Posts Tagged Post traumatic Epilepsy
- Approximately 20% of all epilepsy is caused by acute acquired injury such as traumatic brain injury, stroke and CNS infection, with potential to prevent epilepsy
- No treatment to prevent acquired epilepsy exists; and very few clinical studies have been done during the last 15 years to develop such treatment
- We review possible reasons for this, possible ways to rectify the situations and note some of the ways currently under way to do so
- We further review “cures” of epilepsy that occur spontaneously, and after surgical and sometimes medical antiseizure treatments. We note the limited understanding of the mechanisms of such remissions and thus, at present inability to replicate them with targeted therapy
- Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury
- Epidemiology of Seizures and Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury
- The Epidemiology of Immediate and Early Posttraumatic Seizures
- Population Based Epidemiology of Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury
- Estimating the Absolute Risk of Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury
- Treatment and Prevention of Epilepsy Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality, and results in reduced quality of life and lifespan: An estimated 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries occur annually in the United States alone. Traumatic brain injury carries an increased risk of epilepsy that correlates with the severity of the brain injury.
Posttraumatic epilepsy accounts for less than 10% of epilepsy, but traumatic brain injury is one of only a few potentially preventable causes of epilepsy. Despite several well-controlled human studies, there is no current preventive treatment available for humans. Therefore, primary prevention is the only proven way to prevent posttraumatic epilepsy.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems.
Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence.
While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors.
Thus, one must ask, ‘Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?’ While the answer is ‘probably,’ more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature.
…Much of the stigma associated with the condition could be alleviated if people could anticipate their seizures and take necessary steps to make themselves safe, and modify their environment. Conceivably having accurate seizure prediction strategies could also permit administration of acutely acting anticonvulsant therapies. Seizure prediction systems may allow new insights into the natural history of the condition, and associated co-morbidities…
The Epilepsy Center at UC San Diego Neurological Institute is the only nationally designated epilepsy center in the region. We handle the most complex epilepsy cases in Southern California.
UC San Diego offers the latest technological advances in diagnostics, medical therapies, surgical procedures and clinical trials. Our epilepsy team includes EEG technologists, clinical nurse specialists, clinical trial specialists, neurologists, epileptologists, neuropathologists, neuropsychologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists.
[WEB SITE] Keppra (Levetiracetam) Drug Information: Description, User Reviews, Drug Side Effects, Interactions
KEPPRA is an antiepileptic drug available as 250 mg (blue), 500 mg (yellow), 750 mg (orange), and 1000 mg (white) tablets and as a clear, colorless, grape-flavored liquid (100 mg/mL) for oral administration…
Epilepsy is a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency for recurrent seizures. There are different types of epilepsy and seizures. Epilepsy drugs are prescribed to control seizures, and rarely surgery is necessary if medications are ineffective.
…Fetal exposure to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) appears to carry risks beyond those congenital defects currently listed on the products’ labels, a researcher said here…
…Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence…