Posts Tagged side effects

[BLOG POST] TBI AND ALCOHOL?

Canva - Assorted Wine Bottles.jpgAccording to MSKTC, “Drinking increases your chances of getting injured again, makes cognitive (thinking) problems worse, and increases your chances of having emotional problems such as depression. In addition, drinking can reduce brain injury recovery.”  Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has many side-effects including cognitive problems, depression, difficulty with balance and alcohol only intensifies these challenges. Alcohol can cause dizziness, staggering and falling, and this is not good for anybody.  In fact, many TBI injuries are alcohol related. Maria Magana recants how she got her TBI by saying, Sadly my TBI was from an alcohol/benzo issue. Yeah I was dumb as hell, but I learned through the hardest way. So I really hate talking to other TBI people about it.”  Alcohol related TBI injuries could be more common than you think. Additionally, accidental alcohol related deaths are not unheard of. Wendy Harris said, “ My uncle was a TBI survivor and he recently passed away bt drinking, falling, ang hitting his head.”  Both the coordination issues that comes with alcohol and the balance issues with TBI, together, can cause a deadly combination.  Furthermore, MSKTC continued by saying, “ says, “Traumatic brain injury puts survivors at risk for developing seizures (epilepsy). Alcohol lowers the seizure threshold and may trigger seizures.”  All of these complications are unnecessary troubles for a TBI survivor to have and we forgot to mention that the majority of TBI survivors are on medications such as muscle relaxers, blood thinners, and seizure medications that more than often counteract with alcohol.  With that said, let’s throw the anti alcohol disclaimer out the window and explore the pros and cons of alcohol consumption post TBI.

“POSITIVE” SIDE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

Canva - Clear Drinking Glass With Beer.jpgFor most, an alcoholic drink or two is a nice way to celebrate an occasion or to go with a nice meal. Some actually despise all alcohol – the taste, feeling, and smell.

But those who love alcohol love the sensation of being tipsy, wild, and feeling out of control. The unusual feeling is also encouraged by peers through a form of peer pressure and FOMO (fear of missing out). You’re at a party, and friends are drinking all around you, so why wouldn’t you, too? Roger Osburn, a fellow TBI survivor answred this question by saying, “Alcohol exacerbates my TBI related challenges. I do not drink anymore but sometimes will have a glass of wine, always remembering later why I don’t. It can be challenging socially.”

Canva - Shallow Focus Photography of Clear Cocktail Glass (1).jpgFor people with alcohol addictions, it’s a way to feel “numb,” separate themselves from reality, and to cope with various mental illnesses.  The problem is, individuals with TBI have higher rates of alcohol abuse than their peers, according to NCBI.  Additionally, according to MSKTC, “Up to two-thirds of people with TBI have a history of alcohol abuse or risky drinking.”  Alcohol consumption and TBI are closely related as is TBI and alcoholism.  While recreational alcohol is tolerable for the average person, for a TBI survivor, such behavior is ill-advised.  Below is a testimony given by a TBI survivor who requested to stay anonymous.  With that said, This is only anecdotal experience, and  cannot speak for everybody, and if you would like to share your experience with TBI and alcohol please do so in the comments below.

“Do you want a glass of wine?”  A friend I met in the hospital, Ben, came to visit me at my house with a bottle of wine.  Ben attempted to make a generous greeting by brandishing a bottle of wine however, I was skeptical in taking part of his offering as I am recovering from a traumatic brain injury.  I did not know how alcohol would affect my brain recovery, how alcohol would interfere with my medication, or how alcohol would make me feel. Additionally, I have to get my blood checked regularly, because I am on blood thinners, and I did not know how thin my blood would get by consuming wine. Despite my reluctance, I threw my caution to the wind and I told myself, “I was shot in the head, a glass of wine will not hurt.”  I began sipping the wine and next thing I knew it was time to take my muscle relaxers, this was not good. I took my medication and over the course of the night I took three more doses of TBI related medications which was dangerous, stupid, and made me very sick. For the next week my stomach was torn up, I was exhausted, and both my body and mind felt like it was hit by a dozen semi trucks and I still had therapy eight hours a day, everyday for the next week.  Luckily I am confined to a wheelchair because had I been walking around drunk or buzzed I would be putting myself at risk for a second brain injury.My experience with the wine I drank was so bad that I cut Ben off and told him we could not hang out again.”

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via TBI AND ALCOHOL? – treatment

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[WEB PAGE] What are the benefits of increased GABA levels in the brain?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter, or chemical messenger, in the brain. It blocks specific signals in the central nervous system, slowing down the brain. This provides a protective and calming effect on the brain and body.

The body produces GABA, and it may also be present in some fermented foods, such as kimchi, miso, and tempeh. These are not foods that most people include in their daily diets, so some people take GABA supplements to achieve the benefits.

In this article, we examine how increased levels of GABA may impact the brain and body, and whether taking GABA supplements could have the same benefits.

What is GABA?

a couple looking relaxed because of gaba activity.

GABA activity can relieve stress, reduce stress, and improve sleep.

GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits or slows the brain’s functions. This activity produces effects such as:

  • relieving anxiety
  • reducing stress
  • improving sleep
  • preventing brain damage

The brain naturally releases GABA at the end of a day to promote sleepiness and allow a person to rest. Some of the medications doctors prescribe to induce sleep and reduce anxiety may also increase the action of GABA.

Medical benefits of increased GABA

Some experts have suggested that increased levels of GABA may have benefits, but the evidence is not clear. According to a 2019 review, GABA has anti-microbial, anti-seizure, and antioxidant properties and may help treat and prevent conditions such as:

Medications to increase GABA

Doctors may prescribe medicines that increase the amount of GABA or stimulate the same neurotransmitters in the brain to treat some medical conditions, such as epilepsy.

For example, benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax) act on many of the same neurotransmitter receptors as GABA. According to one study, people who have depression may have reduced GABA levels in the brain. The use of benzodiazepines may be beneficial in those instances.

Doctors also prescribe the medication gabapentin (Neurontin), which is chemically similar to GABA to reduce seizures and muscle pain.

However, doctors are not clear whether the therapeutic effects of these medications are related to their effect on GABA receptors or whether they work in other ways.

GABA as a supplement

a woman enjoying the benefits of taurine in an energy drink she is drinking

Many sports drinks contain GABA.

Some people take supplements of GABA for their supposed stress- and anxiety-relieving benefits.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved GABA for use as a supplement and as a food additive. Manufacturers may add GABA to:

  • sports drinks
  • snack bars
  • chewing gum
  • candies, and more

Manufacturers produce GABA supplements by fermenting a form of lactic acid bacteria.

However, the FDA do not regulate dietary supplements in the same way as medications. Therefore, consumers should exercise caution as to where they purchase the product from and only buy from reputable vendors and companies.

How to use GABA supplements

Some people may take a supplement in pill form, while others may add it to foods, such as protein drinks.

Researchers have not established a daily recommended intake or a suggested upper limit for GABA. Anyone wanting to take GABA as a supplement should consider talking to their doctor first.

At present, there is not enough research to evaluate the possible side effects of taking GABA supplements. However, if a person does experience side effects that might be GABA-related, they should discontinue the use of the supplement and contact their doctor.

Benefits of taking GABA supplements

Some researchers have voiced concerns about the supposed positive benefits of taking GABA supplements. An article in the journal Frontiers in Psychology notes that experts remain unclear whether GABA offers real benefits or whether the effects that people report experiencing are a placebo response.

Other researchers do not believe that GABA supplements cross the blood-brain barrier, which they would have to do to have any effect on the body.

However, some studies report positive effects from taking GABA supplements. These include:

Enhanced thinking and task performance abilities

study from 2015 found that taking 800 milligrams (mg) of GABA supplementation per day enhanced a person’s ability to prioritize and plan actions. Although the study was small, involving just 30 healthy volunteers, it showed how GABA supplementation might promote enhanced thinking.

Stress reduction

An older study from 2012 found that taking 100 mg of GABA daily helped reduce stress due to mental tasks. Like many other studies related to GABA, the study was small and involved just 63 participants.

Workout recovery and muscle building

a man and a woman working out together outside.

GABA supplements may improve workout recovery and muscle building.

The participants performed the same resistance training exercises twice a week, and the researchers measured the results. The researchers found that the combination of whey protein and GABA increased levels of growth hormone compared to whey protein alone.

Although this was another small study, the researchers concluded that GABA supplements might help to build muscle and assist in workout recovery. They recommended that researchers conduct more studies.

Summary

GABA naturally plays an essential role in promoting sleep, relieving anxiety, and protecting the brain.

Scientists have not been able to prove the positive effects of GABA supplementation on a large scale, and their use may have limited effectiveness.

If a person has received a diagnosis for conditions such as depression, anxiety, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, they may wish to talk to their doctor about medically-proven treatment before taking GABA supplements.

via What are the benefits of increased GABA levels in the brain?

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[Review] Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy – Full Text PDF

Abstract

Currently available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy has limited effectiveness.
In epileptic patients, pharmacological treatment with available anticonvulsants leads to seizure control in <70% of cases. Surgical intervention can lead to control in a selected subset of patients, but still leaves a significant number of patients with uncontrolled seizures. Therefore, in drug-resistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet proves to be useful. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of what was published about the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in patients with epilepsy. Clinical data on the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in terms of clinical symptoms and adverse reactions in patients with epilepsy have been reviewed. Variables that could have influenced the interpretation of the data were also discussed (e.g., gut microbiota). The data in this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential benefits of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy and informs scientists, clinicians, and patients—as well as their families and caregivers—about the possibilities of such treatment. Since 1990, the number of publications on attempts to treat drug-resistant epilepsy with a ketogenic diet has grown so rapidly that it has become a challenge to see the overall trajectory and major milestones achieved in this field. In this review, we hope to provide the latest data from randomized clinical trials, practice guidelines, and new research areas over the past 2 years.

[…]

Download Full Text PDF 

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[WEB SITE] Is Stem Cell Therapy Effective?

Is stem cell therapy safe and effective?

Find out if the therapy is beneficial for a specific disease,
how and why it works and what the treatment involves

This article is written by Eremin Ilya – Vice Director for Science and Research at Swiss Medica clinic.

Swiss Medica specializes in the most cutting edge stem cell therapies for 8 years. Their head office is based in Switzerland and they have treatment centers in Russia, Moscow and Serbia, Belgrade.
As a result, patients have seen a halt in the progression and/or symptoms of a vast array of diseases, such as arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson’s and other hard to treat diseases.

What are stem cells?
Stem cells are the unique types of cells that are able to replicate itself and to launch the regeneration processes. Stem cells are circulating into the body and looking for damaged areas to repair them. They are also able to put out the inflammation.

This helps to eliminate the cause of the disorders, to reduce its symptoms or even to get a full recovery, depends on the initial condition. And the most important, stem cell treatment is a gentle way of healing that is safe and side-effect free in most cases.

When you undergo cell-based treatment, you get 100+ million viable stem cells in one dose. Cells are harvested from the patient’s body and then cultivated to this quantity. Donated stem cells can be also used for immediate treatment.

Not for all cases, but there is a high percentage of getting health improvements that can be reached in variety diseases.

 

What are the expected results?
Using stem cells in therapy helps to reduce symptoms and can even stop or reverse the progression of some diseases, mostly autoimmune and/or diseases associated with tissue damage. These types of cells trigger the healing process and help to:

– relieve inflammation;
– reduce pain;
– repair wounds and damaged tissues;
– stimulate the formation of neurons and new blood vessels;
– restore lost functions;
– eliminate the signs of aging.

Depending on the patient’s condition, we use cell products based on autologous (patient’s own) or donor cells. Activated stem cells can be administered in several ways, depending on the purpose of the therapy, the disease, and the patient’s condition (IV, intrathecal, intramuscular, retrobulbar or local injection).

 

It is important to understand that stem cells are not a guaranteed cure for every disease.The patient may be denied stem cell procedures for various reasons. The effectiveness of the therapy for a particular disease depends on multiple factors: duration of the illness, age of the patient, the existence of chronic conditions, hereditary predisposition, lifestyle, etc.

Applying only stem cells for some cases may be not enough. Cell therapy works more effectively when combined with other therapeutic methods that help decrease inflammation, restore mobility, activate the tissue repair process

 

How do stem cells work?
The main therapeutic effect of stem cells is their ability to produce cytokines and growth factors in the intercellular space. These special chemicals are able to activate the regenerative functions of distant cells and promote tissue recovery. This mechanism is called paracrine regulation.

Cytokines help block the signals of inflammation in various diseases, including autoimmune processes [1]. An important feature of these signal molecules is that their concentrations may be regulated by inflammation and may be strictly limited by the stage of tissue regeneration. We can boost the production of cytokines using cell products based on stromal cells, leading to improved function of the damaged tissue.

When stem cells are introduced into a patient’s body during therapy, they circulate in the blood system until they are attracted to proteins secreted around inflamed or damaged tissue. Stem cells then rush to that injured area and start producing:
– various growth factors (promoting tissue recovery);
– chemokines (helping cells to migrate);
– adhesion molecules (regulating cell interactions at the molecular level).

How the procedure is carried out?
First, the patient undergoes a full examination to determine the current state of health. Then specialist makes a conclusion about the appropriateness and expected effects of therapy.
Next, the question is whether self-sourced or donor stem cells will be used. In the first case, the biopsy is performed and stromal cells are isolated from the patient’s own biomaterial. Then the harvested cells are cultivated to the required volume. Usually, this takes 3-4 weeks depending on the proliferative potential of the MMSCs. After that, the cultivated cells can be used for therapy or stored in a cryobank for an unlimited period of time. In the case of donor cells, the cell product can be used immediately in the initial treatment.

The use of cell products is carried out under medical supervision. The volume of cell mass required for treatment is calculated depending on the patient’s body weight. Before use, a test for sterility and infectious/bacteriological safety is carried out. Then a passport of the cell product is drawn up. This passport indicates the name of the cell product, the source of cells, date of extraction, cells characteristics, description of final product formulation, etc.

When the cell product is ready for use, it can be administered in several ways, depending on the purpose of therapy, the disease, and the patient’s condition:

  • IV drip;
  • Intramuscularly;
  • Intrathecal (spinal tap);
  • Retrobulbar (in the eye area);
  • Locally (cutaneous covering, joint, cavernous bodies of the penis, etc.).

What are the indications, contraindications and side effects?

Treatment with cell products is usually appealed in cases where the standard therapy of the underlying disease is not adequately effective or is associated with complications.

Before therapy, it is necessary to exclude contraindications for cell treatment, including:
– Previous bad experience with cell products;
– Any acute infectious disease;
– Cancer or a precancerous condition;
– Stroke or transient ischemic attack in the last 3 months;
– Deviations of some indicators in blood tests;
– Mental disorders and addictions;
– Contraindications to anesthesia and/or high risk of bleeding and/or pathological processes in the area of the proposed biopsy (does not exclude the possibility of using donor cell products);
– Pregnancy and lactation, and some others.

Along with the expected improvements in cell therapy, unwanted side effects are rare and include allergic and pyrogenic posttransfusion reactions (short-term fever), which are both easily managed.

In a majority of cases, it is possible to decline the manifestations of the disease, weaken pain symptoms, and correct the function that was affected. The therapies generally improve the standard of living.

Safety of stem cell therapy
The procedures are usually well tolerated in the majority of patients. Clinical trial results confirmed the safety of local injections and treatment with MMSCs from the perspective of tumor formation after a follow-up period [6]. Individual intolerance (short-term fever), while rare, cannot be excluded. Swiss Medica specialists will monitor your condition for safer and more beneficial results. [2], [3].
When it comes to improvement?
It usually takes a few weeks or months until transplanted cells start to fully take effect, although the first improvements can be felt in the days after administration. Often, reduced pain, enhanced mobility of affected joints, improved energy and activity, improved indicators of diagnostic tests can be realized relatively quickly.

Transplanted stem cells are active for 3 months on average, 6 months as a maximum. After this period, the stem cells are no longer active, but the processes started by them continue. A complex effect is possible where not only the manifestations of the underlying disease are reduced, but also the general condition of the patient is improved.

Your doctor may recommend you to seek a second consultation after 3 and/or 6 months after cell introduction in order to assess the effectiveness of the therapy. To achieve a greater and more persistent effect, the therapy can be repeated after a recommended period of time. […]

 

For more visit site —->  Swiss Medica Article – Is Stem Cell Therapy Effective?

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[NEWS] Effective epilepsy medication without the side effects? | Epilepsy Research UK

Posted Mar 9 2018 in Anti-epileptic drugs

 

Approximately 60-70% of people with epilepsy will have their seizures controlled with medication. But even when epileptic seizures are controlled with medication the drugs used may have unpleasant, unwanted side effects. Ideally what patients and clinicians are looking for is a drug which works effectively and has no down side. Now new research from the Australian National University aims to look at the molecular level to find a way of reducing negative side effects without reducing the drug’s efficacy.  If you would like to read more about this study please click on the link here:

 

via Effective epilepsy medication without the side effects? | Epilepsy Research UK

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[Abstract] Brivaracetam in the treatment of patients with epilepsy – clinical experiences

Objectives. To assess first clinical experiences with Brivaracetam (BRV) in the treatment of epilepsies.
Methods. Data on patients treated with BRV from February to December 2016 and with at least one clinical follow-up were collected from electronic patient records. Data on safety and efficacy were evaluated retrospectively.
Results. In total, 93 patients were analysed; 12 (12.9%) received BRV in monotherapy. Mean duration of follow up was 4.85 months (MD=4 months; SD=3.63). Fifty-seven patients had more than one seizure per month at baseline and had a follow-up of more than 4 weeks; the rate of ≥50% responders was 35.1% (n=20) in this group, of which five (8.8%) patients were newly seizure free.
In 50.5% (47/93), patients were switched from Levetiracetam (LEV) to BRV, of which 43 (46.2%) were switched immediately. Adverse events (AE) occurred in 39.8%, with 22.6% being behavioural, and 25.8% non-behavioural. LEV-related AE (LEV-AE) were significantly reduced by switching to BRV.
The discontinuation of BRV was reported in 26/93 patients (28%); 10 of those were switched back to LEV with an observed reduction of AE in70%.
For clinical reasons, 12 patients received BRV in monotherapy, 75% were seizure free and previous LEV-AE improved in 6/9 patients. BRV-related AE occurred in 5/12 cases, five patients discontinued BRV.
Conclusion. BRV seems to be a safe, easy and effective option in the treatment of patients with epilepsy, especially in the treatment of patients that have psychiatric comorbidities and might not be good candidates for LEV-treatment. BRV broadens the therapeutic spectrum and facilitates personalized treatment.

 

via Frontiers | Brivaracetam in the treatment of patients with epilepsy – clinical experiences | Neurology

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[WEB SITE] Keppra – The Law Offices of Gregory Krasovsky

 

Keppra

The dangerous drug attorneys at the Law Offices of Gregory Krasovsky can provide legal advice and representation to individuals and families considering pursuing a Keppra lawsuit. In order for a plaintiff to secure a maximum settlement in litigation of a Keppra claim, regardless of whether in an individual lawsuit or in a class action lawsuit, it is crucial that the law firm representing you have a competent and experienced team of Keppra lawyers to guide you through all of the legal hurdles as well as direct you to sufficient funding (litigation funding or legal finance) to cover pharmaceutical litigation costs. Contact  a Keppra attorney today to schedule a free consultation and take your first step to obtaining compensation for losses caused by Keppra side effects.

Keppra, which is generically known as Levetiracetam, is an anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. Keppra was originally manufactured and marketed by UCB Pharmaceuticals Inc., but now it is available as a generic and is manufactured by a number of firms. Unfortunately, Keppra has a number of serious side effects that can, at times, outweigh its benefits for people who are suffering from epilepsy. Some of the most serious Keppra adverse effects include suicidal tendencies and birth defects.

There are many Levetiracetam side effects. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Suicidal Ideation
  • Suicidal Tendencies
  • Suicide
  • Headache
  • Unsteady Walk
  • Depression
  • Hallucinations
  • Fever
  • Sore Throat
  • Mood Changes
  • Changes in Skin Color
  • Anxiety
  • Birth Defects

A 2005 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) study of suicidal ideation in relation to epilepsy drugs has indicated that people taking those drugs, such as Keppra, are twice as likely to suffer from suicidal thoughts as are those who have not been taking these drugs.

Unlike many other drugs, such as Wellbutrin, people taking Keppra are likely to experience suicidal ideation regardless of what age group they might happen to fall into. The aforementioned study tracked almost 30,000 people, and the rick of suicide was spread fairly evenly across the population. Of the 28,000 people who had taken Keppra in this study, four of them had actually committed suicide. These unfortunate incidents serve to confirm the danger of this unsafe drug.

Although Keppra’s ability to cause birth defects is still under investigation, there is some amount of evidence that seems to confirm that Keppra is more harmful to unborn babies than was previously thought. Currently, the FDA has placed Keppra in the Category C for pregnancy, which indicates that there is little human risk. However, AdverseEvents, Inc. believes that Keppra should perhapd be in Category D, which indicates that a significant enough risk to pregnancy exists.

Keppra is similar to another prototypical nootropic drug called piracetam. Keppra is also thought to be a possible treatment for Tourette syndrome, autism, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder.

The attorneys at this Keppra law firm believe that drugs should not cause the same ailments that they are meant to cure. If you or your loved one has been injured as a result of taking Keppra, you might be entitled to compensation. Contact our attorneys today to schedule a free consultation.

Source: Keppra – The Law Offices of Gregory Krasovsky

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[WEB SITE] Seizure Decisions: After an unprovoked seizure, patients are often left wondering what’s next. A new guideline from a panel of epilepsy experts tries to answer that question.

Last September, Anthony Bonadio, 26, flew from New York to San Diego for a friend’s wedding. The morning after the wedding, he turned on the water for a shower—and the next thing he remembers is waking up in an ambulance. His friend, who was sharing the hotel room, says he heard a heavy thump followed by several more. He rushed to the bathroom and found Bonadio convulsing on the floor.

In October, after a long, stressful day playing piano in auditions for a Broadway musical, Nick Day, 23, went to bed and fell asleep. When he woke up, his girlfriend told him he’d had a seizure and an ambulance was on the way.

Both young men were examined by emergency department doctors, observed for a few hours, and sent home with orders to take it easy. Both were told that unprovoked seizures were quite common and that theirs may have been brought on by exhaustion.

AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE

Each year, an estimated 150,000 Americans experience unprovoked seizures—seizures without an obvious trigger like a blow to the head, a high fever, low blood sugar, or alcohol withdrawal. More than 50 percent of the time, patients will never have a second seizure, even though the cause of the first remains a mystery.

Neither Bonadio nor Day knew whether the seizure was an isolated incident or signaled the onset of epilepsy. Should they take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to reduce the risk of having a second seizure, or do nothing and hope they were among the percentage of patients who never have another seizure?

With such uncertainty common in medical practice, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the American Epilepsy Society convened a panel of experts to review the available evidence and draft a guideline, published in the journal Neurology, to help patients and doctors decide what to do in the case of a first unprovoked seizure. The experts set out to answer three questions: If you have an unprovoked seizure, what is your risk of a second one? If you take an AED immediately after your first seizure, will this help you remain free of seizures in the long term? And are there any adverse side effects of AEDs that patients need to know about?

RISK OF A SECOND SEIZURE

The panel found that the overall risk of experiencing a second seizure within five years of a first unprovoked seizure ranged from 21 to 46 percent in different studies. Significantly, the greatest risk was within the first two years, so if patients hadn’t had a seizure after two years their risk dropped substantially. The panel also found that certain clinical factors doubled the risk of a subsequent seizure: a preexisting lesion or injury to the brain; an electroencephalogram (EEG) showing abnormal spikes or electrical discharges, called epileptiform signals; a significant abnormality on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan; or a nocturnal seizure.“

Between 20 and 50 percent of patients will have another seizure. That means 50 to 80 percent will not,” says Gary S. Gronseth, MD, a co-author of the guideline, a professor of neurology at the University of Kansas School of Medicine, a Fellow of the AAN, and a member of the Neurology Now editorial advisory board. “So, the patient has to make a decision: ‘Should I take medication every single day to help reduce my risk of another seizure?’”

DIFFERENT OUTCOMES

Day didn’t have to calculate his risk. He had a second seizure soon after the first, followed by four more. He was diagnosed with epilepsy and prescribed AEDs. He has been free of seizures since.

Bonadio, on the other hand, hasn’t had another seizure. However, his neurologist saw epileptiform signals on his first EEG, so Bonadio knows his risk of a second seizure and therefore of having epilepsy is higher than it would be for someone whose tests are normal. He’s still undecided about what to do.

Dr. Gronseth understands his dilemma. He suggests that patients crunch the numbers. “A good rule of thumb is that AEDs will reduce your risk of a seizure by half. So if your risk is 20 percent, drugs would make it 10 percent. If it’s 50 percent, taking AEDs would make it 25 percent.”

SIDE EFFECT CONSIDERATIONS

Another concern for Bonadio is the side effects of AEDs. Will they slow him down and make him less competitive in his high-stakes finance job?

Continue —>  Seizure Decisions: After an unprovoked seizure, patients are… : Neurology Now

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