Posts Tagged motion tracking

[Abstract] Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Lower Extremity Disorders in Post-stroke Patients

Abstract
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on “Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation”.
Objectives: To identify support of a virtual reality system in the kinematic assessment and physiotherapy approach to gait disorders in individuals with stroke.
Methods: We adapt Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System (VRRS), software widely used in the functional recovery of the upper limb, for its use on the lower limb of hemiplegic patients. Clinical scales have been used to relate them with the kinematic assessment provided by the system. A description of the use of reinforced feedback provided by the system on the recovery of deficits in several real cases in the field of physiotherapy is performed. Specific examples of functional tasks have been detailed, to be considered in creating intelligent health technologies to improve post-stroke gait.
Results: Both participants improved scores on the clinical scales, the kinematic parameters in leg stance on plegic lower extremity and walking speed > Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID).
Conclusion: The use of the VRRS software attached to a motion tracking capture system showed their practical utility and safety in enriching physiotherapeutic assessment and treatment in post-stroke gait disorders.

Source: Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Lower Extremity Disorders in Post-stroke Patients

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[ARTICLE] Vision-Based Pose Estimation for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation – Full Text PDF/HTML

Abstract

Vision-based Pose Estimation (VPE) represents a non-invasive solution to allow a smooth and natural interaction between a human user and a robotic system, without requiring complex calibration procedures. Moreover, VPE interfaces are gaining momentum as they are highly intuitive, such that they can be used from untrained personnel (e.g., a generic caregiver) even in delicate tasks as rehabilitation exercises.

In this paper, we present a novel master–slave setup for hand telerehabilitation with an intuitive and simple interface for remote control of a wearable hand exoskeleton, named HX. While performing rehabilitative exercises, the master unit evaluates the 3D position of a human operator’s hand joints in real-time using only a RGB-D camera, and commands remotely the slave exoskeleton. Within the slave unit, the exoskeleton replicates hand movements and an external grip sensor records interaction forces, that are fed back to the operator-therapist, allowing a direct real-time assessment of the rehabilitative task.

Experimental data collected with an operator and six volunteers are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed system and its performances. The results demonstrate that, leveraging on our system, the operator was able to directly control volunteers’ hands movements.

1. Introduction

Traditional rehabilitation is performed in a one-to-one fashion, namely one therapist (or sometimes several) working with one patient, leading to high personnel and management costs, especially for demanding patients such as those with brain or post surgery injuries. Due to the high hospitalization costs, all these patients are leaving clinics and returning to their homes sooner than in the past [1], when their rehabilitative program is not yet finished. These patients can greatly benefit from a telerehabilitation equipment, which is able to provide remote assistance and relief without the burden of going to the clinic on a daily basis. On the other hand, therapists can surely benefit from non-invasive systems capable of acquiring information about their movements which are then sent to the patient (or even to many patients), possibly in real-time to allow a direct control; modern vision-based techniques offer interesting sparks in such way. The possibility to provide high quality rehabilitation programs regardless of patients physical location and leveraging on vision is thus certainly attractive.

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Figure 2. HX while holding the sensorized object in a pinch (a) and lateral (b) grasping exercise. The DoMs of the HX device are: (1) the flexion/extension of the index MCP; (2) of the index P-DIP (under-actuated); (3) of the thumb MCP and IP (under-actuated) and (4) the CMC opposition. Other Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF), like thumb intra/extra rotation and the index abduction/adduction, are passive [29]. The HX is used to grasp the sensorized object, whose squeezable soft-pads provide force information on the basis of a optoelectronic deformation transduction [34].

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[THESIS] THE USE OF MOTION-TRACKING GAMES FOR REHABILITATION OF THE PARETIC UPPER EXTREMITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH STROKE – Full Text PDF

Submitted by Tara Klinedinst
Department of Occupational Therapy, Fall 2015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the United States someone experiences a stroke, or cerebrovascular  accident, every 45 seconds. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States, which  underscores the importance of access to efficacious and feasible rehabilitation treatment.  Researchers have estimated that 77% of survivors experience upper extremity weakness, or  paresis after stroke. When this weakness affects one side of the body, it is known as hemiparesis. Overall, a large volume of therapy is required to produce the neuroplastic changes that lead to meaningful recovery post-stroke, but with the constraints of conventional, “hands on” approaches, a system is needed that allows for convenient, at-home practice with remote supervision and feedback of a therapist. Over the last 30 years, treatments have emerged through
scientific advances, which integrate the principles provided by conventional therapy treatment  using computer technology. These treatments allow for repetitive action-based, at-home  practice.

METHOD: Four participants who have experienced stroke were recruited from the  northern Colorado community. The materials used for the study include the suite of web-based  games, a commercially available Leap Motion sensor, a custom stand designed to hold the  sensor, and a laptop computer. To use the game, participants moved their hand underneath the motion sensor which interacts with the games on the computer screen. The researchers adjusted the difficulty, time, and sensitivity of the games depending on the movement capacity of the
participant. The intervention sessions took place over five consecutive days, except for one participant who used the system in his home over ten consecutive weekdays. The participants were assessed using the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper
Extremity Test (FMA-UE), and the “Quality of Movement” scale of the Motor Activity Log (MAL-QOM). The baseline and post-intervention scores on the WFMT-Timed, the WMFT-FA, the MAL-QOM and the FMA were analyzed using Wilcoxon’s Signed-Rank Test.

RESULTS: The mean scores in all measures of motor performance moved in the direction of improvement, though none were shown to be statistically significant. The intervention was overall well tolerated by the participants, with no adverse effects reported.

DISCUSSION: The primary aims of the study were to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an at home, motion-tracking rehabilitation gaming system (GATOR) for increasing users’ real-world use of their paretic upper extremity. Future research on this system with increased length of treatment in the home of the participant is needed to further evaluate the use of this system as a rehabilitation technology for the increased use of the stroke-affected arm.

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[ARTICLE] An Approach to Physical Rehabilitation Using State-of-the-art Virtual Reality and Motion Tracking Technologies – Full Text PDF

Abstract

This paper explores an approach to physical rehabilitation using state-of-the-art technologies in virtual reality and motion tracking; in particular, Oculus Rift DK2 (released in July, 2014) and Intel RealSense (released in November, 2014) are used. A game is developed which requires from the patient to perform an established set of abduction and adduction arm movements to achieve rotator cuff rehabilitation after injury. While conduct of clinical trials is outside the scope of this work, experts in physical rehabilitation working in the medical field have carried out a preliminary evaluation, showing encouraging results.

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Source: An Approach to Physical Rehabilitation Using State-of-the-art Virtual Reality and Motion Tracking Technologies

 

 

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[ARTICLE] Kinect Based Physiotherapy System for Home Use – Full Text PDF

Abstract

In physiotherapy, rehabilitation outcome is majorly dependent on the patient continuing exercises at home. To support a continuous and correct execution of exercises composed by the physiotherapist it is important that the patient stays motivated. With the emergence of game consoles such as Nintendo Wii, Sony PlayStation or Microsoft Xbox360 that employ special controllers or camera based motion recognition as means of user input those technologies have also been found to be interesting for other real-life applications. We present a concept to employ the Microsoft Kinect system as means to support patients during physiotherapy exercises at home. The system is intended to allow a physiotherapist to compose an individual set of exercises and to control the correct execution of those exercises through tracking the patient’s motions.

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Source: Kinect Based Physiotherapy System for Home Use : Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering

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[ARTICLE] Evaluating the microsoft kinect skeleton joint tracking as a tool for home-based physiotherapy – Full Text PDF

Abstract

In physiotherapy, rehabilitation outcome is majorly dependent on the patient to continue exercises at home. To support a continuous and correct execution of exercises composed by the physiotherapist it is important that the patient stays motivated. With the emergence of game consoles such as Nintendo Wii, PlayStation Eye or Microsoft Kinect that employ special controllers or camera based motion recognition as means of user input those technologies have also been found to be interesting for other real-life applications such as providing individual physiotherapy exercises and an encouraging rehabilitation routine. Due to the intended use of those motion tracking systems in a computer-game environment it remains questionable if the accuracy of the skeleton joint tracking hardware and algorithms is sufficient for physiotherapy applications. We present a basic evaluation of the joint tracking accuracy where angles between various body extremities calculated by a Kinect system were compared with a high resolution motion capture system. Results show promising results with tracking deviations between 2.7° and 14.2° with a mean of the absolute deviations of 8.7°.

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Source: Evaluating the microsoft kinect skeleton joint tracking as a tool for home-based physiotherapy : Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering

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[ARTICLE] Visualisation of two-dimensional kinematic data from bimanual control of a commercial gaming system used in post-stroke rehabilitation – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Kinematic data from two stroke participants and a healthy control were collected using a novel bimanual rehabilitation system. The system employs two customized PlayStation Move Controllers and an Eye camera to track the participants’ hand movements.

In this study, the participants played a Facebook game by symmetrically moving both hands to control the computer’s mouse cursor. The collected data were recorded during one game session, and movement distribution analysis was performed to create density plots of each participant’s hand motion in the XY plane.

This type of kinematic information that can be gathered by rehabilitation systems with motion tracking capabilities has the potential to be used by therapists to monitor and guide home-based rehabilitation programs.

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