Posts Tagged Non-invasive
The brain consists of two hemispheres each responsible for controlling the opposite side of the body. Normally, each hemisphere inhibits the opposite side to avoid mirror movements (both sides performing same movement simultaneously).
After a stroke, the two hemispheres experience an unbalancing of both sides with the unaffected hemisphere receiving more signals than the affected hemisphere. This imbalance leads to increased excitability and decreased inhibition to the healthy side.
Priming is a technique used to enhance the brain’s ability to re-balance the two hemispheres following a stroke. Priming interventions include invasive and non-invasive techniques and can be administered prior to or during recovery.
Source: What is Cortical Priming?
[Abstract] Enhancement of motor relearning and functional recovery in stroke patients: non-invasive strategies for modulating the central nervous system. – PubMed
INTRODUCTION: Most of the stroke survivors do not recover the basal state of the affected upper limb, suffering from a severe disability which remains during the chronic phase of the illness. This has an extremely negative impact in the quality of life of these patients. Hence, neurorehabilitation strategies aim at the minimization of the sensorimotor dysfunctions associated to stroke, by promoting neuroplasticity in the central nervous system.
DEVELOPMENT: Brain reorganization can facilitate motor and functional recovery in stroke subjects. None-theless, after the insult, maladaptive neuroplastic changes can also happen, which may lead to the appearance of certain sensori-motor disorders such as spasticity. Noninvasive brain stimulation strategies, like transcranial direct current stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation, are widely used techniques that, when applied over the primary motor cortex, can modify neural networks excitability, as well as cognitive functions, both in healthy subjects and individuals with neurological disorders. Similarly, brain-machine-interface systems also have the potential to induce a brain reorganization by the contingent and simultaneous association between the brain activation and the peripheral stimulation.
CONCLUSION: This review describes the positive effects of the previously mentioned neurorehabilitation strategies for the enhancement of cortical reorganization after stroke, and how they can be used to alleviate the symptoms of the spasticity syndrome.
[ARTICLE] Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of symptoms following traumatic brain injury – CNS
Front Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 26
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of physical,psychological, and cognitive impairment, but many current treatments for TBI are ineffective or produce adverse side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation could help ameliorate some common trauma-induced symptoms.
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes instances in which repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been used to treat symptoms following a TBI. A subsequent discussion attempts to determine the value of these methods in light of their potential risks.
METHODS: The research databases of PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO were electronically searched using terms relevant to the use of rTMS and tDCS as a tool to decrease symptoms in the context of rehabilitation post-TBI.
RESULTS: Eight case-studies and four multi-subject reports using rTMS and sixmulti–subject studies using tDCS were found. Two instances of seizure are discussed.
CONCLUSION: There is evidence that rTMS can be an effective treatment option for some post-TBI symptoms, such as depression, tinnitus, and neglect. Although the safety of this method remains uncertain, the use of rTMS in cases of mild TBI without obvious structural damage may be justified. Evidence on the effectiveness of tDCS is mixed, highlighting the need for additional investigations.
The EBS Therapy is a non-invasive electrical stimulation treatment device that is individually adapted to the patient’s condition in order to restore visual field losses caused by neurological disorders such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) as well as several types of glaucoma…
[VIDEO] –>The EBS-Therapy
[ARTICLE] Using clinical and robotic assessment tools to examine the feasibility of pairing tDCS with upper extremity physical therapy in patients with stroke and TBI
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may provide a safe, non-invasive technique for modulating neural excitability during neurorehabilitation.
1) Assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of tDCS as an adjunct to standard upper extremity (UE) physical therapy (PT) for motor impairments resulting from neurological insult.
2) Determine sustainability of improvements over a six month period.
METHODS: Five participants with chronic neurologic insult (stroke or traumatic brain injury > 6 months prior) completed 24 sessions (40 minutes, three times/week) of UE-PT combined with bihemispheric tDCS delivered at 1.5 mA over the motor cortex during the first 15 minutes of each PT session. Outcomes were assessed using clinical (UE Fugl-Meyer, Purdue Pegboard, Box and Block, Stroke Impact Scale) and robotic (unimanual and bimanual motor control) measures. Change in scores and associated effects sizes from Pre-test to Post-test and a six month Follow-up were calculated for each participant and group as a whole.
RESULTS: Scores on UE Fugl-Meyer, Box and Block, Purdue Pegboard, Stroke Impact Scale, and robotic measures improved from Pre- to Post-test. Improvements on UE Fugl-Meyer, Box and Block, and robotic measures were largely sustained at six months.
CONCLUSIONS: Combining bihemispheric tDCS with UE-PT in individuals with neurological insult warrants further investigation.
via Using clinical and robotic assessment tools to examine the feasibility of pairing tDCS with upper extremity physical therapy in patients with stroke and TBI: A consideration-of-concept pilot study – NeuroRehabilitation – IOS Press.
[A Review] Novel Approaches of Non-Invasive Stimulation Techniques to Motor Rehabilitation Following Stroke
…This review intends to synthesize our understanding of the effects of novel approach of non-invasive peripheral nerve and brain stimulation techniques in motor rehabilitation and the potential role of these techniques in clinical practice. The ability to induce cortical plasticity with non-invasive stimulation techniques has provided novel and exciting opportunities for examining the role of the human cortex during a variety of behaviors literature concerning non-invasive stimulation technique incorporated into stroke research is young, limiting the ability to draw consistent conclusions. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioral intervention and the clinical evidence for its use to date…