The purpose of this review is to highlight the pharmacological barrier to drug development for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to discuss best practice strategies to overcome such barriers. Specifically, this article will review the pharmacological considerations of moving from the disease target “hit” to the “lead” compound with drug-like and central nervous system (CNS) penetrant properties. In vitro assessment of drug-like properties will be detailed, followed by pre-clinical studies to ensure adequate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of response. The importance of biomarker development and utilization in both pre-clinical and clinical studies will be detailed, along with the importance of identifying diagnostic, pharmacodynamic/response, and prognostic biomarkers of injury type or severity, drug target engagement, and disease progression. This review will detail the important considerations in determining in vivo pre-clinical dose selection, as well as cross-species and human equivalent dose selection. Specific use of allometric scaling, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic criteria, as well as incorporation of biomarker assessments in human dose selection for clinical trial design will also be discussed. The overarching goal of this review is to detail the pharmacological considerations in the drug development process as a method to improve both pre-clinical and clinical study design as we evaluate novel therapies to improve outcomes in patients with TBI.
via Pharmacological Optimization for Successful Traumatic Brain Injury Drug Development | Journal of Neurotrauma
Introduction: Post-stroke spasticity is a disabling neurological condition and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Ability to carry out activities of daily living is often compromised and painful contractures in the affected limbs may also develop. The prevalence of spasticity may be as high as 40% within the first year after the initial stroke event. Management of this condition focuses on improving muscle tone, function and pain. IncobotulinumtoxinA is effective in treating focal spasticity.
This review will summarize outcomes from incobotulinumtoxin A phase III trials in upper limb spasticity. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics will also be discussed along with future studies and possible indications. Literature searches used for this review include; PubMed and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov
searches. Congress abstracts and case reports are not included.
Expert opinion: IncobotulinumtoxinA, is a 150 kiloDalton neurotoxin without complexing proteins and is well tolerated in patients with spasticity. There is an 80% improvement reported i spasticity and disability in several phase III studies. In the future, higher doses for upper and lower limb spasticity may be considered. Antibody formation does not seem to limit the administration of higher doses. Prospective studies are evaluating the efficacy of incobotulinumtoxin in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy and immunogenic status of other botulinum neurotoxin A subtypes are currently under investigation.
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Source: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of incobotulinumtoxin A influencing the clinical efficacy in post-stroke spasticity – Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology –