[WEB SITE] Neurobehavioral Challenges After Brain Injury

The effects of neurological damage from events like trauma and stroke can be devastating to the individual and those close to them. Brain injury can result in lifelong physical, cognitive, and behavioral changes. The impact of behavior changes can profoundly alter how the injured person functions day to day, even impeding rehabilitative goals and impacting the ability to live independently. Changes in personality and behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) often represent the most significant barrier to a successful outcome including reintegration into the community whether for basic daily tasks, work or recreational/social activities.

Common behavior issues following brain injury include behavioral excesses (occurring too much) such as irritability (e.g., poor tolerance, short temper) and aggression (e.g., hitting, grabbing, kicking), property destruction (e.g., striking furniture, throwing items) and inappropriate vocalizations (e.g., cursing, yelling, threats). Also presenting a concern are behavior deficits (do not occur enough) such as compliance with tasks (e.g., cooperation with requests), social skills (e.g., overfamiliar discussions, uncharacteristically rude remarks), initiation (e.g., knowing when to begin tasks) and the academic and return to work skills (e.g., being on time, following directions) to be successful. Some of the most difficult behaviors can be dangerous to the patient and others around them. Treating these dangerous and challenging behaviors, which may include physical aggression toward others, self-injurious behavior, sexual disinhibition, and escape or elopement, requires a treatment commitment across the continuum of care.

In the early, acute stages of recovery from brain injury, many of the behavioral complications demonstrated are considered to be a normal phase of recovery. When these behaviors continue beyond those early phases, however, and form on-going negative patterns of interaction with others, very specialized treatment is required.  These behaviors can be disturbing to families and staff, disruptive to therapy, and jeopardize patient safety. The future quality of life for the patient and their family depends on effective interventions, provided with a great deal of consistency and structure. Behavior analysts (professionals in Applied Behavior Analysis) add value to interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams by helping to develop both skill acquisition and behavior reduction programs throughout the patient’s recovery (i.e., acute, post-acute, long term care). Behavior analysts spend a great deal of time directly observing interactions, determining what may be motivating the difficult behaviors, and what responses may need to be strengthened and reinforced. The behavior analyst must then provide training to all those who may interact with the patient, including most importantly, the family. This skilled, specialized intervention establishes more effective and acceptable response patterns that allow the patient to have their needs met and be better understood without displaying problem behavior. The structured behavior plan can also help the patient develop positive, prosocial responses, and more efficient functional skills.

The effects of brain injury are highly individual, which then challenges the behavior analysts, family and others on the treatment team to continually evaluate the responses, goals, and outcomes throughout recovery (e.g., monitoring response to new medications).

Considering the risk to patients and families, the rising healthcare cost and the possibility of reduced services being available, a focus on efficient and effective interventions such as behavior analysis seems essential to a well-integrated, interdisciplinary rehabilitation treatment team. The quality of life for those affected by brain injury depends on having the opportunity to receive not just the standard rehabilitation one might get following knee surgery but rather specialized, experienced and effective treatment specifically designed to address the unique difficulties they face including difficult behavior.

via Neurobehavioral Challenges After Brain Injury | CNS Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation

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[Guide] LIFE AFTER STROKE Our Path Forward – American Stroke Association


If you are the caregiver, family member or friend of a stroke survivor, your role is vital. You should know the prevention plan and help your loved one to comply with the plan. With a committed health care team and a rehabilitation plan specific to their needs, most stroke survivors can prevent another stroke and thrive.

We hope this guide will help you and your loved ones understand the effects of stroke and how to maximize your rehabilitation and recovery.

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[Graphic] BRAIN Injury Awareness

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[WEB SITE] Coping with a Traumatic Brain Injury – What You Must Know

There are numerous things which must be considered when coping with traumatic brain injury. Every aspect of life can be affected. The severity of symptoms and the need to change perspective is dependent on the severity of the injury. Each patient will require a unique treatment plan and the devastated support network.


Patients often experience difficult times with both memory and cognitive thinking exercises. The development of logical thought patterns can be difficult for a person who has short term memory loss and related to their injury. The development of long-term reasoning sequences and the development of understanding actions and consequences can often be difficult after injury. Working with qualified teams of physical and occupational therapists seen greatly increase the recovery chances of patients who are struggling after brain injury. There is a need for a personalized recovery plan as well as talk therapy for the highest possible chance of recovery.


Patients will experience a wide variety of physical challenges after suffering a brain injury. Individuals like Robert H Littlejohn and others in the industry understand the complex nature of helping patients to regain their fine motor skills while presenting them from having the infections which are common in patients. The issues related to physical mobility and learning to be self-sufficient from that a physical standpoint can be difficult especially if the neurological changes cause the patient to have difficulty walking. Identifying the need for seizure preventive medication may also be necessary for some patients.


After the injury that patient may experience volatile emotions. The part of the brain that regulates emotional responses can often cause a great deal of difficulty for patients who do not understand what is happening to them. Severe depression as well as suicidal tendencies can be brought out in patients who have severe damage to the emotional centers of the brain. Many times responses to emotionless stimulation are not linear and can be difficult for patients and their caregivers to understand.


TBI treatments must be comprehensive in order to be effective. Every area of the mind, body and spirit of the patient must be treated with dignity and respect. Connecting with qualified professionals provides the opportunity for patients to return to some state of independence. The road to recovery requires consistency in both procedures as well as emotional support for the patient. Alterations are often necessary along the recovery path in order to achieve the highest level of integration back into daily life after the injury.


via Coping with a Traumatic Brain Injury – What You Must Know.

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