Posts Tagged personality


By Monti Skiby. 9/9/2019

Η εικόνα ίσως περιέχει: ένα ή περισσότερα άτομα και κείμενο

Disappointment is difficult to to face. We have pre-conceived ideas of how someone or something is going to happen. There can be expectations in order to receive acceptance. We see it in children who receive a low test score. Others who can not hit a home run or make every basket they try. Valentine’s Day may come and go and no one remembers. It happens all the time in various situations. Throughout our entire life we are disappointed and we disappoint others. Not with the intent of disappointing but trying to meet someone elses expectation (s). Searching for acceptance and meeting expectations from others often develops into “part” of our identy.

When a person survives a brain injury it is common to have a loss of identy.

Many of us are no longer able to work or be the wife, husband, mom, dad, aunt, uncle, sister, brother… we once were. Some can not provide for their family any longer or fill the position as they once did as a mother, father, grandparent, aunt/uncle or have a position of making decisions for the family. Each one of the things I mentioned is a loss of a purpose we once had. Our purpose needs to be re-identified.

We are taught from a very young,”what do you want to be when you grow up”? A police officer, a fire fighter, a teacher, a lawyer, a mommy, a daddy…. determining our worth and identity by the job or position in the family we have. Is is “WHAT” we are. Never do we ask children “WHO” do you want to be? Compassionate, peaceful, spiritual, loving, gentle, hateful, angry…. Being identified by a job or position in the family is external to who you are. Not the characteristics which have developed inside within you.

“WHO” you are involves your character as a person. It comes from traits you develop as your inner self. A reflection of your emotions, mental state, spirituality, feelings towards others, feelings toward yourself, ability to think of someone other than yourself. When we loose the identity society has identified by “WHAT” we are we feel like a failure.

Same happens when a person survives a brain injury, “you just got fired from your life”. No longer able to work, be a husband or wife, etc … I’m sure you get the point. How do we feel? Like a failure. Unable to do what was once the roles we played. The hats we wore as teacher and mother/father and aunt/uncle, brother/sister. Now we need to depend on others, not being totally independent any more, and not be able to think as we once did. It takes longer to process thoughts, answers or even to understand what was said.

The rug has been pulled right out from under us. Having to look at “WHO” we are for the first time in our life. Learning to identify characteristics within you is Hell. Territory not travelled before. We believe; we have lost the position of being equal, we no longer are able to provide for others as we once did, we think we have or are losing everything we had.

All of these things can not be seen but only felt. Feeling worthless comes easy. Explaining it to someone does not.

Do not abandon us. Do not treat us as if we are at fault. We are not stupid. We have a brain injury which will heal for the rest of our life. We have not changed as a person. We now have limitations.

Having someone who cares about you is very difficult to find. Many people leave because they do not understand, don’t want to understand, want “WHAT” you were before, they can not find the love and acceptance to see the light at the end of the tunnel.

Expectations have to be eliminated. There is no room for pre-conceived notions of what must be done for acceptance. There never should have been expections in the first place.

I was a swim coach for a young group of kids years ago. 1st rule for parents was there would be no negative comments made to child (ren).

2. Parents were not allowed on deck. Even at swim meets. They sit in the bleachers (as long as no negative remarks).

3. If they persisted in negative remarks they were not allowed at the practices or meets.

There were 6 yr olds who had to be taught to swim. There was a 9 yr old who was deaf. There were young teens who believed they could do nothing right. I loved this group of kids.

The kids were taught not to compare times with other kids at meets but to focus on how their times improved from the last meet. Smiles came from shaving off 2 seconds, 5 seconds and even 12 seconds. The teen who said she could not do or accomplish anything shaved off seconds every meet and she smiles as the seconds came off. If the kids swam in 3 meets they received a metal from me for good attendance & doing the best they could do. If they swam in 6 meets another metal for attendance & doing the best they could. Same for 9 meets. The 12 kids succeeded no matter what. They learned self respect, responsibility of following through and setting goals. 9 of the 12 went to go to the State Meet because of their times and achievements.

We are the same person. Our personality and abilities have changed. The person is the same. Loving someone enough to help them heal is a genuine love. This is for ourself, friends and family.

Hope this helps. God has kept you alive for a reason. Love you. By Monti Skiby.


Η εικόνα ίσως περιέχει: ένα ή περισσότερα άτομα και κείμενο

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[WEB SITE] Left brain vs. right brain: Characteristics, functions, and myths

The two hemispheres or sides of the brain — the left and the right — have slightly different jobs. But can one side be dominant and does this affect personality?


Some people believe that a person is either left-brained or right-brained and that this determines the way they think and behave.

In this article, we explore the truth and fallacy behind this claim. Read on to learn more about the functions and characteristics of the left and right brain.


Left brain and right brain hemispheres represented by illustration with plain and colorful sides of brain on blue background.

 The brain is divided into two hemispheres, which are able to perform functions independently of one another.

The brain is a complex and hardworking organ. It is made up of as many as 100 billion neuronsor brain cells but only weighs 3 pounds.

It is an energy-intensive organ, making up around 2 percent of a person’s weight but using a huge 20 percent of the body’s energy.

The left and right sides of the brain are connected by a great number of nerve fibers. In a healthy brain, the two sides communicate with one another.

The two sides do not necessarily have to communicate, though. If a person has an injury that separates the two brain hemispheres, they are still able to function relatively normally.

Left brain vs. right brain belief

According to the left brain vs. right brain belief, everyone has one side of their brain that is dominant and determines their personality, thoughts, and behavior.

Because people can be left-handed or right-handed, the idea that people can be left-brained and right-brained is tempting.

Left-brained people are said to be more:

  • analytical
  • logical
  • detail- and fact-oriented
  • numerical
  • likely to think in words

Right-brained people are said to be more:

  • creative
  • free-thinking
  • able to see the big picture
  • intuitive
  • likely to visualize more than think in words

What does the research say?

Brain hemispheres being analysed on screen while person is in MRI machine.

Research into left brain vs. right brain theories involves using MRI scanners.

 Recent research suggests that the left brain vs. right brain theory is not correct.

2013 study looked at 3-D pictures of over 1,000 people’s brains. They measured the activity of the left and right hemispheres, using an MRI scanner.

Their results show that a person uses both hemispheres of their brain and that there does not seem to be a dominant side.

However, a person’s brain activity does differ, depending on what task they are doing.

For example, a study in PLoS Biology says that the language centers in the brain are in the left hemisphere, while the right hemisphere is specialized for emotion and nonverbal communication.

Contributions towards this ‘brain lateralization’ research won Roger W. Sperry the Nobel Prize in 1960. However, popular cultural exaggeration of these findings led to the development of beliefs of left brain and right brain personalities.

Functions and characteristics of each hemisphere

Although people do not fall neatly into the categories of left-brained or right-brained, there are some differences in what the left and right hemispheres do.

Differences in the left and right brain hemisphere function exist in:


This is the domain of the right brain, in both humans and also in non-human primates. Emotions are expressed and recognized in others by the right brain.


The left brain is more active in speech production than the right. In most people, the two main language areas, known as Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area, are found in the left hemisphere.

Sign language

Visually based languages are also the domain of the left brain. People who are deaf show speech-like brain activity when watching sign language.


Left- and right-handed people use the left and right brain differently. For example, a left-handed person uses their right brain for manual tasks and vice versa.

Handedness is inbuilt, and it can even be detected while the baby is in the womb. Some babies prefer to suck their left or right thumb from as early as 15 weeks.


The two brain hemispheres also differ in what they pay attention to.

The left side of the brain is more involved with attention to the internal world. The right side is more interested in attending to the external world.

Recent brain imaging studies have shown no differences between males and females in terms of their brain lateralization.

Does hemispheric dominance differ between people?

Two women looking at a tablet together in the office.

Hemispheric dominance may differ between people, although this area requires more research.

 The side of the brain used in each activity is not the same for every person. The side of the brain that gets used for certain activities may be influenced by whether a person is left- or right-handed.

2014 study notes that up to 99 percent of right-handed individuals have the language centers in the left of the brain. But so do about 70 percent of left-handed individuals.

Hemispheric dominance varies from person to person and with different activities. More research is needed for science to fully understand all of the factors that affect this.


The theory that a person is either left-brained or right-brained is not supported by scientific research.

Some people may find the theory does align with their aptitudes. However, they should not rely on it as a scientifically accurate way to understand the brain.

The left brain vs. right brain personality belief may have lasted for so long because, in reality, brain activity is not symmetrical, and it does vary from person to person.


via Left brain vs. right brain: Characteristics, functions, and myths

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[VIDEO] Effect of Brain Injury on Personality – YouTube

How does personality change after brain injury? In this video, NeuroRestorative’s Dr. Gordon Horn explains the cognitive, emotional and social components that impact personality. As a Neuropsychologist, Dr. Horn works with individuals and families to evaluate, stabilize, and optimize personality changes so individuals can continue their rehabilitative progress.

Interested in learning more? Watch the other videos in our “Effects of Brain Injury” series!

Feel free to rate, comment on and share these videos with others!

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[WEB SITE] New You: Personality May Change After Therapy

Personality, once thought to be fundamental and resistant to change, can shift in response to therapy, new research finds.

The study synthesizes data from 207 published research papers that measured personality traits as one outcome of various psychotherapies. Though most of the research was observational rather than experimental, the review, which was published on Jan. 5 in the journal Psychological Bulletin, adds new weight to the idea that personality is not static.

But that doesn’t mean that personality change is easy, warned study researcher Brent Roberts, a social and personality psychologist at the University of Illinois.

“For the people who want to change their spouse tomorrow, which a lot of people want to do, I don’t hold out much hope for them,” Roberts said. However, he continued, “if you’re willing to focus on one aspect of yourself, and you’re willing to go at it systematically, there’s now increased optimism that you can affect change in that domain.” [10 Things You Didn’t Know About You]

Previous research has found that the “big five” personality traits —  openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism — are predictive of success in life.

And much research has suggested that these traits are stable. For example, one 2010 study showed that people’s personalities were relatively stable from first grade to adulthood, and that a first grader’s personality could predict his or her adult behavior, the review said. People who were impulsive as kids were likely to be talkative and expansive in their interests as adults, while those who were more restrained as children grew up to be more insecure and timid.

Studies such as that one have led some researchers to view personality as basically immutable. But other scientists have challenged that notion, including Roberts in his own research. For example, he and his colleagues foundthat people become more conscientious and emotionally stable during young adulthood and midlife. Openness to new experience increases in the teen years and declines in old age.

If personality can change, even late in life, Roberts told Live Science, the natural next question was whether a person could change his or her personality deliberately. Some research analyzed in the review suggested that even surprisingly short-term interventions might do just that.

In 2009, for example, researchers at Northwestern University in Illinois found that antidepressants make people more extraverted and more emotionally stable. And a  2011 study found that a single dose of psilocybin, the hallucinatory compound in “magic mushrooms,” can increase people’s openness to experience for at least 14 months, which is considered a long-term change.

When Roberts and his colleagues first became interested in looking at whether interventions can change personality, they expected to find few studies to analyze, because personality psychologists don’t typically focus on altering personality, Roberts said.

“I thought we could do this pretty quick, which, you should never say that as an academic,” Roberts said. [5 Things You Must Know About Sleep]

To his surprise, Roberts said, he found what he called a “gold mine” of data on personality change. It came from an unexpected source: clinical psychology. While personality psychologists had more or less neglected the question of how to change personality, clinical psychologists had been measuring personality change that resulted from therapy and psychiatric medications all along, but almost as an afterthought.

“Most of the literature is [asking], ‘Does this version of cognitive behavioral therapy work better than that version of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety?'” Roberts said. “It’s usually something very specific to a clinically motivated agenda … [but] in the process, they measure a bunch of different things.”

Those things included personality. The biggest changes, Roberts and his colleagues found, were in people’s levels of neuroticism. This trait is marked by jealousy, fear, anxiety and other negative emotions. People typically become less neurotic as they age, Roberts said. The new analysis found that three months of psychological treatment could also significantly lower neuroticism, by about half the amount you might expect to see over 30 to 40 years of adulthood.

“One way to look at that is you get half of a life in a three-month period,” Roberts said. “I honestly did not expect to see effect sizes that large.”

Another personality trait, extraversion, also showed significant, though smaller, changes after psychological interventions. The type of therapy used didn’t seem to matter, the researchers reported Jan. 5 in the journal Psychological Bulletin, though psychotherapy was associated with slightly larger changes in personality than drug therapies alone. Hospitalization for psychiatric problems did not result in any personality changes, the researchers found.

One key question is whether the changes were representative of a change in fundamental personality traits versus simply a shift in psychological state, or mood, Roberts said. A person’s mood, for example, can affect how he or she responds to questions about his or her personality.

“If you’re in a bad mood and I force you to take a 150-item personality inventory, you might not respond well,” Roberts said.

Complicating matters, few of the studies available were true experiments that randomly assigned patients to treatment and control groups. Those studies that were experimental, however, did show significantly larger effects on personality in the treatment group compared with the control group, the researchers found. And in the observational studies, follow-ups that took place months or years after treatment showed no evidence that people were backsliding: The changes that followed therapy stayed stable, suggesting that these are changes in people’s basic personality traits rather than moment-by-moment moods, the researchers said. [9 DIY Ways to Improve Your Mental Health]

Still, more studies with long follow-up periods need to be done in order to really test the idea that personality can be changed, Roberts said. Ideal research, he said, would include randomly assigning patients to treatment as well as getting outside observers, like friends or family, to rate any personality changes. A perfect study would also follow people for several years after the treatment, Roberts said.

A further question is what is the “magic ingredient” in therapy that ushers in personality change, Roberts said.

“If you can actually affect change in something like neuroticism or conscientiousness,” he said, “you could possibly have pretty interesting consequences for somebody, because personality traits are important.”

Original article on Live Science.

Source: New You: Personality May Change After Therapy

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[Poster] Relationship Between Positive Personality Traits and Rehabilitation Outcomes Following Acquired Brain Injury Several Years Post-Injury

The study investigated the relationship between positive personality traits of hope and optimism and rehabilitation outcomes of participation and quality of life in individuals with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), living in the community. Self-awareness to injury related deficits was also examined.

Source: Relationship Between Positive Personality Traits and Rehabilitation Outcomes Following Acquired Brain Injury Several Years Post-Injury – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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[WEB SITE] Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide – Neurobehavioral Rehabilitation

Neurobehavioral Rehabilitation

Changes in personality and behavior are familiar consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and often represent a significant barrier to effective rehabilitation and a successful outcome. In the acute stages of recovery from TBI, it is common for a person to exhibit a variety of behavioral complications which are considered by many to be a normal phase of recovery. When these behaviors continue beyond the acute recovery phase, however, and form on-going negative patterns of interaction with others, very specialized treatment is required. These behaviors can be disturbing to families and staff, disruptive to therapy, jeopardize patient safety and negatively impact a patient’s community re-entry and future quality of life.


Applied Behavior Analysis

Applied behavior analysis can be a powerful methodology for teaching people more positive ways of interacting with their environment and those around them. Centre for Neuro Skills provides a staff of Board Certified Behavior Analysts and over thirty-five years of experience in successfully treating patients with the most severe behavioral complications following their brain injury. Our behavior analysts complete in-depth assessments and detailed treatment plans to reduce challenging behaviors and increase positive behaviors. Staff members at both our clinic and residential locations are trained in behavior skills, crisis prevention, implementation of behavioral programming and regularly meet with behavior analysts to discuss the effectiveness of treatment plans.


Neurobehavioral Rehabilitation Program

Centre for Neuro Skills treats a variety of challenging and severe behaviors including:

  • Physical Aggression
  • Verbal Aggression
  • Self-Injurious Behavior
  • Lack of Initiation
  • Inappropriate Social Behavior
  • Noncompliance
  • Sexual Disinhibition
  • Property Destruction
  • Escape and Elopement


Our Neurobehavioral Rehabilitation Program is based on fundamentals of behavior analysis, such as precisely identifying a patient’s challenging behaviors, any environmental and internal factors that might be contributing to the occurrence of the behaviors and responses to the behaviors that make it more likely to continue. Neurobehavioral treatment is most effective when it is integrated with a comprehensive brain injury rehabilitation program. Centre for Neuro Skills provides coordinated medical and behavioral programming so as to maximize learning and reduce reliance upon medication, however, some patients are optimized by a combination of the two. Neurobehavioral treatment provides a “meta-structure” within which the various therapeutic disciplines of brain injury rehabilitation are carried out. The goal is to reduce those behaviors that limit independence and increase positive behaviors that empower a person and enhance opportunities for community, social, and family interaction.


Neuro Behavior Program Emphasizes Community Re-Integration: Read more

Case Study: Overcoming Behavioral Struggles, a Woman Embraces Life Again: Read more

TBI and Behavior Articles: Read abstracts


CNS Behavior Publications

The use of noncontingent reinforcement and contingent restraint to reduce physical aggression and self-injurious behaviour in a traumatically brain injured adult, Persel, C.S. and Persel, C.H. (1997), Brain Injury, 11(10), 751-60. Read abstract

Persel, C.S., & Persel, C.H. (2010). The Use of Applied Behavior Analysis in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation. In M.J. Ashley (Editor), Traumatic Brain Injury: Rehabilitation, Treatment and Case Management. Third Edition. Boca-Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. Read more


Neurobehavioral Treatment of Severe Behavior After Traumatic Brain Injury

Source: Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide – Neurobehavioral Rehabilitation

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