Posts Tagged neuroplastisity
[ARTICLE] A review of transcranial magnetic stimulation and multimodal neuroimaging to characterize post-stroke neuroplasticity – Full Text PDF
Following stroke, the brain undergoes various stages of recovery where the central nervous system can reorganize neural circuitry (neuroplasticity) both spontaneously and with the aid of behavioural rehabilitation and non-invasive brain stimulation. Multiple neuroimaging techniques can characterize common structural and functional stroke-related deficits, and importantly, help predict recovery of function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) typically reveals increased overall diffusivity throughout the brain following stroke, and is capable of indexing the extent of white matter damage. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides an index of metabolic changes in surviving neural tissue after stroke, serving as a marker of brain function. The neural correlates of altered brain activity after stroke have been demonstrated by abnormal activation of sensorimotor cortices during task performance, and at rest, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to characterize motor dysfunction in terms of increased cortical amplitude in the sensorimotor regions when performing upper-limb movement, indicating abnormally increased cognitive effort and planning in individuals with stroke. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) work reveals changes in ipsilesional and contralesional cortical excitability in the sensorimotor cortices. The severity of motor deficits indexed using TMS has been linked to the magnitude of activity imbalance between the sensorimotor cortices.
In this paper we will provide a narrative review of data from studies utilizing DTI, MRS, fMRI, EEG and brain stimulation techniques focusing on TMS and its combination with uni and multi-modal neuroimaging methods to assess recovery after stroke. Approaches that delineate the best measures with which to predict or positively alter outcomes will be highlighted.
Cognitive rehabilitation is a group of designed techniques that is for the promotion of cognitive domains in people with disease or disability. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) is the science of restoring cognitive processing and learning compensatory strategies and it affects the molecular and cellular recovery rehabilitation by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes.
The promotion of rehabilitation science of cognitive neuroscience has made it a priority by the help of full range of effected interventional procedures. And it has been able to achieve the desired goals in the chain of theoretical and experimental science on the basis of behavioral interventions which is made of neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, psychology, physiology, pharmacology, medical imaging, and other medical disciplines and achieved some success in compensatory and medical strategies after surgery.
Cognitive impairment after brain surgery is huge health challenges beyond the common disorders associated with diseases. Our approach to CRT is on the assumption that treatment would be the most effective way when focusing on the cognitive sub-systems after neurosurgery and these are also affected by other aspects of life as a patient emotions, nutrition, health, stress, and social performance. Intervention in the passive skills can lead to neuro-cognitive rehabilitation that includes designed experience on the basis of nerve and brain function and structure. A failure of cognitive or brain processing during or after surgery is an abnormal result and these impairments are treated better with CRT.
This method on the basis of neuroplastisity, reorganization of damaged cortical through morphological and physiological responses of nerve reconstruction ways by techniques in neuro-cognitive disorders due to illness, injury or disability, even in healthy individuals which are affected by environment, the complexity of stimulation, repeated tasks and motivation.