Posts Tagged robotic device
The use of a brain-machine interface shows potential for helping to restore function in stroke patients with hand paralysis, according to a study of healthy adults published in the Journal of Neuroscience.
According to the study, researchers note that the brain-machine interface, which is designed to combine brain stimulation with a robotic device that controls hand movement, increases the output of pathways connecting the brain and spinal cord.
Researchers Alireza Gharabaghi and colleagues asked participants to imagine opening their hand without actually making any movement while their hand was placed in a device that passively opened and closed their fingers as it received the necessary input from their brain activity. Stimulating the hand area of the motor cortex at the same time, but not after, the robotic device initiated hand movement increased the strength of the neural signal, most likely by harnessing the processing power of additional neurons in the corticospinal tract, explains a media release from the Society for Neuroscience.
However, the signal decreased when participants were not required to imagine moving their hand. Delivering brain stimulation and robotic motor feedback simultaneously during rehabilitation may therefore be beneficial for patients who have lost voluntary muscle control, the release continues.
[Source(s): Society for Neuroscience]
[Abstract+References] State-of-the-art robotic devices for ankle rehabilitation: Mechanism and control review
There is an increasing research interest in exploring use of robotic devices for the physical therapy of patients suffering from stroke and spinal cord injuries. Rehabilitation of patients suffering from ankle joint dysfunctions such as drop foot is vital and therefore has called for the development of newer robotic devices. Several robotic orthoses and parallel ankle robots have been developed during the last two decades to augment the conventional ankle physical therapy of patients. A comprehensive review of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices is presented in this article. Recent developments in the mechanism design, actuation and control are discussed. The study encompasses robotic devices for treadmill and over-ground training as well as platform-based parallel ankle robots. Control strategies for these robotic devices are deliberated in detail with an emphasis on the assist-as-needed training strategies. Experimental evaluations of the mechanism designs and various control strategies of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices are also presented.
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Source: State-of-the-art robotic devices for ankle rehabilitation: Mechanism and control reviewProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine – Shahid Hussain, Prashant K Jamwal, Mergen H Ghayesh, 2017
Stroke is a significant cause of disability in the population. When the arm is affected by stroke, functional recovery may be poor. The use of robotic aids to enhance arm recovery is a novel treatment adjunct. There is a growing support for using robots as an adjunct to therapy but there has been little translation from research into clinical use.
The investigations reported in this thesis aimed to bridge the gap between research and clinical use of these devices. To achieve this,five stages were carried out: Firstly a systematic literature review of outcomes measure used for the upper limb was conducted.to establish the most reliable, valid and responsive scales.
This review found a battery of measures (ABILHAND, CHAI, STREAM, FMA, ARAT, EQ5D, DASH, NIHSS). An evaluation of 125 consecutive acute stroke patients established the proportion of patients that potentially benefited from rehabilitation using a robotic device. This found that around 50% of subjects could use a robotic aid and that it was practically feasible to carry out the intervention.
A pilot RCT performed on 37 participants using the battery of measures found a significant difference with use of the robotic device on the ABILHAND, This was not seen with the other measures, however there was a trend towards improvement in motor performance and function in the robotic group. In depth interviews with participants found subjects perceived gains with using the robot but fatigue stopped them using it for longer periods.
Psychometric analysis of the outcome measures used found difficulties with the instruments in reflecting clinically change.
The studies showed that a robotic device could be used practically; however stratifying subjects into arm severity would help provide further information over who could benefit from the intervention. Identifying appropriate ways of measuring changes that are clinically meaningful would also be beneficial.