Posts Tagged sensorimotor function

[WEB SITE] VR could trick stroke victims’ brains toward recovery.

Could virtual reality help stroke survivors regain motor function?

That’s a question Sook-Lei Liew is looking to answer.

Liew, an assistant professor at the University of Southern California and an affiliate of the Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute at the Keck School of Medicine, was inspired by research from Mel Slater and Jeremy Bailenson on embodiment in VR. If someone’s given a child’s body in VR, for example, they might start exhibiting more childlike behavior.

She wondered if giving stroke survivors with motor impairments a virtual avatar that moves properly could help promote brain plasticity (or the ability to change) and recovery. Maybe it would eventually lead to them to moving an impaired limb again.


USC researcher Sook-Lei Liew and her partners are testing to see whether virtual reality could help with stroke rehab. Nate Jense

“So, kind of like tricking the brain through visual input,” said Liew, who is also director of the Neural Plasticity and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory. “There’s a lot of emerging evidence from neuroscience and psychology that was showing that you can really identify [with the avatar], and it changes your behavior based on the avatar you’re given in VR.”

Virtual reality is a computer-generated simulation of a 3D environment. Using a VR headset with lenses that feed images to the eyes, a person can be virtually transported to another location, or interact with a setting in a seemingly realistic way. It’s commonly been used in gaming, but it’s being tested in other environments, too — like rehab.

Implementing VR in health care and patient treatment isn’t new. It’s been used to help people overcome phobias and anxiety disorders. But the application is starting to take off now that the technology is more developed and commercially available. Some medical schools are looking to train students with virtual simulations, and it’s even helping midwives learn how to deliver babies.

Liew’s research team has been working on a study for about two years called REINVENT, an acronym for Rehabilitation Environment using the Integration of Neuromuscular-based Virtual Enhancements for Neural Training. The researchers also collaborated with the USC Institute for Creative Technologies to develop the prototype.

The process works by using a brain-computer interface, which takes a signal from the brain and uses it to control another device: a computer, a robot or, in REINVENT’s case, an avatar in VR.

Next, researchers read electrical signatures of brain activity from the surface of the scalp using electroencephalography, or EEG, for short. The team also uses electromyography, which studies the electrical activity of the muscles. That can tell them whether somebody’s moving or if they’re trying to move.

Those signals are then fed into a program on a laptop. The program has thresholds so that when specific signals in the brain or muscle activity that correspond to an attempt to move are detected, they drive the movement of a virtual arm. The resulting visual feedback through a VR headset could help strengthen neural pathways from the damaged motor cortex to the impaired arm or limb.

While the researchers could theoretically extend this process to a patient’s lower limbs, Liew said it can be dangerous for someone with a motor impairment in the lower extremities to try to move with VR, so seated studies are much safer.

The research group recently finished testing the prototype using an Oculus DK2 with 22 healthy older adults, who provided a sample of what the brain and muscle signals look like when they move. They’re now starting to test with stroke patients in a controlled lab setting, aiming to work with 10 in the short term and hundreds in the long term, in both clinical and home environments.

The team also found that giving people neurofeedback of the virtual arm moving in a VR headset was more effective than simply showing it on a screen.

“Their brain activity in the motor regions that we’re trying to target is higher, and they’re able to control the brain-computer interface a little bit better and faster,” Liew said. “It makes the case that there is an added benefit from doing this in virtual reality, which is one of the first things we wanted to know.”

An unclear future

Because VR is still a relatively new technology, there are many unanswered questions on the best ways to use it in the medical profession.

“For the most part, nobody knows how to make great VR experiences, for business or consumer,” Gartner analyst Brian Blau said. “Over time, those issues will get resolved. But for the medical industry, they have the extra added bonus of having even more types of physical behaviors that they have to either mimic or want to measure.”

And while the possibilities for VR in health care are exciting, Liew is careful not to get ahead of herself.

“We think that VR is a promising medium, but we’re moving ahead cautiously,” she said. “A lot of the work that we’re trying to do is to test assumptions, because there’s a lot of excitement about VR, but there’s not that much that’s scientifically known.”

Only time — and plenty of research — will tell.

Tech Enabled: CNET chronicles tech’s role in providing new kinds of accessibility.

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via VR could trick stroke victims’ brains toward –

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[Abstract] Virtual rehabilitation via Nintendo Wii® and conventional physical therapy effectively treat post-stroke hemiparetic patients


Background: The Nintendo® Wii is a simple and affordable virtual therapy alternative. It may be used at home, and it is a motivating recreational activity that provides continuous feedback. However, studies comparing the use of the Nintendo® Wii to conventional physical therapy are needed.

Objective: To compare the effect of a rehabilitation treatment using the Nintendo® Wii (NW) with conventional physical therapy (CPT) to improve the sensorimotor function and quality of life for post-stroke hemiparetic patients.

Methods: The present study applied a randomized, blind, and controlled clinical trial. In total, 30 patients with post-stroke hemiparesis were evaluated. A total of 15 patients were randomly assigned to each group. The SF-36 quality of life and Fugl–Meyer scales were used to evaluate the patients.

Results: After treatment, the only variable that differed between the groups was the physical functioning domain of the SF-36 in the group that received conventional physical therapy. A significant difference was observed between both groups before and after treatment in terms of the following Fugl–Meyer scale items: passive movement and pain, motor function of the upper limbs (ULs), and balance. The CPT group also showed a significant difference with regard to their UL and lower limb (LL) coordination. The SF-36 scale analysis revealed a significant difference within both groups with regard to the following domains: physical functioning, role limitation due to physical aspects, vitality, and role limitation due to emotional aspects. The NW group also exhibited a significant difference in the mental health domain. The results indicate that both approaches improved the patients’ performance in a similar manner.

Conclusion: Virtual rehabilitation using the Nintendo Wii® and CPT both effectively treat post-stroke hemiparetic patients by improving passive movement and pain scores, motor function of the upper limb, balance, physical functioning, vitality, and the physical and emotional aspects of role functioning.

Source: Maney Online – Maney Publishing

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[ARTICLE] Early prediction of long-term upper limb spasticity after stroke Part of the SALGOT study – Full Text PDF


Objective: To identify predictors and the optimal time point for the early prediction of the presence and severity of spasticity in the upper limb 12 months poststroke.

Methods: In total, 117 patients in the Gothenburg area who had experienced a stroke for the first time and with documented arm paresis day 3 poststroke were consecutively included. Assessments were made at admission and at 3 and 10 days, 4 weeks, and 12 months poststroke. Upper limb spasticity in elbow flexion/extension and wrist flexion/extension was assessed with the modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Any spasticity was regarded as MAS $1, and severe spasticity was regarded as MAS $2 in any of the muscles. Sensorimotor function, sensation, pain, and joint range of motion in the upper limb were assessed with the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, and, together with demographic and diagnostic information, were included in both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis models. Seventy-six patients were included in the logistic regression analysis.

Results: Sensorimotor function was the most important predictor both for any and severe spasticity 12 months poststroke. In addition, spasticity 4 weeks poststroke was a significant predictor for severe spasticity. The best prediction model for any spasticity was observed 10 days poststroke (85% sensitivity, 90% specificity). The best prediction model for severe spasticity was observed 4 weeks poststroke (91% sensitivity, 92% specificity).

Conclusions: Reduced sensorimotor function was the most important predictor both for any and severe spasticity, and spasticity could be predicted with high sensitivity and specificity 10 days poststroke. Neurology® 2015;85:1–7

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[ARTICLE] Virtual reality training improves balance function

Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

via Virtual reality training improves balance function Mao Y, Chen P, Li L, Huang D – Neural Regen Res.

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