Posts Tagged robots

[Literature Review] Robotics in Upper Limb Rehabilitation Nursing – Full Text PDF

Purpose of this final thesis is to view what kind of robots there are in use in stroke rehabilitation nursing, focusing on upper limb rehabilitation. At the same time this work will view the attitudes of patients and therapist towards robotics in the health care field.

Robots are present and with robots engineers are trying to develop the health care services. Robots have come to different health care fields different technology is used in rehabilitation nursing. Robots help patients to recover more quickly.

I am implementing this work as a literature review. Search of articles were done in three different databases EBSCO host, PubMed and Science Direct. The work ends up to use articles choose from EBSCO host and Science Direct, total 6 articles.

I did found that there are several robots in use and I will introduce in this work some of them that are in commercial cell and one prototype. Attitudes were introduced to be good but still people trust more real humans.

Rehabilitation robots exist but they are not in that big use. Studies show that robotic use in rehabilitation increases the outcome. The problem with robots is mainly high price and attitudes of the therapist.

 

1 Introduction

Robots are the present day and the future. All over the history humans have been trying to use different kind of machines to help them in everyday life. In Finland developing the robots has been slow, there are only a few companies who are doing the developmental work. Same slowness is also noticeable in Europe too. (Jaakkola 2015.)

There are already many active robots in factories, so why not in health care too. By automatization many companies have decreased the unit costs, increased the quality and productivity (Mattila 2015). Big companies such as Toyota have done experiments and developments to create a working and useful care robot. They have released at least four different kind of care robots that help disabled people to manage in their everyday life. (Linnake 2011.)

In Europe there are more than million strokes per year and the number is rising (Bonita et al. 2006). Stroke rehabilitation patients are the biggest group to use rehabilitation services (Kallanranta, 1994). Every stroke rehabilitation is individual; 40 percent of stroke patients needs long term rehabilitation. In rehabilitation, the patient’s capability in everyday living is improved. After three months of effective rehabilitation 50-70 percent of the patients are recovered as independent in everyday living, 15-30 percent have been left permanently disabled and 20 percent need inpatient care. (Aivoliitto 2015.)

Robots in rehabilitation nursing help patients to get back in shape. Thought attitudes towards robots vary. Recently published France research says that people are not taking advice from robots willingly. (Chetouani et al. 2015.)

In stroke rehabilitation a multi-professional work group is focusing on every symptom that a patient has. Their job is to improve the patient’s life as much as possible. Only a half of the patients in Finland who are in need of effective stroke rehabilitation are getting it. (Aivoliitto 2015). Is there something that we can do to improve that? Can we use robotics and robots to improve that number?

Some people are afraid of robots to take over their jobs. In my opinion in the health care field that is not a very big thing to be afraid of. Patients need the human contact. It is said that robots are taking over the jobs but they are also producing new ones. (Mattila 2015.) In Finland the government is not considering them as futures workers. The founder of Robotics Finland, Cristina Andersson puts a big part of her hope to the health care field and development of robotics in there (Mattila 2015).

The head of the Mainio Vire company Leena Munter says that nowadays in Finland the use of robotics in health care is minimum. She says that there are a lot of places and possibilities to develop new working robots for example to elderly care. (Munter 2015.)

In this work I am focusing on already existing rehabilitation robots in stroke recovery

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[Abstract] Combining a hybrid robotic system with a bain-machine interface for the rehabilitation of reaching movements: A case study with a stroke patient

Abstract:

Reaching and grasping are two of the most affected functions after stroke. Hybrid rehabilitation systems combining Functional Electrical Stimulation with Robotic devices have been proposed in the literature to improve rehabilitation outcomes. In this work, we present the combined use of a hybrid robotic system with an EEG-based Brain-Machine Interface to detect the user’s movement intentions to trigger the assistance. The platform has been tested in a single session with a stroke patient. The results show how the patient could successfully interact with the BMI and command the assistance of the hybrid system with low latencies. Also, the Feedback Error Learning controller implemented in this system could adjust the required FES intensity to perform the task.

I. Introduction

Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability around the world. A large number of stroke survivors are left with a unilateral arm or leg paralysis. After completing conventional rehabilitation therapy, a significant number of stroke survivors are left with limited reaching and grasping capabilities [1].

Source: Combining a hybrid robotic system with a bain-machine interface for the rehabilitation of reaching movements: A case study with a stroke patient – IEEE Xplore Document

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[Review] Robotics in Upper Limb Rehabilitation Nursing – Full Text PDF 

Purpose of this final thesis is to view what kind of robots there are in use in stroke rehabilitation nursing, focusing on upper limb rehabilitation. At the same time this work will view the attitudes of patients and therapist towards robotics in the health care field.

Robots are present and with robots engineers are trying to develop the health care services. Robots have come to different health care fields different technology is used in rehabilitation nursing. Robots help patients to recover more quickly.

I am implementing this work as a literature review. Search of articles were done in three different databases EBSCO host, PubMed and Science Direct. The work ends up to use articles choose from EBSCO host and Science Direct, total 6 articles.

I did found that there are several robots in use and I will introduce in this work some of them that are in commercial cell and one prototype. Attitudes were introduced to be good but still people trust more real humans.

Rehabilitation robots exist but they are not in that big use. Studies show that robotic use in rehabilitation increases the outcome. The problem with robots is mainly high price and attitudes of the therapist. …

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[Conference Paper] Haptic based Gait Rehabilitation System for Stroke Patients – Full Text PDF

Abstract
Among most existing gait rehabilitation robots, it
is difficult to find adequate devices for gait rehabilitation of
chronic stroke patients who can already stand and move but still
need to rehabilitate the affected lower limb through simple,
compact, and easy-to use devices. This paper presents a novel
haptic based gait rehabilitation system (HGRS) which has the
potential to provide over-ground gait training regimens for
post-stroke ambulatory subjects. It consists of a portable cane
for kinesthetic sensing and a wearable vibrotactor array for
tactile biofeedback. Contact of user with the handle provides
light grip force, it serves the purpose of balance assurance and
increased muscle activity through light touch concept and
vibrotactors contribute in enhancing the gait modification
through afferent signal of vibration. Walking trials conducted
with stroke patients indicate increased muscle activation and
balance, and improved temporal symmetry with use of HGRS.
HGRS is capable of assisting physical therapists in training
individuals with stroke suffering from gait abnormalities. In
addition, it is easy to use and low-cost which makes it reachable
to a vast domain of subjects suffering from gait abnormalities.

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[Abstract] Design of a thumb module for the FINGER rehabilitation robot

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and initial prototype of a thumb curling exoskeleton for movement therapy. This add-on device for the Finger INdividuating Grasp Exercise Robot (FINGER) guides the thumb through a single-degree-of-freedom naturalistic grasping motion. This motion complements the grasping motions of the index and middle fingers provided by FINGER. The kinematic design and mechanism synthesis described herein utilized 3D motion capture and included the determination of the principle plane of the thumb motion for the simple grasping movement. The results of the design process and the creation of a first prototype indicate that this thumb module for finger allows naturalistic thumb motion that expands the capabilities of the FINGER device.

Source: IEEE Xplore Document – Design of a thumb module for the FINGER rehabilitation robot

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[Abstract] A fabric-regulated soft robotic glove with user intent detection using EMG and RFID for hand assistive application. 

Abstract

This paper presents a soft robotic glove designed to assist individuals with functional grasp pathologies in performing activities of daily living. The glove utilizes soft fabric-regulated pneumatic actuators that are low-profile and require lower pressure than previously developed actuators. They are able to support fingers and thumb motions during hand closure. Upon pressurization, the actuators are able to generate sufficient force to assist in hand closing and grasping during different manipulation tasks. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performances of the actuators as well as the glove in terms of its kinetic and kinematic assistance on a healthy participant. Additionally, surface electromyography and radio-frequency identification techniques were adopted to detect user intent to activate or deactivate the glove. Lastly, we present preliminary results of a healthy participant performing different manipulation tasks with the soft robotic glove controlled by surface electromyography and radio-frequency identification techniques.

Source: IEEE Xplore Abstract (Abstract) – A fabric-regulated soft robotic glove with user intent detection using EMG and RFID for hand assisti…

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[ARTICLE] Reinforcement learning neural network (RLNN) based adaptive control of fine hand motion rehabilitation robot.

Recent neural science research suggests that a robotic device can be an effective tool to deliver the repetitive movement training that is needed to trigger neuroplasticity in the brain following neurologic injuries such as stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI).

In such scenario, adaptive control of the robotic device to provide assistance as needed along the intended motion trajectory with exact amount of force intensity, though complex, is a more effective approach. A critic-actor based reinforcement learning neural network (RLNN) control method is explored to provide adaptive control during post-stroke fine hand motion rehabilitation training.

The effectiveness of the method is verified through computer simulation and implementation on a hand rehabilitation robotic device.

Results suggest that the control system can fulfil the assist-as-needed (AAN) control with high performance and reliability. The method demonstrates potential to encourage active participation of the patient in the rehabilitation process and to improve the efficiency of the process.

Source: IEEE Xplore Abstract (Abstract) – Reinforcement learning neural network (RLNN) based adaptive control of fine hand motion rehabilitati…

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[ARTICLE] User-centred input for a wearable soft-robotic glove supporting hand function in daily life

Abstract

Many stroke patients and elderly have a reduced hand function, resulting in difficulties with independently performing activities of daily living (ADL). Assistive technology is a promising alternative to support the upper limb in performing ADL. To avoid device abandonment, end-users should be involved early in the design and development phase to identify user requirements for assistive technology.

The present study applies a user-centred approach to identify user requirements for wearable soft-robotic gloves targeted at physical support of hand function during ADL for elderly and stroke patients.

Elderly, stroke patients and healthcare professionals, participating in focus groups, specified requirements regarding:

  1. activities that need support of assistive technology,
  2. design of wearable robotic devices for hand support, and
  3. application of assistive technology as training tool at home.

Assistive technology for the support of the hand is considered valuable by users for assisting ADL, but only if the device is wearable, compact, lightweight, easy to use, quickly initialized, washable and only supports the particular function(s) that an individual need(s) assistance with, without taking over existing function(s) from the user.

Source: IEEE Xplore Abstract – User-centred input for a wearable soft-robotic glove supporting hand function in daily life

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[ARTICLE] Static and dynamic characterization of the LIGHTarm exoskeleton for rehabilitation

Abstract

This paper presents LIGHTarm, a passive gravity compensated exoskeleton for upper-limb rehabilitation suitable for the use both in the clinical environment and at home. Despite the low-cost and not actuated design, LIGHTarm aims at providing remarkable back-drivability in wide portions of the upper-limb workspace. The weight-support and back-drivability features are experimentally investigated on three healthy subjects through the analysis of the EMG activity recorded in static conditions and during functional movements. Kinematics is also monitored. Preliminary results suggest that LIGHTarm sharply reduces muscular effort required for limb support, quite uniformly in the workspace, and that remarkable back-drivability is achieved during the execution of functional movements.

Source: IEEE Xplore Abstract (Abstract) – Static and dynamic characterization of the LIGHTarm exoskeleton for rehabilitation

 

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[ARTICLE] IEEE Xplore Abstract (Abstract) – Fuzzy sliding mode control of an upper limb exoskeleton for robot-assisted rehabilitation

Robot-assisted therapy has become an important technology used to restore and reinforce the motor functions of the patients with neuromuscular disorders.

In this paper, we proposed an upper-limb exoskeleton intended to assist the rehabilitation training of shoulder, elbow and wrist. The proposed therapeutic exoskeleton has an anthropomorphic structure able to match the upper-limb anatomy and enable natural human-robot interaction.

A modified sliding mode control (SMC) strategy consisting of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) sliding surface and a fuzzy hitting control law is developed to guarantee robust tracking performance and reduce the chattering effect. The Lyapunov theorem is utilized to demonstrate the system stability. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, several trajectory tracking experiments were conducted based on a real-time control system.

Experimental results are presented to prove that, when compared to the conventional PID controller, the fuzzy SMC strategy can effectively reduce the tracking errors and achieve favorable control performance.

via IEEE Xplore Abstract (Abstract) – Fuzzy sliding mode control of an upper limb exoskeleton for robot-assisted rehabilitation
.

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