Posts Tagged OT

[BLOG POST] Occupational Therapy Month: The Role of OT – NARIC

April is Occupational Therapy Month.  Occupational therapy (OT) is a client-centered health profession that helps people across the lifespan to do the things they want and need to do through therapeutic use of daily activities (occupations).  Occupational therapists use a holistic approach that focuses on the individual and work together with their clients to enhance their ability to engage in the occupations they want, need, or are expected to do. Occupational therapists enable people of all ages to live life to its fullest by helping them promote health, and prevent—or live better with—injury, illness, or disability.

Occupational therapy helps people function in all of their environments (e.g., home, work, school, community) and addresses the physical, psychological, and cognitive aspects of their well-being through engagement in occupation.  Occupational therapists may be employed in a number of roles, including but not limited to, practitioner, academic, manager, advocate, consultant, and researcher.  OT services typically include:

  • An individualized evaluation, during which the client/family and occupational therapist determine the person’s goals,
  • customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach the goals, and
  • an outcomes evaluation to ensure that the goals are being met and/or make changes to the intervention plan.

Additionally, OT services may include comprehensive evaluations of the client’s home and other environments (e.g., workplace, school), recommendations for modifications to these environments or for adaptive equipment and training in its use, and guidance and education for family members and caregivers.  The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) website offers a wide variety of resources on OT for children and youthadults, and caregivers as well as professionals. AOTA offers fact sheets on a variety of conditions related to rehabilitation and disability including the role of occupational therapists in reintegration into the community, chronic disease management, and community mobility and driving, among other topics.

Occupational therapists undergo extensive undergraduate, graduate, and/or doctorial accredited educational programs; as well as entry-level mentored practice.  After completion of a qualified accredited program an individual may sit for the national certification exam administered by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy.  More information on job and career resources including qualifications for becoming an occupational therapist is available on the AOTA website.


via Occupational Therapy Month:  The Role of OT | Collection Spotlight from the National Rehabilitation Information Center

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[Abstract] Within-session effects of selected physical rehabilitation interventions for a dysfunctional arm post-stroke on arm movement and muscle firing patterns


Upper extremity (UE) impairments and activity limitations are a common problem in individuals following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Eighty-five percent of individuals with CVA report UE functional limitations that are associated with decreased health-related quality of life. Occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) approaches are typically aimed to treat impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions following a CVA. This study examines the effects of five therapeutic approaches on upper extremity (UE) movement and muscle activation patterns in persons with CVAs: (1) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF); (2) neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT); (3) functional electrical stimulation (FES); (4) weight-bearing and (5) modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT).

Material and method

This is a case report involving a 61-year-old male who underwent 30-minute intervention sessions for each approach stated above. Electromyography (EMG) and 3D motion capture data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at 30 minute follow-up. Data were analyzed for reaching a cup at waist level, maximum shoulder flexion, and moving cup to mouth as in drinking.


No significant differences were seen for UE movements across all interventions for kinematic or EMG data. There appears to be a trend towards normal elbow movement following NMES, mCIMT and PNF and increased variability in shoulder flexion in mCIMT and NDT interventions. Weight-bearing provided the least amount of evidence for improved kinematic motion. Improvement in elbow kinematics may indicate proximal stability following PNF, FES, and mCIMT allows for increased distal mobility at the elbow.


Some interventions produced trends that indicate better UE movement. Increased proximal stability may have caused better distal mobility as shown by improved elbow movement. Increased variability of shoulder flexion may indicate the participant learned different options to perform the same movement. Further research is needed o provide a more transparent understanding of the efficacy of interventions for individuals with hemiparesis following a CVA.


via Within-session effects of selected physical rehabilitation interventions for a dysfunctional arm post-stroke on arm movement and muscle firing patterns – ScienceDirect

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[WEB SITE] Occupational therapy for stroke: what is it and how can it help? – Cochrane

In this guest blog for World Occupational Therapy Day, which falls on 27th October, OT Danny Minkow explains what it is and looks at the evidence on how it can help people after a stroke. 

Imagine for a moment you are in the recovery room in a hospital. You have survived a stroke. A therapist knocks and enters your room. He says, “Good morning, my name is Danny, and I’m here for your occupational therapy. Do you know what occupational therapy is?” Unfortunately, many people say, “No, I don’t know what occupational therapy is” or, even more commonly, “Are you here to help me find work?”

 So what is occupational therapy?

Occupational therapists (OTs) help people maximize their independence with an emphasis on useful or functional activities. Increasing range of motion and building muscle are important, but OTs try to find what the patient finds meaningful and what activities they need to perform. OTs also view the person within the context of their living and working environment. In general, OTs help people across their lifespan, from premature babies to the elderly, in a variety of settings and conditions.

For now, let’s stick with stroke since it’s one of the leading causes of adult disability, has been well researched, and many stroke survivors receive therapy from an occupational therapist.

One way that an OT could help someone recover from a stroke is by improving their ability to do day-to-day tasks. OTs call these tasks Activities of Daily Living. This could include things like bathing, toileting, dressing, eating, cooking, grooming, dressing, and even driving. Of course, these activities are typically important parts of a patient’s larger life roles, such as being a parent, home owner, a student, or being employed.

Since each person is different, the nature of the therapy would also depend on how the stroke has affected their life, what the person finds meaningful in their life role and what they would like to improve. So in reality, while the occupational therapist doesn’t help anyone find a job, they could help someone regain the ability to work after a trauma or in this case a stroke.

 What is the evidence that occupational therapy helps?

All of this sounds lovely, but does it really work? Well, here’s some good news for all of us – teams at The Cochrane Collaboration have done some high quality research on occupational therapy for stroke. Cochrane teams look for the best available evidence on a topic and put it together in systematic reviews to establish what is known about a therapy or other health intervention.

This first Cochrane review included 9 studies with 1258 participants and looked at occupational therapy for patients with problems in activities of daily living after stroke. They found that patients who receive occupational therapy are less likely to decline and are more likely to be independent in their ability to perform personal activities of daily living. However, it wasn’t clear what the exact nature, duration, type, and intensity of the occupational therapy was needed in order to achieve the maximum benefit, so there is room for further research there.

 As you can imagine, having a stroke could affect your ability to move your hands and arms. A fascinating systematic review of reviews by Langhorne, Coupar, and Pollock investigated which therapies worked best to promote motor recovery after stroke. Their results came mainly from 10 different Cochrane reviews for recovering movement and function for the arm and hand. The most promising intervention that improved the patient’s ability to manage activities of daily living for arm function is constraint-induced movement therapy. constraint-induced movement therapy is when the therapist would constrain or limit the movement of the non-affected arm and have the patient use the affected arm to do repetitive or functional tasks.

They also found:

  • Limited evidence for mental practice therapy. This is basically mentally rehearsing the activity
  • Small amount of evidence for biofeedback for stroke. This allows a person to see or hear how their body is responding
  • Some evidence that robotic-assisted arm training can help to regain function, but not strength
  • Very limited evidence for interventions to improve hand function

This suggests that overall therapy to regain arm movement and function after a stroke will involve some form of intensive, repetitive task-specific practice.

Helping you at home

senior woman washing upCommunity-dwelling stroke survivors might receive their therapy in their home. These home visits may be conducted by a multidisciplinary team that could include an occupational therapist and/or a physiotherapist (physical therapist). This review of therapy-based rehabilitation services for patients living at home more than one year after stroke looked at 14 studies, involving 1617 participants and they found that people who had a recent stroke were more independent in activities of daily living and more likely to maintain these abilities if they received therapy services at home. I can imagine that the therapist is more likely to notice day-to-day activities of the patient when they observe them living their lives as usual. They could also find household hazards when they visit someone living in their actual home for therapy.

Many stroke survivors live at a care home (such as a nursing home). This population differs from the community-dwelling population who remain in their own homes. For example, they are more likely to have high levels of immobility, incontinence, and confusion, along with other health conditions. This review of occupational therapy for care home residents with stroke was able to include only one study involving 118 participants, comparing occupational therapy and standard care. The authors concluded that since it only included one study, the effectiveness of occupational therapy for the population of stroke survivors residing in care homes is not clear. This is another area where more research is clearly needed.

Can OT improve your thinking ability?

Finally, having a stroke can also affect how a person ‘thinks’. This means a stroke can impact how someone learns new things, concentrates, or even makes decisions. This impairment can affect a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Occupational therapists might use strategies to help someone relearn a task (remediation), or compensate by using devices to help people remember to do something. This could include using an alarm clock or medicine container. A review of occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in stroke patients included one trial with 33 participants. The authors concluded there isn’t evidence yet to establish the effectiveness of occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in people who have had a stroke. One more area for future research for OTs!

Occupational therapy is different for each person

So overall, Occupational therapists are uniquely positioned to help people recover from a stroke. The challenge with researching occupational therapy is that by its nature, occupational therapy as an intervention is client-centered. So it’s going to be different for each person, based on the challenges they face as an individual as well as what roles and activities they find meaningful. It’s a strength for the field, being so patient-centric and tailored to their needs, but it makes it really difficult to research, isolate, measure, and quantify occupational therapy as an ‘intervention’ for real life application. Also, part of the challenge is to prescribe accurately exact protocols for other therapists to implement. This may also be part of the reason why so many people don’t seem to know what occupational therapists actually do.

So where does this leave us? Well, I gave you the long answer on what occupational therapy is and how it can help people with stroke. Even though more research is needed, the good news is that there is promising evidence that working with an occupational therapist will help in recovering from a stroke. If you do end up receiving occupational therapy for any reason, at least now you will know a bit more about it and feel comforted knowing that you are in good hands.

What do you think? Tell us how an occupational therapist has helped you or someone you know!

You can find out more about World Occupational Therapy Day from the World Federation of Occupational Therapists website. In the UK, the British Association of Occupational Therapists and College of Occupational Therapists (@BAOTCOT) is leading Occupational Therapy Week from 3 – 9 November 2014 and you can find out more here.


Legg L, Drummond A, Langhorne P. Occupational therapy for patients with problems in activities of daily living after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003585. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003585.pub2.

American Occupational Therapy Association. Occupational therapy practice framework: domain and process. (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy 2014; 68(Suppl 1): S1-S48.

Langhorne P, Coupar F, Pollock A. Motor Recovery after Stroke: A Systematic Review. Lancet Neurology 2009; 8(8): 741–54. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70150-4.

Aziz NA, Leonardi-Bee J, Phillips MF, Gladman J, Legg LA, Walker M. Therapy-based rehabilitation services for patients living at home more than one year after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005952. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005952.pub2.

Fletcher-Smith JC, Walker MF, Cobley CS, Steultjens EMJ, Sackley CM. Occupational therapy for care home residents with stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD010116. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010116.pub2.

Hoffmann T, Bennett S, Koh CL, McKenna KT. Occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD006430. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006430.pub2.

Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Stroke Rehabilitation. Lancet 2011; 377(9778): 1693–1702. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60325-5.

British Association of Occupational Therapists and College of Occupational Therapists. Live Life Your Way. Web. Accessed 2 September 2014.

Source: Occupational therapy for stroke: what is it and how can it help? – Evidently Cochrane

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[WEB SITE] Occupational Therapy vs. Physical Therapy—What’s the difference?

If you’ve been considering a career as an occupational therapy assistant, you’ve likely become familiar with other healthcare careers related to patient rehabilitation. The field of physical therapy, in particular, is often mentioned right alongside occupational therapy. While there are certainly many similarities between the two, they differ in the specifics of how they help patients address a disability.  For a quick refresher on the two fields, or even a simple way of explaining the differences to family and friends, the info below may help.

The Basic Difference

The easiest way to describe the difference between physical therapy and occupational therapy is that a physical therapist (or physical therapy assistant) treats the patient’s actual impairment, while an occupational therapist (or occupational therapy assistant) treats that impairment in action. The PT tries to improve the impairment itself by increasing mobility, aligning bones and joints or lessening pain. The OT or OTA helps the patient complete necessary everyday tasks with the impairment.  Doing so may involve applying new tools and techniques.

Breaking It Down

A physical therapist is a medical professional licensed to assess and treat impairments and functional limitations. PTs are qualified to recommend appropriate medical and assistive devices for patients (e.g., shower chairs, braces, walkers, canes, wheelchairs) or specific exercises. Educating the patient about his/her condition is also a vital part of the PT’s role.

An occupational therapist may also recommend adaptive equipment, such as reachers, dressing aids, special dishes and utensils, positioning splints, etc.  Both the OT and OTA ensure that the patient is equipped to handle regular work and household activities like dressing, cooking, bathing or writing.

In Action

Consider a patient recovering from knee replacement surgery. His PT would likely assign various exercises to improve mobility with the new artificial knee and to ease post-surgery pain and stiffness. His OT might teach him how to use a wheelchair in the early stages of recovery, then help him practice going up and down stairs on the new knee. Or, in a nursing home, the physical therapist may help a patient stand from a wheelchair and maintain standing balance, while the occupational therapist assists her in performing hygiene tasks at the sink. Often, PTs and OTs/OTAs collaborate closely to help the patient achieve a full recovery.

Source: Occupational Therapy vs. Physical Therapy—What’s the difference?

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[Pinterest] Apps4OTs on Pinterest

Contexts of Participation: an interactive tool which promotes critical thinking around participation, developed by Rayya Ghul and Dr Ian Marsh, senior lecturers in Occupational Therapy in the Department of Allied Health Professions at Canterbury Christ Church University.#Apps4OTs

These are some of the apps that are available which may be suitable for OTs or service users. These apps are not endorsed by BAOT/COT – we aim to list as many as possible to make OTs aware of the options available. If you have used any of these apps, please do leave a comment to tell others what you thought!

Continue —>  #Apps4OTs on Pinterest | Apps, App and Apraxia.

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[ARTICLE] Effects of game-based virtual reality on health-related quality of life in chronic stroke patients: A randomized, controlled study


Rehabilitation can improve physical function and quality of life after a stroke.

Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging modality for performing rehabilitation.

We evaluated the effects of VR and conventional therapy among stroke patients.

VR plus therapy improved specific health-related quality of life items.

VR plus therapy also improved depression and physical function measures.


In the present study, we aimed to determine whether game-based virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation, combined with occupational therapy (OT), could improve health-related quality of life, depression, and upper extremity function. We recruited 35 patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke, and these participants were randomized into groups that underwent VR rehabilitation plus conventional OT, or the same amount of conventional OT alone, for 20 sessions over 4 weeks. Compared to baseline, the VR rehabilitation plus OT group exhibited significantly improved role limitation due to emotional problems (p=0.047). Compared to baseline, both groups also exhibited significantly improved depression (p=0.017) and upper extremity function (p=0.001), although the inter-group differences were not significant. However, a significant inter-group difference was observed for role limitation due to physical problems (p=0.031). Our results indicate that game-based VR rehabilitation has specific effects on health-related quality of life, depression, and upper extremity function among patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

via Effects of game-based virtual reality on health-related quality of life in chronic stroke patients: A randomized, controlled study.

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[A preliminary study] Bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke

We investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of the combination of bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis in poststroke patients.[…]  The combination of bihemispheric rTMS and intensive OT was safe and feasible therapy for poststroke hemiparetic patients, and improved motor function of the hemiparetic upper limb in poststroke patients. The findings provide a new avenue for the treatment of patients with poststroke hemiparesis

via Bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation c… : International Journal of Rehabilitation Research.

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[ARTICLE] Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intensive occupational therapy for poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis: preliminary study of a 15-day protocol

The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. . The 15-day protocol was well tolerated by all patients. At discharge […] In conclusion, our 15-day protocol of low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive OT seems feasible not only for improving motor function, but also for reducing spasticity in the affected upper limb in poststroke hemiparetic patients

via Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation a… : International Journal of Rehabilitation Research.

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[WEB SITE] Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

For professionals, this guide is a thorough overview of the occupational therapy process for people with traumatic brain injury.

μέσω Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury.


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