Posts Tagged robots
[Abstract] An Elbow Exoskeleton for Upper Limb Rehabilitation With Series Elastic Actuator and Cable-Driven Differential
[ARTICLE] A Feasibility Study of SSVEP-Based Passive Training on an Ankle Rehabilitation Robot – Full Text
Objective. This study aims to establish a steady-state visual evoked potential- (SSVEP-) based passive training protocol on an ankle rehabilitation robot and validate its feasibility. Method. This paper combines SSVEP signals and the virtual reality circumstance through constructing information transmission loops between brains and ankle robots. The robot can judge motion intentions of subjects and trigger the training when subjects pay their attention on one of the four flickering circles. The virtual reality training circumstance provides real-time visual feedback of ankle rotation. Result. All five subjects succeeded in conducting ankle training based on the SSVEP-triggered training strategy following their motion intentions. The lowest success rate is 80%, and the highest one is 100%. The lowest information transfer rate (ITR) is 11.5 bits/min when the biggest one of the robots for this proposed training is set as 24 bits/min. Conclusion. The proposed training strategy is feasible and promising to be combined with a robot for ankle rehabilitation. Future work will focus on adopting more advanced data process techniques to improve the reliability of intention detection and investigating how patients respond to such a training strategy.
Stroke is one of the main root causes leading patients unable to comfortably control their muscles and bodies in the daily living, and even lose the ability [1–3]. The ability of body controlling is inversely proportional to the distance between brains and limbs, which means that the longer the distance is, the lower the ability is . Motor function of injured ankles will be recovered more difficult than one of the hands with a similar disability.
For early stage rehabilitation of injured ankles, if without sufficient rotations, ankle joints could gradually become stiff, and finally, foot drop will be generated [5, 6]. In order to avoid being stiff, muscle stretching and joint rotating are regarded as one of the important methods in traditional therapy of injured ankle joints. Traditional physical therapy is usually operated manually by therapists. It has a unique advantage, which therapists can observe real-time feedback from patients through their body reaction and communication and thus adjust the process accordingly. However, it also has several limitations: (1) therapists can feel weary for long-time operation; (2) operating strength cannot be kept uniformly during the whole process; (3) mental state of therapists is one of the key factors to affect therapy effect .
In order to release manpower and address those limitations, robots have been invented to substitute partial functions of traditional therapy [8, 9]. For ankle rehabilitation, there are two kinds of robots invented, one of which is platform-based robots, and the other is wearable devices . When training on platform-based robots, subjects are normally in a sitting position to train their physical function of muscle stretching and joint rotating [8, 10]. When training on wearable ankle robots, subjects are required to be in a standing position to improve their ability on walking . Therefore, platform-based robots can provide better rehabilitation for subjects with weak motion ability of ankle joints, while targeted subjects of wearable ankle robots are those whose motion ability of ankle joints is strong enough to walk, but gait needs to be rebuilt and improved further recovery .
Passive training is one of the basic functions of platform-based robots. Different with common passive stretching with constant speed, Zhang et al.  proposed an intelligent passive stretching strategy in ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (DF/PF) for safety. During intelligent passive stretching, rotating speed of the robot was inversely proportional to resistance torque. As soon as predefined maximum resistance torque was reached, ankle joints would be held at the extreme position for a period of time to allow stress relaxation. For robot-assisted passive ankle training, subjects are requested to keep relaxed to follow up trajectories of robots [3, 10]. After experiencing passive training, physic function of ankle joints can be kept to a certain degree and foot drop can be alleviated correspondingly [5, 8, 12].
Active training is another function of platform-based robots, where subjects are requested to actuate robots to track targets by allowing the foot to follow visual or auditory instructions [1, 10, 13, 14]. Visual reality circumstance has been widely applied in robot-assisted active ankle training. Girone et al.  proposed a virtual reality exercise library on the Rutgers Ankle. Subjects could conduct simulation exercise of strength, flexibility, and balance with haptic and visual feedback. Burdea et al.  proposed rehabilitation games including the airplane game and breakout 3D game. Michmizos et al.  proposed three goal-directed serious games especially for children. In this study, visual reality circumstance is set as a game of whack-a-mole, which four hamsters are arranged in four directions as targets, and a hammer is initially located in the center as the movable cursor. The vertical trajectory of hammer is projected to DF/PF, while the horizontal one is corresponded to inversion/eversion (INV/EV).
For passive training, subjects do not need to exert active effort, and thus few information transmission loops between brains and ankles exist . A prerequisite of conducting active training is that subjects should have enough motion ability of ankle joints to trigger robots . Therefore, for subjects whose motion intentions of ankle joints cannot be detected by built-in force sensors of robots, solving the problem of how they can actively conduct ankle training is a big challenge. This study aims to construct an information transmission loop between brains and ankle robots and enable subjects with weak motion ability of ankle joints to actively conduct robot-assisted ankle training.
When subjects focus their attention on a flickering source with frequency above 6 Hz, electroencephalography (EEG) signals originated from their visual cortex are named SSVEP, spectrum of which shows peak at the flickering frequency and its harmonics . SSVEP signals have been extracted and applied in many fields, such as controlling the robotic wheelchair , the humanoid robot navigation [20, 21], the semiautonomous mobile robotic car operation , and the artificial upper limb .
In this study, SSVEP signals are introduced and used for passive training on an ankle rehabilitation robot, in which motion intentions of subjects can be extracted to trigger related passive training. Four flickering circles with the diameter of 22 mm are arranged in four directions. Flickering frequencies are set as 10 Hz for the upper, 12 Hz for the bottom, 8.6 Hz for the left, and 15 Hz for the right . For subjects, gazing at the upper flickering circle represents the motion intention for DF, the bottom for PF, the left for INV, and the right for EV.
To enable subjects with weak motion ability of ankle joints to conduct motion intention-directed passive training, this study develops a SSVEP-based passive training strategy through combining SSVEP signals and virtual reality circumstance on an ankle robot. To verify its feasibility, this study recruited five healthy subjects for preliminary evaluation.
2.1. Ankle Rehabilitation Robot
The ankle rehabilitation robot applied in this study is an improved version of the one used in  by adding adjustable robot structure and was briefly introduced as in Figure 1(a). The footplate of the ankle robot could move with three degrees of freedom, which are corresponding to ankle DF/PF, INV/EV, and adduction/abduction (AA). The robot is actuated in parallel by four FFMs (FESTO DMSP-20-400N), pressure control of which is regulated by four proportional pressure regulators (FESTO VPPM-6L-L-1-G18-0L6H). Three magnetic rotary encoders (AMS AS5048A) are installed along each axis to measure angular positions forming a three-dimensional coordinate system of the footplate. Four single-axis load cells (FUTEK LCM 300) are installed to measure contraction forces generated by FFMs. A six-axis load cell (SRI M3715C) is installed below the footplate to measure interaction forces and torques between human feet and the footplate.[…]
[Abstract + References] Self-paced movement intention recognition from EEG signals during upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation
[Abstract] Decoupling Finger Joint Motion in an Exoskeletal Hand: A Design for Robot-assisted Rehabilitation
In this study, a cable-driven exoskeleton device is developed for stroke patients to enable them to perform passive range of motion exercises and teleoperation rehabilitation of their impaired hands. Each exoskeleton finger is controlled by an actuator via two cables. The motions between the metacarpophalangeal and distal/proximal interphalangeal joints are decoupled, through which the movement pattern is analogous to that observed in the human hand. A dynamic model based on the Lagrange method is derived to estimate how cable tension varies with the angular position of the finger joints. Two discernable phases are observed, each of which reflects the motion of the metacarpophalangeal and distal/proximal interphalangeal joints. The tension profiles of exoskeleton fingers predicted by the Lagrange model are verified through a mechatronic integrated platform. The model can precisely estimate the tensions at different movement velocities, and it shows that the characteristics of two independent phases remain the same even for a variety of movement velocities. The feasibility for measuring resistance when manipulating a patient’s finger is demonstrated in human experiments. Specifically, the net force required to move a subject’s finger joints can be accounted for by the Lagrange model.
[Abstract] The wearable hand robot: supporting impaired hand function in activities of daily living and rehabilitation
New developments, based on the concept of wearable soft-robotic devices, make it possible to support impaired hand function during the performance of daily activities and intensive task-specific training. The ironHand and HandinMind systems are examples of such novel wearable soft-robotic systems that have been developed in the ironHand and HandinMind projects. Both systems are developed to provide grip support during a wide range of daily activities. The ironHand system consists of a 3-finger wearable soft-robotic glove, tailored to older adults with a variety of physical age-related hand function limitations. The HandinMind system consists of a 5-finger wearable soft-robotic glove, dedicated towards application in stroke. In both cases, the wearable soft-robotic system could be connected to a computer with custom software to train specific aspects of hand function in a motivating game-like environment with multiple levels of difficulty. By adding the game environment, an assistive device is transformed into a dedicated training device.
[Abstract] Kinematic analysis and control for upper limb robotic rehabilitation system – IEEE Conference Publication
Statistics shows that, at European Union level, the upper limb is second common body part injured, as a result of unintentional physical injury . Also, one can note the shortage of therapists and high costs for patient or healthcare insurance systems. Current development in robotics may offer a solution for this problem , allowing the creation of robotic devices to support the rehabilitation process, in a supervised or unsupervised way, in physiotherapy clinics or at home. In this context, we proposed RAPMES, a new intelligent, adaptive robotic system, which can provide the rehabilitation protocols, defined by a therapist, for the wrist and elbow of upper limb, considering the patient reactions and based on real-time feedback. RAPMES robotic system is designed on an ongoing research project, which implies several stages of development. In a first stage, we conducted a study involving therapists, the personnel and devices existent in a physiotherapy clinic. The role of this study was to determine the requirements for the robotic device, and to reveal the specific therapeutic needs of patients with rehabilitation indications at wrist and elbow level. On a second stage, we used a real-time video motion analysis system, to determine and understand specific functional movements frequently made with the dominant upper limb, by healthy persons. One of our research objectives is to include these movements as a part of RAPMES control algorithm, as they may offer a better rehabilitation of the upper limb, for specific moves. Next, we designed the robotic device, based on findings described above, and realized an experimental model of the robotic device.
[Abstract] A Portable Passive Rehabilitation Robot for Upper-Extremity Functional Resistance Training
[Abstract] Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact
Neurorehabilitation research has shown that training programs for patients after stroke should ideally consist of high intensity, task-specific and functional exercises with active contribution of the patient, to have the best chance for improving arm/hand function , . Conventional rehabilitation involves predominantly one-to-one attention of a therapist for each patient, which is a challenge when aiming to provide high intensity training and involves high costs , . This is impeded further by an increased ageing of the population, associated with a higher prevalence of stroke patients and less healthcare professionals available to provide such intensive training.
via Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact – IEEE Conference Publication