Posts Tagged Medical treatment

[ARTICLE] Portable Motion-Analysis Device for Upper-Limb Research, Assessment, and Rehabilitation in Non-Laboratory Settings – Full Text

Abstract

This study presents the design and feasibility testing of an interactive portable motion-analysis device for the assessment of upper-limb motor functions in clinical and home settings. The device engages subjects to perform tasks that imitate activities of daily living, e.g. drinking from a cup and moving other complex objects. Sitting at a magnetic table subjects hold a 3D printed cup with an adjustable magnet and move this cup on the table to targets that can be drawn on the table surface. A ball rolling inside the cup can enhance the task challenge by introducing additional dynamics. A single video camera with a portable computer tracks real-time kinematics of the cup and the rolling ball using a custom-developed, color-based computer-vision algorithm. Preliminary verification with marker-based 3D-motion capture demonstrated that the device produces accurate kinematic measurements. Based on the real-time 2D cup coordinates, audio-visual feedback about performance can be delivered to increase motivation. The feasibility of using this device in clinical diagnostics is demonstrated on 2 neurotypical children and also 3 children with upper-extremity impairments in the hospital, where conventional motion-analysis systems are difficult to use. The device meets key needs for clinical practice: 1) a portable solution for quantitative motor assessment for upper-limb movement disorders at non-laboratory clinical settings, 2) a low-cost rehabilitation device that can increase the volume of in-home physical therapy, and 3) the device affords testing and training a variety of motor tasks inspired by daily challenges to enhance self-confidence to participate in day-to-day activities.

SECTION I.

Introduction

An integral part of clinical care for individuals with motor disorders is to assess motor function to guide and evaluate medical treatment, surgical intervention or physical therapy. One of the challenges for assessing motor function is to define sensitive and quantitative measures that can be readily obtained in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to develop a device that affords quantitative assessment of motor impairments in non-laboratory settings. The specific focus is on individuals with upper-limb movement disorders. One central goal was to ground the task in scientific research to relate clinical measures to research and capitalize on insights from fundamental research.

This paper first lays out the need for such a device particularly for children with motor disorders and post-stroke rehabilitation. We then motivate the specific motor task that was originally conceived for basic research on motor control. We then detail the design of the prototype with all hardware and software components so that it can be replicated. One design goal was to make the device low-cost, so that it can be used in many clinical environments including at home for therapeutic exercises. We conclude with first results from pilot experiments acquired both in a traditional laboratory setting and in an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. These first data were obtained from children with dystonia. However, the device is not limited to this population and is currently further modified for the assessment of stroke patients.

A. Clinical Assessments of Motor Disorders

A motor disorder manifests as an impaired ability to execute a movement with the intended spatial and temporal pattern. This includes abnormal posturing, presence of unintended excessive movement, and normal movements occurring at unintended or inappropriate times [1]. Patients with upper-limb impairments require special assistance to perform common motor tasks associated with self-care, such as feeding and dressing. Challenges in their movement control result in frustration, which leads to less engagement and practice, and thereby fewer opportunities to attenuate their motor disabilities and improve their movement control.

Motor disorder are observed also among children. Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a common cause of movement disorders among children, affecting 3 to 4 individuals per 1000 births in the US. The dyskinetic form of CP occurs in 15% of all cases [2]. Due to inflexible postures, caused by muscle spasms and contractures together with involuntary jerky movements, children with dyskinetic CP are often prevented from participation in many daily activities. This also prevents them from acquiring age-appropriate motor skills during critical periods of skill development [3], [4]. This is particularly aggravated when the condition affects the upper limbs.

For clinical motor assessments, the current standard tools are clinical scales. For cerebral palsy, typical tests are the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) [5], the manual ability classification system (MACS) [6], the House Scale [7], the Melbourne Assessment [8], the Assisting Hand Assessment [9], the Hypertonia Assessment Tool (HAT) [10], the Barry-Albright Dystonia (BAD) scale [11], and the Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation [12]. These outcome measures were devised to satisfy the typical criteria for effective outcome measures, including reliability, validity, specificity, and responsiveness [13]. Although useful, these rating scales rely on subjective assessment and questionnaires that are vulnerable to inter-rater and test-retest reliability, nonlinearity, multi-dimensionality, and ceiling or floor effects [14]. These shortcomings need to be overcome by more quantitative outcome measures to provide a better evaluation of the individual’s motor functions and abilities, and potentially utilize such measures to objectvely assess and titrate interventions.

B. Quantitative Assessment of Motor Function

Motion tracking technologies have provided quantitative means of recording movements through a variety of sensing technology that tracks and stores movement. Camera-based motion capture, such as Vicon (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK) and Optitrak (Northern Digital Inc, Ontario, CA) requires external markers or sensors placed on key anatomical landmarks to reconstruct the skeletal model of human body parts. These state-of-the-art technologies track motion to very high precision with high sampling rates and they have been used for pre- and post-treatment assessment of upper- or lower-extremity pathologies. However, such data acquisition is limited to traditional laboratory settings because the multi-camera systems are expensive and not portable.

On the other hand, there are low-cost inertial measurement units (IMUs) that directly measure acceleration, rotational change and magnetic orientation. While these sensors have the advantage that they are self-contained and wearable, drawbacks are degraded accuracy due to drift, calibration errors and noise inherent to inertial sensors and the need to frequently recharge batteries for real-time data streaming [15]. Moreover, attaching sensors to body parts can be inconvenient or even impossible for certain clinical populations, and many children will not tolerate them.

In view of the above arguments, there is a strong need for less invasive devices that can provide quantitative measurements in tasks related to upper-extremeity motor function. Preferably, such a device should allow for portability and be low-cost to reach large populations.

C. Low-Cost Rehabilitation at Home

Rehabilitation follows standard practice and frequently requires one-on-one interaction with a therapist for extended periods of time. For these reasons, robotic devices have emerged to deliver higher-dosage and higher-intensity training for patients with movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke [16]–[17][18][19]. However, while effective, robotic therapy is expensive and to date can only be used in clinical settings. To increase the volume in therapy, lower-cost devices that can be used at home are urgently needed.

Performance improvements with predominant home training are indeed possible. This was demonstrated by pediatric constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for children with hemiparetic CP [20], [21]. Further, it was shown that even children with severe dystonia can improve their performance if they use an interface or device that enables and facilitates their severely handicapped movements [22].

A portable low-cost device for home use that is able to provide reliable quantitative measurements would help address the above shortcomings. Measurements could also be streamed to careproviders on a secure cloud protocol, for diagnosis of interventions, analysis of therapeutic outcomes, and further follow up.

D. Theoretically-Grounded Rehabilitation

Motor tasks for home therapy should be engaging to avoid boredom and attrition and should also have functional relevance. With this goal in mind, we developed a motor task that was motivated by the daily self-feeding activity of leading a cup of coffee or a spoon filled with soup to the mouth. The core challenge of actions of this kind is that moving such an object with sloshing liquid presents complex interaction forces: any force applied to the cup also applies a force to the liquid that then acts back on the hand. When such internal dynamics is present, interaction forces become quite complex, and the human performing the task needs to predict and preempt the internal dynamics of the moving liquid. Clearly, better understanding task is like guiding a cup of coffee to one’s mouth or a spoonful of soup has high functional relevance. While many such functional tasks have been developed for rehabiltation (e.g., the box-and-block and the pegboard task), the quantitative assessment should allow for more than descriptive outcome measures such as error or success rate. Monitoring the ‘process’ continuously should provide more detailed insight into coordinative challenges. This is indeed possible in the task of guiding a cup of coffee as we explain next.

In previous research, we abstracted a relevant, yet simplified model task, inspired by guiding a cup of coffee [23]–[24][25][26]. To reduce the complexity and afford theoretical analyses, the “cup of coffee” was simplified to a rigid object with a rolling ball inside. The rolling ball represents the moving liquid; this is also similar to the children’s game of transporting an egg in a spoon [27]. Fig.1A-C shows the transition from the real object to the simplified physical model. Importantly, the original task (Fig.1A) was reduced to a two-dimensional model, where the subject interacts with the object via a robotic manipulandum. The virtual model consists of a cart with a suspended pendulum, a well-known benchmark problem in control theory.

FIGURE 1.Model for the task of carrying a cup of coffee. A: The real object. B: The simplified physical model. C: The equivalent cart-and pendulum model implemented in the virtual task.

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[Abstract + References] Upper Limb Rehabilitation Therapies Based in Videogames Technology Review

Abstract

Worldwide, stroke is the third cause of physical disability, rehabilitation therapy is a main topic of focus for the recovery of life quality. Rehabilitation of these patients presents great challenges since many of them do not find the motivation to perform the necessary exercises, or do not have the economic resources or the adequate support to receive physiotherapy. For several years now, an alternative that has been in development is game-based rehabilitation, since this could be used in a hospital environment and eventually at patients home. The aim of this review is to present the advances in videogames technology to be used for rehabilitation and training purposes- in preparation for prosthetics fitting or Neuroprosthesis control training–, as well as the devices that are being used to make this alternative more tangible. Videogames technology rehabilitation still has several challenges to work on, more research and development of platforms to have a larger variety of games to engage with different age-range patients is still necessary.
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2. E. Vogiatzaki , Y. Gravezas , N. Dalezios , D. Biswas , A. Cranny , and S. Ortmann , “ Telemedicine System for Game-Based Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients in the FP7- ‘ StrokeBack ’ Project ,” 2014 .

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[Abstract + References] Complex network changes during a virtual reality rehabilitation protocol following stroke: a case study

Abstract

Stroke is one of the main causes of disabilities caused by injuries to the human central nervous system, yielding a wide range of mild to severe impairments that can compromise sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Although rehabilitation protocols may improve function of stroke survivors, patients often reach plateaus while undergoing therapy. Recently, virtual reality (VR) technologies have been paired with traditional rehabilitation aiming to improve function recovery after stroke. Aiming to better understand structural brain changes due to VR rehabilitation protocols, we modeled the brain as a graph and extracted three measures representing the network’s topology: degree, clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality (BC). In this single case study, our results indicate that all metrics increased on the ipsilesional hemisphere, while remaining about the same at the contrale-sional site. Particularly, the number of functional connections increased in the lesion area overtime. In addition, the BC displayed the highest variations, and in brain regions related to the patient’s cognitive and motor impairments; hence, we argue that this measure could be regarded as an indicative for brain plasticity mechanisms.
1. J-H. Shin , H. Ryu & S. H. Jang . A task-specific interactive game-based virtual reality rehabilitation system for patients with stroke: a usability test and two clinical experiments. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2014: 11-32

2. M. S. Cameirão , S. B. i Badia , E. D. Oller & P. F. M. J. Verschure . Neurorehabilitation using the virtual reality based Rehabilitation Gaming System: methodology, design, psychometrics, usability and validation. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2010: 7-48

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5. Page S. J. , Fulk G. D. , Boyne P. Clinically Important Differences for the Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer Scale in People With Minimal to Moderate Impairment Due to Chronic Stroke. Physical Therapy 92(6): 791798, 2012. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20110009

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[Abstract] Towards Bilateral Upper-Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke using Kinect Game – IEEE Conference Publication

Abstract:

This paper presented a game-based rehabilitation of the upper limb after stroke. We designed and developed a game for supporting stroke patients to have an exercise their arms, and the game had functions for recording their playing and showing a performance report. The performance report can infer the progress of bilateral uppper-limb rehabilitation and use for comparing among patient cases. This is because the game used a Kinect device to detect the arm movements in aspect of precision and speed.

 

1. L. Anderson, G. A. Sharp, R. J. Norton, H. Dalal, S. G. Dean, K. Jolly, A. Cowie, A. Zawada, R. S. Taylor, “Home-based versus centre-based cardiac rehabilitation”, The Cochrane Library, 2017.

2. K. Thomson, A. Pollock, C. Bugge, M. C. Brady, “Commercial gaming devices for stroke upper limb rehabilitation: a survey of current practice”, Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 454-461, 2016.

3. L. Y. Joo, T. S. Yin, D. Xu, E. Thia, P. F. Chia, C. W. K. Kuah, K. K. He, “A feasibility study using interactive commercial off-the-shelf computer gaming in upper limb rehabilitation in patients after stroke”, Journal of rehabilitation medicine, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 437-441, 2010.

4. K. Price, “Health promotion and some implications of consumer choice”, Journal of nursing management, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 494-501, 2006.

5. J. A. M. Bravo, P. Paliyawan, T. Harada, R. Thawonmas, “Intelligent assistant for providing instructions and recommending motions during full-body motion gaming”, Consumer Electronics (GCCE) 2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on. IEEE, pp. 1-2, 2017.

 

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[Abstract] Design and Evaluation of a Soft and Wearable Robotic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation

Abstract

In the modern world, due to an increased aging population, hand disability is becoming increasingly common. The prevalence of conditions such as stroke is placing an ever-growing burden on the limited fiscal resources of health care providers and the capacity of their physical therapy staff. As a solution, this paper presents a novel design for a wearable and adaptive glove for patients so that they can practice rehabilitative activities at home, reducing the workload for therapists and increasing the patient’s independence. As an initial evaluation of the design’s feasibility the prototype was subjected to motion analysis to compare its performance with the hand in an assessment of grasping patterns of a selection of blocks and spheres. The outcomes of this paper suggest that the theory of design has validity and may lead to a system that could be successful in the treatment of stroke patients to guide them through finger flexion and extension, which could enable them to gain more control and confidence in interacting with the world around them.

I. Introduction

In the modern world an extended life expectancy coupled with a sedentary lifestyle raises concerns over long term health in the population. This is highlighted by the increasing incidence of disability stemming from multiple sources, for example medical conditions such as cancer or stroke [1]. While avoiding the lifestyle factors that have a high association with these diseases would be the preferred solutions of health services the world over, as populations get progressively older and more sedentary, this becomes increasingly more difficult [1], [2]. The treatment of these conditions is often complex; in stroke for example, the initial incident is a constriction of blood flow in the brain which in turn damages the nervous system’s ability to communicate with the rest of the body. This damage will occur in one hemisphere of the body but can impact both the upper and lower limbs, as well as impairing functional processes such as speech and cognitive thinking.

 

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[Abstract + References] Towards a framework for rehabilitation and assessment of upper limb motor function based on Serious Games – IEEE Conference Publication

Abstract

 Serious Games and Virtual Reality (VR) are being considered at present as an alternative to traditional rehabilitation therapies. In this paper, the ongoing development of a framework focused on rehabilitation and assessment of the upper limb motor function based on serious games as a source of entertainment for physiotherapy patients is described. A set of OpenSource Serious Games for rehabilitation has been developed, using the last version of Microsoft1® Kinect™ as low cost monitoring sensor and the software Unity. These Serious Games captures 3D human body data and it stored them in the patient database to facilitate a later clinical analysis to the therapist. Also, a VR-based system for the automated assessment of motor function based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment Test (FMA) is addressed. The proposed system attempts to be an useful therapeutic tool for tele-rehabilitation in order to reduce the number of patients, time spent and cost to
hospitals.

I. Introduction

Biomechanical analysis is an important feature during the evaluation and clinical diagnosis of motor deficits caused by traumas or neurological diseases. For that reason Motion capture (MoCap) systems are widely used in biomechanical studies, in order to collect position data from anatomical landmarks with high accuracy. Their results are used to estimate joint movements, positions, and muscle forces. These quantitative results improve the tracking of changes in motor functions over time, being more accurately than clinical ratings [1]. For clinical applications, these results are usually transformed into clinically meaningful and interpretable parameters, such as gait speed, motion range of joints and body balance.

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[Abstract] sEMG Bias-driven Functional Electrical Stimulation System for Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation

Abstract:

It is evident that the dominant therapy of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for stroke rehabilitation suffers from heavy dependency on therapists experience and lack of feedback from patients status, which decrease the patients’ voluntary participation, reducing the rehabilitation efficacy. This paper proposes a closed loop FES system using surface electromyography (sEMG) bias feedback from bilateral arms for enhancing upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. This wireless portable system consists of sEMG data acquisition and FES modules, the former is used to measure and analyze the subject’s bilateral arm motion intention and neuromuscular states in terms of their sEMG, the latter of multi-channel FES output is controlled via the sEMG bias of the bilateral arms. The system has been evaluated with experiments proving that the system can achieve 39.9 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the lab environment, outperforming existing similar systems. The results also show that voluntary and active participation can be effectively employed to achieve different FES intensity for FES-assisted hand motions, demonstrating the potential for active stroke rehabilitation.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal ( Early Access ) Date of Publication: 18 June 2018

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[Abstract] Development of a Minimal-Intervention-Based Admittance Control Strategy for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Exoskeleton

Abstract:

The applications of robotics to the rehabilitation training of neuromuscular impairments have received increasing attention due to their promising prospects. The effectiveness of robot-assisted training directly depends on the control strategy applied in the therapy program. This paper presents an upper extremity exoskeleton for the functional recovery training of disabled patients. A minimal-intervention-based admittance control strategy is developed to induce the active participation of patients and maximize the use of recovered motor functions during training. The proposed control strategy can transit among three control modes, including human-conduct mode, robot-assist mode, and motion-restricted mode, based on the real-time position tracking errors of the end-effector. The human-robot interaction in different working areas can be modulated according to the motion intention of patient. Graphical guidance developed in Unity-3-D environment is introduced to provide visual training instructions. Furthermore, to improve training performance, the controller parameters should be adjusted in accordance with the hemiplegia degree of patients. For the patients with severe paralysis, robotic assistance should be increased to guarantee the accomplishment of training. For the patients recovering parts of motor functions, robotic assistance should be reduced to enhance the training intensity of effected limb and improve therapeutic effectiveness. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are validated via training experiments with two healthy subjects and six stroke patients with different degrees of hemiplegia.

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[Abstract] Robot-assisted mirroring exercise as a physical therapy for hemiparesis rehabilitation

Abstract:

The paper suggests a therapeutic device for hemiparesis that combines robot-assisted rehabilitation and mirror therapy. The robot, which consists of a motor, a position sensor, and a torque sensor, is provided not only to the paralyzed wrist, but also to the unaffected wrist to induce a symmetric movement between the joints. As a user rotates his healthy wrist to the direction of either flexion or extension, the motor on the damaged side rotates and reflects the motion of the normal side to the symmetric angular position. To verify performance of the device, five stroke patients joined a clinical experiment to practice a 10-minute mirroring exercise. Subjects on Brunnstrom stage 3 had shown relatively high repulsive torques due to severe spasticity toward their neutral wrist positions with a maximum magnitude of 0.300kgfm, which was reduced to 0.161kgfm after the exercise. Subjects on stage 5 practiced active bilateral exercises using both wrists with a small repulsive torque of 0.052kgfm only at the extreme extensional angle. The range of motion of affected wrist increased as a result of decrease in spasticity. The therapeutic device not only guided a voluntary exercise to loose spasticity and increase ROM of affected wrist, but also helped distinguish patients with different Brunnstrom stages according to the size of repulsive torque and phase difference between the torque and the wrist position.

Source: Robot-assisted mirroring exercise as a physical therapy for hemiparesis rehabilitation – IEEE Conference Publication

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