Posts Tagged mCIMT

[Abstract] Rehabilitation Interventions for Upper Limb Function in the First Four Weeks Following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Evidence

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the therapeutic interventions reported in the research literature and synthesize their effectiveness in improving upper limb (UL) function in the first 4 weeks poststroke.

Data Sources

Electronic databases and trial registries were searched from inception until June 2016, in addition to searching systematic reviews by hand.

Study Selection

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and interventional studies with pre/posttest design were included for adults within 4 weeks of any type of stroke with UL impairment. Participants all received an intervention of any physiotherapeutic or occupational therapeutic technique designed to address impairment or activity of the affected UL, which could be compared with usual care, sham, or another technique.

Data Extraction

Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility of full texts, and methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

Data Synthesis

A total of 104 trials (83 RCTs, 21 nonrandomized studies) were included (N=5225 participants). Meta-analyses of RCTs only (20 comparisons) and narrative syntheses were completed. Key findings included significant positive effects for modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) (standardized mean difference [SMD]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], .21–1.97) and task-specific training (SMD=.37; 95% CI, .05–.68). Evidence was found to support supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical stimulation. Use of Bobath therapy was not supported.

Conclusions

Use of mCIMT and task-specific training was supported, as was supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical simulation, within the acute phase poststroke. Further high-quality studies into the initial 4 weeks poststroke are needed to determine therapies for targeted functional UL outcomes.

 

via Rehabilitation Interventions for Upper Limb Function in the First Four Weeks Following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Evidence – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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[ARTICLE] The Functional Recovery and the Associated Cortical Reorganization Following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapies (CIMTs) in Stroke. – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapies (CIMTs) including the original Constraint- Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and the Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT) gained considerable popularity as a treatment approach for upper extremity rehabilitation among patients with mild-to-moderate stroke.

However, a major barrier in rehabilitation generally and in CIMTs specifically; is the limited objectivity of some commonly used outcome measures and lack sensitivity to define “True” recovery vs. compensation. Thereby, they may not sufficiently detect of long term consequences and the associated neurological recovery. An essential approach to overcome such barrier is to better understand functional motor recovery, associated neural changes and how they may relate to recovery of the pre-morbid movement pattern.

Such Understanding for these relationships would add more in-depth insights on the
functional relevance of plastic brain changes in stroke following CIMTs to optimize the field of neuro-rehabilitation. This review synthesizes findings from studies to on the use of the CIMTs including CIMT and mCIMT as efficient practice in the management of upper limb dysfunction following a stroke. The analysis will include (1) the functional recovery and (2) the cortical reorganization following the use of mCIMT and CIMT on patients in the chronic stage following stroke.

Introduction

Stroke is considered the fifth leading cause of death in the United
States [1]. To date, stroke affects at least 6.4 million persons in the United
States [2]. Projections show that by 2030, an additional 3.4 million
people above 18 years will have had a stroke which is approximately a
20.5% increase in prevalence from 2012 statistics [1]. Stroke is a leading
cause of serious long-term disability in the United States [1].

Arm paresis is one of the most common impairments after stroke
[3,4]. After six months, about two-thirds of patients continue to suffer
from arm sensorimotor impairment that impacts the individual’s
activities of daily living [5]. Motor deficits consist of weakness of
specific muscles [6], abnormal muscle tone [7-9], abnormal postural
adjustments [10], abnormal movement synergies [11], lack of mobility
between structures at the shoulder girdle [10] and incorrect timing
of components within a movement pattern [12]. As a result of such
impairment, patients may progressively avoid using the affected arm in
favor of the unaffected arm for successful ADL, resulting in a learned
non-use phenomenon [13].[…]

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[Abstract] Functional outcome, Rehabilitation, Upper extremity function

Abstract

Introduction: Paretic upper limb in stroke patients has a significant impact on the quality of life. Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT) is one of the treatment options used for the improvement of the function of the paretic limb.

Aim: To investigate the efficacy of four week duration mCIMT in the management of upper extremity weakness in hemiparetic patients due to stroke.

Materials and Methods: Prospective single blind, parallel randomized controlled trial in which 30 patients received conventional rehabilitation programme (control group) and 30 patients participated in a mCIMT programme in addition to the conventional rehabilitation programme (study group). The mCIMT included three hours therapy sessions emphasizing the affected arm use in general functional tasks, three times a week for four weeks. Their normal arm was also constrained for five hours per day over five days per week. All the patients were assessed at baseline, one month and three months after completion of therapy using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score for upper extremity and Motor Activity Log (MAL) scale comprising of Amount of Use (AOU) score and Quality of Use (QOU) score.

Results: All the 3 scores improved significantly in both the groups at each follow-up. Post-hoc analysis revealed that compared to conventional rehabilitation group, mCIMT group showed significantly better scores at 1 month {FMA1 (p-value <0.0001, es0.2870), AOU1 (p-value 0.0007, es0.1830), QOU1 (p-value 0.0015, es0.1640)} and 3 months {FMA3 (p-value <.0001, es0.4240), AOU3 (p-value 0.0003, es 0.2030), QOU3 (p-value 0.0008, es 0.1790)}.

Conclusion: Four weeks duration for mCIMT is effective in improving the motor function in paretic upper limb of stroke patients.

Source: JCDR – Functional outcome, Rehabilitation, Upper extremity function

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[Abstract] Efficacy of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in acute stroke

BACKGROUND: Modified constraint induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) discourages the use of the unaffected extremity and encourages the active use of the hemiplegic arm in order to restore the motor function. AIM: The aim was to assess the efficacy of m-CIMT on functional recovery of upper extremity (UE) in acute stroke patients, as compared to conventional rehabilitation therapy.

DESIGN: This is a prospective comparative study.

SETTING: This study included sixty patients with acute stroke recruited from neurology department.

METHODS: This study included sixty acute stroke patients. Inclusion criteria were: patients within two weeks from the onset of stroke, persistent hemiparesis leading to impaired upper extremity function, evidence of preserved cognitive function, and a minimum of 10 degrees of active finger extension and 20 degrees of active wrist extension. Exclusion criteria were: intra-cerebral hemorrhage, previous stroke on the same side, presence of neglect or a degree of aphasia impeding understanding of instructions, and conditions that limit the use of the upper limb before the stroke. Patients were assessed by Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA), action research arm test (ARAT) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs), recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) of the affected hand. The clinical and neurophysiological tests were performed pre and postrehabilitation. The patients were divided into two groups: conventional rehabilitation program group (CRP) included 30 patients who were given a conventional rehabilitation program for two weeks. CIMT group included 30 patients who were subjected to modified CIMT for two consecutive weeks. Total treatment time was the same in both groups.

RESULTS: CRP group showed a non-significant improvement in FMA and ARAT. CIMT group showed a significant improvement in clinical scores on all tests (p < 0.05). When comparing both groups using FMA and ARAT tests pre- and post- therapy, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between both groups with CIMT group showing greater improvement. When comparing MEPs in CRP group, pre and postrehabilitation, a non-significant improvement was found for resting motor threshold (RMT), central motor conduction time (CMCT) and amplitude of MEPs. In contrast, each of the MEP parameters exhibited a significant improvement in CIMT group (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In contrast to conventional rehabilitation therapy, modified CIMT revealed a significant functional and MEP improvement in acute stroke patients indicating that m-CIMT might be a more efficient treatment strategy.

CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: It is advised to use modified constraint movement therapy in rehabilitation of cerebrovascular stroke during acute stage.

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Source: PEDro – Search Detailed Search Results

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[ARTICLE] Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Compared to Traditional Therapy in Chronic Post-stroke patients – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Introduction: Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) forces the use of the affected side by restraining the unaffected side. The purpose of this article is to explore the changes of motor and functional performance after modified CIMT (mCIMT) in comparison with traditional rehabilitation (TR) in chronic post-stroke patients.

Material and Methods: A total of 12 patients randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Six patients in the mCIMT group received intensive training in a more affected limb for 2 hours daily, 5 days/week using shaping method over a period of 21 days. Participants less affected limb were restrained in arm – hand splint with a target of wearing it for 5 hours daily. The patients in TR group received bimanual and unilateral activities, stretching, strengthening and coordination exercises of the impaired side, tone modification and coordination exercises of the affected side. The focus was to increase independence in activities of daily living activities using affected side. The motor activity log (MAL), wolf motor function test (WMFT), and modified ashworth scale were measured at pre-test (1 day before training), posttest (1 day after training) and follow-up in 3 weeks after training.

Results: The Friedman test found significant differences between pre-test, post-test, and follow-up in MAL and WMFT in mCIMT group. Furthermore, mCIMT group showed significant decreased spasticity (P = 0.030) that measured by ash worth scale. The effect sizes between post-test and pre-test in the above-mentioned outcome measures were moderate to large in mCIMT, ranging from 0.3 to 0.76, but in TR group the effect size were small, ranging from 0 to 0.2.

Conclusion: Therefore, it seems that the mCIMT treatment was more effective than TR in improving some parameters.

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[ARTICLE] Adherence to modified constraint-induced movement therapy: the case for meaningful occupation – Full Text

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) has been shown to improve function of an affected upper limb post stroke. However, factors influencing adherence of individuals undertaking a mCIMT protocol require further investigation.

AIM: To explore the experience of two participants undergoing a mCIMT protocol and examine factors influencing adherence to the protocol.

METHODS: A qualitative case study design was used. Two participants with upper limb hemiparesis following a stroke were recruited and received mCIMT (two hours of therapy, three days per week for a total of two weeks). During the treatment period, participants were also encouraged to wear the restraint mitt for four hours per day at home.

RESULTS: Participants reported increased confidence and self-esteem following participation, as well as improvements in bi-lateral upper limb function. Participants reported the mCIMT protocol as being highly frustrating. However, motivation to adhere to the protocol was positively influenced by the meaningfulness of the occupations attempted.

CONCLUSION: Although mCIMT can prove frustrating, meaningful occupations may act as a powerful motivator towards adherence to a mCIMT protocol. Further research is required.

WHAT GAP THIS FILLS

What is already known: The literature on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and its modifications (mCIMT), to improve motor issues post stroke, is broad and conclusive. However, the demands and rigor of CIMT or mCIMT can influence compliance negatively.
What this study adds: This study offers an insight into the experience of undergoing mCIMT. In relation to client motivation and adherence to protocol, it highlights the importance of meaningful and psychologically rewarding occupations.

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[ARTICLE] Effects of Unilateral Upper Limb Training in Two Distinct Prognostic Groups Early After Stroke – Full Text

Abstract

Background and Objective. Favorable prognosis of the upper limb depends on preservation or return of voluntary finger extension (FE) early after stroke. The present study aimed to determine the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (EMG-NMS) on upper limb capacity early poststroke.

Methods. A total of 159 ischemic stroke patients were included: 58 patients with a favorable prognosis (>10° of FE) were randomly allocated to 3 weeks of mCIMT or usual care only; 101 patients with an unfavorable prognosis were allocated to 3-week EMG-NMS or usual care only. Both interventions started within 14 days poststroke, lasted up until 5 weeks, focused at preservation or return of FE.

Results. Upper limb capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), assessed weekly within the first 5 weeks poststroke and at postassessments at 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Clinically relevant differences in ARAT in favor of mCIMT were found after 5, 8, and 12 weeks poststroke (respectively, 6, 7, and 7 points; P < .05), but not after 26 weeks. We did not find statistically significant differences between mCIMT and usual care on impairment measures, such as the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the arm (FMA-UE). EMG-NMS did not result in significant differences.

Conclusions. Three weeks of early mCIMT is superior to usual care in terms of regaining upper limb capacity in patients with a favorable prognosis; 3 weeks of EMG-NMS in patients with an unfavorable prognosis is not beneficial. Despite meaningful improvements in upper limb capacity, no evidence was found that the time-dependent neurological improvements early poststroke are significantly influenced by either mCIMT or EMG-NMS.

Introduction

Several prospective cohort studies among stroke patients have shown that the functional outcome of the upper limb is largely defined within the first 5 weeks poststroke and is mainly driven by (yet poorly understood) mechanisms of spontaneous neurological recovery.1,2 Observational studies showed that the presence of some voluntary finger extension (FE) within 72 hours is a favorable indicator for the return of dexterity poststroke.3,4 This suggests that early control of FE is an important prognostic factor in stratifying patients for upper limb intervention trials early poststroke.2

For those with a favorable prognosis, indicated by some voluntary FE early poststroke, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) or a modified version (mCIMT) may benefit arm-hand activities and self-reported hand function in daily life.5The number of phase II trials on mCIMT within the first days or weeks poststroke is however small and findings are rather inconclusive. For example, Dromerick et al6showed in a proof of concept trial that 1 or 2 hours mCIMT per working day for 2 weeks was not superior to an equal dosage of usual care, whereas a high dose of 3 hours mCIMT per working day resulted in less improvement on functional outcome measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 3 months poststroke.

For those with an unfavorable prognosis for functional outcome at 6 months, that is, patients without voluntary FE,1,3,4 no evidence-based therapies have been reported so far. In subacute and chronic stroke, innovative therapies such as electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (EMG-NMS) of the finger extensors to improve voluntary control have shown promise in terms of increasing active range of motion.711 Furthermore, several studies suggest that EMG-NMS may produce changes in cortical activation patterns and excitability in chronic stroke.12,13 For example, Shin et al13 showed in a small proof of concept trial (n = 14) that a daily 30-minute program for 10 weeks shifted cortical activation patterns as seen in functional magnetic resonance imaging from the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in chronic stroke. Despite the growing evidence for enhanced levels of homeostatic neuroplasticity in the first weeks poststroke,14 early started EMG-NMS trials for patients without FE are lacking in this restricted time window.

The first objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an early mCIMT program on recovery of upper limb capacity during the first 6 months, starting within 14 days poststroke in patients with some voluntary FE. Our second objective was to investigate the effects of early EMG-NMS on the recovery of voluntary FE and upper limb capacity during the first 6 months, starting within 14 days poststroke in patients with no voluntary control of the finger extensors. We hypothesized that an intensive 3-week mCIMT program would result in a clinically meaningful improvement in ARAT scores compared with usual care alone. For the patients with an unfavorable prognosis we hypothesized that a higher percentage of patients (10% or more increase) would regain some dexterity (ARAT score >9 points on a maximum of 57 points) if they received intensive daily EMG-NMS for 3 weeks, compared with usual care alone.

Continue —>  Effects of Unilateral Upper Limb Training in Two Distinct Prognostic Groups Early After Stroke

 

Figure 1. Inclusion flow diagram. The total amount of patients with cerebrovascular accidents was estimated using the number of admitted patients in each participating center. mCIMT: modified constrained-induced movement therapy; EMG-NMS, electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation.

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[ARTICLE] Effectiveness of Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy and Bilateral Arm Training on Upper Extremity Function after Chronic Stroke: A Comparative Study – Full Text PDF

ABSTRACT

Statement of the Problem: Upper limb hemiparesis is a common impairment underlying disability after Stroke. Transfer of treatment to daily functioning remains a question for traditional approaches used in treatment of upper extremity hemiparesis. Approaches based on Motor Learning principles may facilitate the transfer of treatment to activities of daily living.
Methodology: Forty one subjects with chronic stroke, attending department of occupational therapy, National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, Kolkata, West Bengal, India participated in a single blinded randomized pre-test and post-test control group training study. Subjects were randomized over three intervention groups receiving modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (n = 13), Bilateral Arm training (n = 14), and an equally intensive conventional treatment program (n = 14). Subjects in the bilateral arm training group participated in bilateral symmetrical activities, where as subjects in constraint induced movement therapy group performed functional activities with the affected arm only and conventional group received conventional Occupational Therapy. Each group received intensive training for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. Pre-treatment and post-treatment measures included the Fugl-Meyer measurement of physical performance (FMA- upper extremity section), action research arm test, motor activity log. Assessments were administered by a rater blinded to group assignment.
Result: Both m-CIMT (p = 0.01) and bilateral arm training (p = 0.01) group showed statistically significant improvement in upper extremity functioning on Action Research Arm Test score in comparison to the conventional therapy group (p = 0.33). The bilateral arm training group had significantly greater improvement in upper arm function (Proximal Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, p = 0.001); while the constraint induced movement therapy group had greater improvement of hand functions (Distal Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, p = 0.001. There is an improvement seen in Quality of movement in the Conventional Therapy group. (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Both the treatment techniques can be used for upper extremity management in patients with chronic stroke. Bilateral arm training may be used to improve upper arm function and m-CIMT may be used to improve hand functions, while the group that received modified constraint induced movement therapy had greater improvement.

References

[1] Whittal, J., McCombe Waller, S., Silver, K.H.C., et al. (2000) Repetitive Bilateral Arm Training with Rhythmic Auditory Cueing Improves Motor Function in Chronic Stroke. Stroke, 31, 2390-2395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.31.10.2390
[2] Bonifer, N.M., Anderson, K.M., Arciniegas, D.B., et al. (2005) Constraint Induced Movement Therapy for Stroke: Efficacy for Patients with Minimal Upper Extremity Motor Ability. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1867-1872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.04.002
[3] Radomski, M.V. and Trombly Latham, C.A. (2008) Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction. 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
[4] Taub, E., Uswatte, G. and Pidikiti, R. (1999) Constraint Induced Movement Therapy, a New Family of Techniques with Broad Application to Physical Rehabilitation—A Clinical Review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 36, 273-251.
[5] Dobkin, B.H. (2005) Clinical Practice. Rehabilitation after Stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 1677- 1684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp043511
[6] Taub, E., et al. (1993) Techniques to Improve Chronic Motor Deficits after Stroke. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 347-354.
[7] Page, S.J., Levine, P., Sisto, S., et al. (2002) Stroke Patients and Therapists Opinions of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy. Clinical Rehabilitation, 16, 55-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0269215502cr473oa
[8] Page, S.J., Sisto, S., Levine, P. and McGrath, R.E. (2004) Efficacy of Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy in Chronic Stroke: A Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 14-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(03)00481-7
[9] Luft, A.R., McCombe-Waller, S., Whitall, J. et al. (2004) Repetitive Bilateral Arm Training and Motor Cortex Activation in Chronic Stroke. JAMA, 292, 1853-1861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.15.1853
[10] Uswatte, G. and Taub, E. (1999) Constraint Induced Movement Therapy. New Approaches to Outcome Measurement in Rehabilitation. In: Struss, D.T., Winocur, G. and Robertson, I.H., Eds., Cognitive Neurorehabilitation, a Comprehensive Approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 215-29
[11] Fugl-Meyer, A.R., et al. (1975) The Post Stroke Hemiplegic Patient. I. A Method for Evaluation of Physical Performance. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 7, 13-31.
[12] Vander Lee, J.H., Beckermen, H., Lankhorst, G.J. and Breter, L.M. (2001) The Responsiveness of the Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Physical Performance Scale in Chronic Stroke Patients. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 33, 110-113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/165019701750165916
[13] Vander Lee, J.H., Wagenaar, R.C., Lankhorst, G.J., et al. (1999) Forced Use of the Upper Extremity in Chronic Stroke Patients: Results from a Single Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Stroke, 30, 2369-2375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.30.11.2369
[14] Staines, W.R., McIlroy, W.E., Graham, S.J. and Black, S.E. (2001) Bilateral Movement Enhances Ipsilesional Cortical Activity in Acute Stroke: A Pilot Functional MRI Study. Neurology, 56, 401-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.56.3.401
[15] Kelso, J.A.S., Putnam, C.A. and Goodman, D. (1983) On the Space-Time Structure of Human Inter Limb Coordination. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section, 35A, 347-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14640748308402139
[16] Carr, J. and Shepherd, R. (1998) Neurological Rehabilitation: Optimizing Motor Performance. Butterworth-Heineman, Edinburgh, 241-264.
[17] Levine, P. and Page, S.J. (2004) Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy: A Promising Restorative out Patient Therapy. Top Stroke Rehabilitation, 11, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/R4HN-51MW-JFYK-2JAN

Source: Effectiveness of Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy and Bilateral Arm Training on Upper Extremity Function after Chronic Stroke: A Comparative Study

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[Abstract] Effects of Unilateral Upper Limb Training in Two Distinct Prognostic Groups Early After Stroke

Abstract

Background and Objective. Favorable prognosis of the upper limb depends on preservation or return of voluntary finger extension (FE) early after stroke. The present study aimed to determine the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (EMG-NMS) on upper limb capacity early poststroke.

Methods. A total of 159 ischemic stroke patients were included: 58 patients with a favorable prognosis (>10° of FE) were randomly allocated to 3 weeks of mCIMT or usual care only; 101 patients with an unfavorable prognosis were allocated to 3-week EMG-NMS or usual care only. Both interventions started within 14 days poststroke, lasted up until 5 weeks, focused at preservation or return of FE.

Results. Upper limb capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), assessed weekly within the first 5 weeks poststroke and at postassessments at 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Clinically relevant differences in ARAT in favor of mCIMT were found after 5, 8, and 12 weeks poststroke (respectively, 6, 7, and 7 points; P < .05), but not after 26 weeks. We did not find statistically significant differences between mCIMT and usual care on impairment measures, such as the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the arm (FMA-UE). EMG-NMS did not result in significant differences.

Conclusions. Three weeks of early mCIMT is superior to usual care in terms of regaining upper limb capacity in patients with a favorable prognosis; 3 weeks of EMG-NMS in patients with an unfavorable prognosis is not beneficial. Despite meaningful improvements in upper limb capacity, no evidence was found that the time-dependent neurological improvements early poststroke are significantly influenced by either mCIMT or EMG-NMS.

Source: Effects of Unilateral Upper Limb Training in Two Distinct Prognostic Groups Early After Stroke

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[Abstract] The efficacy of Wii-based Movement Therapy for upper limb rehabilitation in the chronic poststroke period: a randomized controlled trial

Background: More effective and efficient rehabilitation is urgently needed to address the prevalence of unmet rehabilitation needs after stroke. This study compared the efficacy of two poststroke upper limb therapy protocols.

Aims and/or hypothesis: We tested the hypothesis that Wii-based movement therapy would be as effective as modified constraint-induced movement therapy for post-stroke upper-limb motor rehabilitation.

Methods: Forty-one patients, 2–46 months poststroke, completed a 14-day program of Wii-based Movement Therapy or modified Constraint-induced Movement Therapy in a dose-matched, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial, conducted in a research institute or patient’s homes. Primary outcome measures were the Wolf Motor Function Test timed-tasks and Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement scale. Patients were assessed at prebaseline (14 days pretherapy), baseline, post-therapy, and six-month follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models and repeated measures analysis of variance.

Results: There were no differences between groups for either primary outcome at any time point. Motor function was stable between prebaseline and baseline (P > 0·05), improved with therapy (P  0·05). Wolf Motor Function Test timed-tasks log times improved from 2·1 ± 0·22 to 1·7 ± 0·22 s after Wii-based Movement Therapy, and 2·6 ± 0·23 to 2·3 ± 0·24 s after modified Constraint-induced Movement Therapy. Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement scale scores improved from 67·7 ± 6·07 to 102·4 ± 6·48 after Wii-based Movement Therapy and 64·1 ± 7·30 to 93·0 ± 5·95 after modified Constraint-induced Movement Therapy (mean ± standard error of the mean). Patient preference, acceptance, and continued engagement were higher for Wii-based Movement Therapy than modified Constraint-induced Movement Therapy.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that Wii-based Movement Therapy is an effective upper limb rehabilitation poststroke with high patient compliance. It is as effective as modified Constraint-induced Movement Therapy for improving more affected upper limb movement and increased independence in activities of daily living.

Source: The efficacy of Wii-based Movement Therapy for upper limb rehabilitation in the chronic poststroke period: a randomized controlled trial – McNulty – 2015 – International Journal of Stroke – Wiley Online Library

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