Posts Tagged MT
[ARTICLE] Potential determinants of efficacy of mirror therapy in stroke patients. A pilot study – OPEN ACCESS
Background: Mirror therapy (MT) was found to improve motor function after stroke. However, there is high variability between patients regarding motor recovery.
Objectives: The following pilot study was designed to identify potential factors determining this variability between patients with severe upper limb paresis, receiving MT.
Methods: Eleven sub-acute stroke patients with severe upper limb paresis participated, receiving in-patient rehabilitation. After a set of pre-assessments (including measurement of brain activity at the primary motor cortex and precuneus during the mirror illusion, using near-infrared spectroscopy as described previously), four weeks of MT were applied, followed by a set of post-assessments. Discriminant group analysis for MT responders and non-responders was performed.
Results: Six out of eleven patients were defined as responders and five as non-responders on the basis of their functional motor improvement. The initial motor function and the activity shift in both precunei (mirror index) were found to discriminate significantly between responders and non-responders.
Conclusions: In line with earlier results, initial motor function was confirmed as crucial determinant of motor recovery. Additionally, activity response to the mirror illusion in both precunei was found to be a candidate for determination of the efficacy of MT.
[ARTICLE] Mirror therapy enhances motor performance in the paretic upper limb after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) combined with bilateral arm training and graded activities to improve motor performance in the paretic upper limb after stroke.
DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded study.
SETTING: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation center of a tertiary care teaching hospital.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients with first-time ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (N=20), confined to the territory of the middle cerebral artery, occurring <6 months before the commencement of the study.
INTERVENTION: The MT and control group participants underwent a patient-specific multidisciplinary rehabilitation program including conventional occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy for 5 d/wk, 6 h/d, over 3 weeks. The participants in the MT group received 1 hour of MT in addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor recovery, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery for the arm and hand, Box and Block Test for gross manual hand dexterity, and modified Ashworth scale to assess the spasticity.
RESULTS: After 3 weeks of MT, mean change scores were significantly greater in the MT group than in the control group for the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (P=.008), Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery for the arm (P=.003) and hand (P=.003), and the Box and Block Test (P=.022). No significant difference was found between the groups for modified Ashworth scale (P=.647).
CONCLUSIONS: MT when combined with bilateral arm training and graded activities was effective in improving motor performance of the paretic upper limb after stroke compared with conventional therapy without MT.
[ARTICLE] Effects of Mirror Therapy on Motor and Sensory Recovery in Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Objective: To compare the effects of mirror therapy (MT) versus control treatment (CT) on movement performance, motor control, sensory recovery, and performance of activities of daily living in people with chronic stroke.
Design: Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial.
Setting: Four hospitals.
Participants: Outpatients with chronic stroke (N=33) with mild to moderate motor impairment.
Interventions: The MT group (n=16) received upper extremity training involving repetitive bimanual, symmetrical movement practice, in which the individual moves the affected limb while watching the reflective illusion of the unaffected limb’s movements from a mirror. The CT group received task-oriented upper extremity training. The intensity for both groups was 1.5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks.
Main Outcome Measurements: The Fugl-Meyer Assessment; kinematic variables, including reaction time, normalized movement time, normalized total displacement, joint recruitment, and maximum shoulder-elbow cross-correlation; the Revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment; the Motor Activity Log; and the ABILHAND questionnaire.
Results: The MT group performed better in the overall (P=.01) and distal part (P=.04) Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores and demonstrated shorter reaction time (P=.04), shorter normalized total displacement (P=.04), and greater maximum shoulder-elbow cross-correlation (P=.03). The Revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment temperature scores improved significantly more in the MT group than in the CT group. No significant differences on the Motor Activity Log and the ABILHAND questionnaire were found immediately after MT or at follow-up.
Conclusions: The application of MT after stroke might result in beneficial effects on movement performance, motor control, and temperature sense, but may not translate into daily functions in the population with chronic stroke.
…Mirror therapy could potentially aid stroke rehabilitation by normalizing an asymmetrical pattern of movement-related beta desynchronization in primary motor cortices during bilateral movement…
[ARTICLE] Mirror Therapy Enhances Motor Performance in the Paretic Upper Limb After Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
After 3 weeks of MT, mean change scores were significantly greater in the MT group than in the control group for the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (P=.008), Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery for the arm (P=.003) and hand (P=.003), and the Box and Block Test (P=.022). No significant difference was found between the groups for modified Ashworth scale (P=.647).
MT when combined with bilateral arm training and graded activities was effective in improving motor performance of the paretic upper limb after stroke compared with conventional therapy without MT…
…A number of small scale research studies have shown encouraging results, however there is no current consensus as to the effectiveness of mirror therapy. Recent reviews of the published research literature by Moseley  and Ezendam concluded that much of the evidence supporting mirror therapy is anecdotal or comes from studies that had weak methodological quality…