three types of cognitive and behavioral interventions (CBIs) were cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and computerized working-memory training. The Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) and cranial electrotherapy were the two types of biofeedback therapy, and finally, one type of light therapy was included. Although the four types of intervention included aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training and blue-light therapy showed unequivocally effective results, the quality of evidence was low/very low according to the GRADE system.

The present systematic review of existing RCTs suggests that aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training, and blue-light therapy may be beneficial treatments for PTBIF. Due to the many flaws and limitations in these studies, further controlled trials using these interventions for PTBIF are necessary

Fatigue is a common phenomenon following traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a reported prevalence ranging from 21% to 80% [Ouellet and Morin, 2006Bushnik et al. 2007Dijkers and Bushnik, 2008Cantor et al. 2012Ponsford et al. 2012], regardless of TBI severity [Ouellet and Morin, 2006Ponsford et al. 2012]. Post-TBI fatigue (PTBIF) refers to fatigue that occurs secondary to TBI, which is generally viewed as a manifestation of ‘central fatigue’. Associated PTBIF symptoms include mental or physical exhaustion and inability to perform voluntary activities, and can be accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sensory overstimulation, pain, and sleepiness [Cantor et al. 2013]. PTBIF appears to be persistent, affects most TBI patients daily, negatively impacts quality of life, and decreases life satisfaction [Olver et al. 1996Cantor et al.20082012Bay and De-Leon, 2010]. Given the ubiquitous presence of PTBIF, treatment or management of fatigue is important to improve the patient’s quality of life after TBI. However, the effectiveness of currently available treatments is limited.

Although pharmacological interventions such as piracetam, creatine, monoaminergic stabilizer OSU6162, and methylphenidate can alleviate fatigue, adverse effects limit their usage and further research is needed to clarify their effects [Hakkarainen and Hakamies, 1978Sakellaris et al.2008Johansson et al. 2012b2014]. Therefore, many researchers have attempted to identify complementary and alternative interventions to relieve PTBIF [Bateman et al. 2001Hodgson et al. 2005Gemmell and Leathem, 2006Hassett et al. 2009Johansson et al. 2012aBjörkdahl et al. 2013Sinclair et al. 2014]. In this study, we aimed to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment of PTBIF using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to provide practical recommendations for this syndrome. […]

 

Continue —>  Complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue management after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review – Gang-Zhu Xu, Yan-Feng Li, Mao-De Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, 2017

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[Abstract] Enhancing clinical implementation of virtual reality

Abstract:

Despite an emerging evidence base and rapid increases in the development of clinically accessible virtual reality (VR) technologies for rehabilitation, clinical adoption remains low. This paper uses the Theoretical Domains Framework to structure an overview of the known barriers and facilitators to clinical uptake of VR and discusses knowledge translation strategies that have been identified or used to target these factors to facilitate adoption. Based on this discussion, we issue a ‘call to action’ to address identified gaps by providing actionable recommendations for development, research and clinical implementation.

Source: Enhancing clinical implementation of virtual reality – IEEE Xplore Document

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[ARTICLE] Using Xbox kinect motion capture technology to improve clinical rehabilitation outcomes for balance and cardiovascular health in an individual with chronic TBI – Full Text

Abstract

Background

Motion capture virtual reality-based rehabilitation has become more common. However, therapists face challenges to the implementation of virtual reality (VR) in clinical settings. Use of motion capture technology such as the Xbox Kinect may provide a useful rehabilitation tool for the treatment of postural instability and cardiovascular deconditioning in individuals with chronic severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Kinect-based VR intervention using commercially available motion capture games on balance outcomes for an individual with chronic TBI. The secondary purpose was to assess the feasibility of this intervention for eliciting cardiovascular adaptations.

Methods

A single system experimental design (n = 1) was utilized, which included baseline, intervention, and retention phases. Repeated measures were used to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise intervention using two Xbox One Kinect games. Balance was characterized using the dynamic gait index (DGI), functional reach test (FRT), and Limits of Stability (LOS) test on the NeuroCom Balance Master. The LOS assesses end-point excursion (EPE), maximal excursion (MXE), and directional control (DCL) during weight-shifting tasks. Cardiovascular and activity measures were characterized by heart rate at the end of exercise (HRe), total gameplay time (TAT), and time spent in a therapeutic heart rate (TTR) during the Kinect intervention. Chi-square and ANOVA testing were used to analyze the data.

Results

Dynamic balance, characterized by the DGI, increased during the intervention phase χ 2 (1, N = 12) = 12, p = .001. Static balance, characterized by the FRT showed no significant changes. The EPE increased during the intervention phase in the backward direction χ 2 (1, N = 12) = 5.6, p = .02, and notable improvements of DCL were demonstrated in all directions. HRe (F (2,174) = 29.65, p = < .001) and time in a TTR (F (2, 12) = 4.19, p = .04) decreased over the course of the intervention phase.

Conclusions

Use of a supervised Kinect-based program that incorporated commercial games improved dynamic balance for an individual post severe TBI. Additionally, moderate cardiovascular activity was achieved through motion capture gaming. Further studies appear warranted to determine the potential therapeutic utility of commercial VR games in this patient population.

Trial registration

Clinicaltrial.gov ID – NCT02889289

Background

The last two decades demonstrated an exponential trend in the implementation of virtual reality (VR) in clinical settings [1]. Researchers and clinicians alike are enticed by the potential of this technology to enhance neuroplasticity secondary to rehabilitation interventions. Currently, Nintendo Wii, Sony PlayStation, and Microsoft Xbox offer commercially developed semi-immersive VR platforms which are used for rehabilitation [2]. Several studies report positive effects of these commercial technologies for improving balance, coordination and strength [345]. In 2010, Microsoft introduced a novel infrared camera that works on the Xbox platform called Kinect. The Kinect camera replaces hand held remote controls through the use of whole body motion capture technology.

Whole body motion capture VR allows a unique opportunity for individuals to experience a heightened sense of realism during task-specific therapeutic activities. However, clinicians need to be able to match a game’s components to an individual’s functional deficits. Seamon et al. [6] provided a clinical demonstration of how the Kinect platform can be used with Gentiles taxonomy for progressively challenging postural stability and influencing motor learning in a patient with progressive supranuclear palsy. Similarly, Levac et al. [7] developed a clinical framework titled, “Kinecting with Clinicians” (KWiC) to broadly address implementation barriers. The KWiC resource describes mini-games from Kinect Adventures on the Xbox 360 in order to provide a comprehensive document for clinicians to reference. Clinicians can use KWiC to base game selection and play on their client’s goals and the therapist’s plan of care for that individual.

In parallel with knowledge translation research, several studies found postural control improvements in multiple diagnostic groups including individuals with chronic stroke [8910], Friedrich’s Ataxia [11], multiple sclerosis [12], Parkinson’s disease [13], and mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) [14] when using Kinect based rehabilitation. Additional research shows that exercising with the Kinect system can reach an appropriate intensity for cardiovascular adaptation. For example, Neves et al. [15] and Salonini et al. [16] reported increases in exercise heart rate and blood pressure in healthy individuals and children with cystic fibrosis while playing Kinect games. Similarly, Kafri et al. [17] reported the ability of individuals post-stroke to reach levels of light to moderate intensity using Kinect games.

Individuals with TBI are likely to have a peak aerobic capacity 65–74% to that of healthy control subjects [18]. There is limited research on cardiovascular training after severe TBI [18]. However, Bateman et al. [19] demonstrated that individuals with severe TBI can improve cardiovascular fitness during a 12-week program participants exercised at an intensity equal to 60–80% of their maximum heart rate 3 days per week. Commercial Xbox Kinect games, such as Just Dance 3, have been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes for individuals with chronic stroke [20]. However, there is a lack of research investigating the efficacy of motion capture VR on cardiovascular health for individuals with chronic severe TBI. Walker et al. [21] makes the recommendation for rehabilitation programs to go beyond independence in basic mobility and to develop treatment strategies to address high-level physical activities. The high rates of sedentary behavior in individuals across all severities of TBI could be attributed the lack of addressing these limitations in activity.

Postural instability is the second most frequent, self-reported limitation, 5 years post injury for individuals with severe TBI [22]. It is unknown whether use of motion capture VR in individuals with severe, chronic TBI can address neuromotor impairments related to high-level activities such as maintaining postural control during walking. Similarly, there is a need to determine if training with VR motion capture can attain necessary intensity levels for inducing cardiovascular adaptation. Due to this knowledge gap and heterogencity of individuals post TBI, feasibility of investigatory interventions should be explored prior to examining effectiveness with randomized control trials. Single system experimental design (SSED) provides a higher level of rigor compared to case studies based on the ability to compare outcomes across phase conditions with the participant acting as their own control. The value of SSED within rehabilitation has been noted by other investigators [2324] making it an attractive design for practitioners aiming to gain insight into novel clinical interventions prior to large scale clinical trials. The purpose of this proof of concept and feasibility study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available Xbox One Kinect games as a treatment modality for the rehabilitation of balance and cardiovascular fitness for a veteran with chronic severe TBI. Additionally, we provide herein a description of the Kinect games to assist providers with clinical implementation. […]

Continue —>  Using Xbox kinect motion capture technology to improve clinical rehabilitation outcomes for balance and cardiovascular health in an individual with chronic TBI | Archives of Physiotherapy | Full Text

 

Fig. 1 Dynamic gait index (DGI) scores across phases with celeration line analyses. Two-standard deviation (2 SD) celeration line was used for chi-square analysis between baseline and intervention phases as no trend present in baseline phase. The celeration line was carried through the retention phase for Chi-square analysis due to presence of upward trend in intervention phase

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[ARTICLE] Complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue management after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review – Full Text

We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the Jadad scale, and the quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A descriptive review was performed.

Ten RCTs of interventions for post-TBI fatigue (PTBIF) that included 10 types of complementary and alternative interventions were assessed in our study. There were four types of physical interventions including aquatic physical activity, fitness-center-based exercise, Tai Chi, and aerobic training. The three types of cognitive and behavioral interventions (CBIs) were cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and computerized working-memory training. The Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) and cranial electrotherapy were the two types of biofeedback therapy, and finally, one type of light therapy was included. Although the four types of intervention included aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training and blue-light therapy showed unequivocally effective results, the quality of evidence was low/very low according to the GRADE system.

The present systematic review of existing RCTs suggests that aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training, and blue-light therapy may be beneficial treatments for PTBIF. Due to the many flaws and limitations in these studies, further controlled trials using these interventions for PTBIF are necessary.

Fatigue is a common phenomenon following traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a reported prevalence ranging from 21% to 80% [Ouellet and Morin, 2006Bushnik et al. 2007Dijkers and Bushnik, 2008Cantor et al. 2012Ponsford et al. 2012], regardless of TBI severity [Ouellet and Morin, 2006Ponsford et al. 2012]. Post-TBI fatigue (PTBIF) refers to fatigue that occurs secondary to TBI, which is generally viewed as a manifestation of ‘central fatigue’. Associated PTBIF symptoms include mental or physical exhaustion and inability to perform voluntary activities, and can be accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sensory overstimulation, pain, and sleepiness [Cantor et al. 2013]. PTBIF appears to be persistent, affects most TBI patients daily, negatively impacts quality of life, and decreases life satisfaction [Olver et al. 1996Cantor et al.20082012Bay and De-Leon, 2010]. Given the ubiquitous presence of PTBIF, treatment or management of fatigue is important to improve the patient’s quality of life after TBI. However, the effectiveness of currently available treatments is limited.

Although pharmacological interventions such as piracetam, creatine, monoaminergic stabilizer OSU6162, and methylphenidate can alleviate fatigue, adverse effects limit their usage and further research is needed to clarify their effects [Hakkarainen and Hakamies, 1978Sakellaris et al.2008Johansson et al. 2012b2014]. Therefore, many researchers have attempted to identify complementary and alternative interventions to relieve PTBIF [Bateman et al. 2001Hodgson et al. 2005Gemmell and Leathem, 2006Hassett et al. 2009Johansson et al. 2012aBjörkdahl et al. 2013Sinclair et al. 2014]. In this study, we aimed to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment of PTBIF using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to provide practical recommendations for this syndrome.

figure

Figure 1. The study selection process for the systematic review.

Continue —> Complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue management after traumatic brain injury: a systematic reviewTherapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders – Gang-Zhu Xu, Yan-Feng Li, Mao-De Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, 2017

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[BOOK] Improving Functional Outcomes in Physical Rehabilitation – Google Books

Front Cover

Improving Functional Outcomes in Physical Rehabilitation

By Susan B O’Sullivan, Thomas J Schmitz

Here is a practical, step-by-step guide to understanding the treatment process and selecting the most appropriate intervention for your patient. Superbly illustrated, in-depth coverage shows you how to identify functional deficits, determine what treatments are appropriate, and then to implement them to achieve the best functional outcome for your patients.

 

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[ARTICLE] Strategy Training Shows Promise for Addressing Disability in the First 6 Months After Stroke

Abstract

Background. Cognitive impairments occur frequently after stroke and contribute to significant disability. Strategy training shows promise but has not been examined in the acute phase of recovery.

Objective. We conducted a single-blind randomized pilot study estimating the effect of strategy training, relative to reflective listening (attention control), for reducing disability and executive cognitive impairments.

Methods. Thirty participants with acute stroke who were enrolled in inpatient rehabilitation and had cognitive impairments were randomized to receive strategy training (n = 15, 10 sessions as adjunct to usual inpatient rehabilitation) or reflective listening (n = 15, same dose). The Functional Independence Measure assessed disability at baseline, rehabilitation discharge, 3, and 6 months. The Color Word Interference Test of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System assessed selected executive cognitive impairments (inhibition, flexibility) at baseline, 3, and 6 months.

Results. Changes in Functional Independence Measure scores for the 2 groups over 6 months showed significant effects of group (F1,27 = 9.25, P = .005), time (F3,74 = 96.00, P < .001), and group * time interactions (F3,74 = 4.37, P < .007) after controlling for baseline differences in stroke severity (F1,27 = 6.74, P = .015). Color Word Interference Inhibition scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26 = 6.50, P = .017) and time (F2,34 = 4.74, P = .015), but the group * time interaction was not significant (F2,34 = 2.55, P = .093). Color Word Interference Cognitive Flexibility scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26 = 23.41, P < .001), time (F2,34 = 12.77, P < .001), and group * time interactions (F2,34 = 7.83, P < .002). Interaction effects suggested greater improvements were associated with strategy training.

Conclusions. Strategy training shows promise for addressing disability in the first 6 months after stroke. Lessons from this pilot study may inform future clinical trials.

via Strategy Training Shows Promise for Addressing Disability in the First 6 Months After Stroke.

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[Bachelor thesis] “Wii-habilitation”: The use of motion based game consoles in stroke rehabilitation; a systematic review – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Background: Current motor rehabilitation strategies for people who suffered a stroke focus on occupational therapy and physiotherapy and rely on repetitive, intensive and task-oriented training of the body parts that are affected by functional impairments. Though these training methods are generally effective, rehabilitation therapy is often perceived as monotonous and mundane, which could result in an incomplete recovery as patients lack in motivation to do the training exercises as recommended. Motionbased gaming consoles as the Nintendo Wii offer several ways for deployment that can help to facilitate the recovery of motor functionality and increase patient motivation. A great number of health practitioners affirm that the Wii is a feasible tool for stroke rehabilitation purposes. Still, relevant research that focuses on an assessment of the feasibility of the system is limited and there is a need for more comprehensive work in this field.

Objective: This systematic review aims at summarizing the scientific work that is done in the field of integrating the Nintendo Wii into rehabilitation interventions for stroke patients.

Methods: The review is based on a systematic literature search that was focused on interventions that make use of games and game elements in health contexts. The initial search yielded 4556 publications that were subsequently screened with regard to their relevance for this review, by using several established eligibility criteria. The use of these criteria ensured that the studies, that were featured in this review included a discrete intervention that was aimed at stroke rehabilitation and incorporated the Nintendo Wii. The data that were extracted from these studies were categorized into 5 different fields, namely study characteristics, intervention characteristics, evaluation of outcome measures, major advantages and limitations.

Results: The final outcome of the screening phases yielded a number of 9 publications that met all of the established criteria for the inclusion in this systematic review. The major results that were derived from these interventions showed that Wii-based stroke therapy leads to significant improvements in motor functionality and increases patient motivation and engagement. Major advantages of the Wii system include the absence of adverse effects and the possibility that the Wii can be used for patients in the chronic phase post-stroke. Major limitations were identified as the Wii-gaming exercises required constant supervision and additional input from therapists and the integrated game feedback was not sensitive to measure a patient´s performance and progress in a compatible way.

Conclusions: The findings of this research suggest that the Nintendo Wii is a feasible tool for stroke rehabilitation purposes that can keep up with traditional therapy approaches with regard to the functional outcomes and succeeds in enhancing active participation in the therapy sessions. The use of the system holds limitations in the field of home deployment as it requires constant attendance by healthcare professionals. Still, the results of this study suggest that the system is feasible for a wide-scaled integration into stroke therapy 

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