Posts Tagged systematic review
A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis
Poststroke depression (PSD) is an important complication of stroke, resulting in increased disability and mortality, which is a great threat to stroke survivors and public health. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies is widely used in the treatment of PSD, However, the selection strategies of different CAM approaches in clinical practice is still not clear, and the purpose of this protocol is to compare the efficacy and acceptability of different CAM therapies using systematic review and network meta-analysis.
According to the strategy, the authors will retrieve a total of seven electronic databases by August 2020, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMbase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, and Wan-fang databases. The network meta-analysis will be performed using Aggregate Data Drug Information System 1.16.8 and Stata 13.0 software. In addition, the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool is employed for the methodological quality, and the quality of evidence will be evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system.
This study will provide a reliable evidence for the selection strategy of CAM therapies for PSD.
The results of this study will provide references for evaluating the effects of different CAM therapies on PSD, and provide decision-making references for clinical practitioners, patients, and health policy makers.
Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most common neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke, occurring in 29% to 33% of stroke survivors.[2,3] It is estimated that nearly 2 million individuals in the United States are dealing with PSD at any given time. The major symptoms of early PSD (within the first 3 months after stroke) are dysphoria, melancholia, and vegetative signs.[5,6] The current evidence indicates that the neurobiological factors may be the main factors associated with PSD, specifically includes change in ascending monoamine pathways, excess of proinflammatory cytokines, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and alterations in neuroplasticity. Studies have demonstrated that PSD can significantly compromise quality of life, including affecting cognitive function, social activity, and stroke rehabilitation. Moreover, it is also associated with increase mortality risk.[8,9] Current research suggests that disability, personal and family history of a psychiatric illness, and high overall medical burden may be risk factors for PSD.[10,11] Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the uncertainty of various screening tools, consequently, only a small percentage of PSD patients can be accurately diagnosed and treated. The main therapeutic strategies for PSD include pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions (eg, psychotherapy, surgical therapy, electroconvulsive therapy). In the pharmacological interventions, it has been suggested that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors is the first line treatment, such as fuoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram. There is no doubt that the pharmacological therapy for PSD has a positive effect. However, there was also a significant increase in adverse events, such as gastroenterological symptoms, epilepsy/ seizures and hyponatremia. In addition, intolerance of antidepressants by some stroke survivors, and poor treatment adherence may further reduce the impact of drugs in PSD treatment. Thus, better strategies for effective PSD treatment are needed.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies refers to a diverse range of healing techniques that are not considered established or standard practices in western medicine. Many CAM modalities have been used by stroke survivors all around the world, including acupuncture, meridian acupressure, light therapy, exercise, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), music therapy, herbal medicines and so on. One study reports that 46% of stroke survivors engage in some form of complementary medicine. In Korea, 54% of stroke patients used CAM therapies, and 16% who felt that it can effectively achieve psychological relaxation. In recent years, CAM therapies has been increasingly sought by people with PSD. It is reported that acupuncture is more effective than short-term use of antidepressants in patients with PSD. Deng et al found that rTMS is a beneficial therapeutic method for managing PSD and may even be superior in efficacy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Kim et al reported the positive roles of music therapy on improvement of depressive mood and anxiety in stroke patients. A study from Kang et al has proven Meridian acupressure benefits in improvement of PSD.
Despite the numerous CAM therapies for PSD has been evaluated in previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs), However, majority have not been quantitatively analyzed in head-to-head comparisons. Thus, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of all RCTs involving CAM therapies for PSD, to compare and comprehensively rank all available CAM therapies, and assess efficacy and acceptability of different CAM therapies. […]
[Review] Complementary therapies for clinical depression: an overview of systematic reviews – Full Text
As clinical practice guidelines vary widely in their search strategies and recommendations of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, this overview aimed at systematically summarising the level 1 evidence on CAM for patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression.
PubMed, PsycInfo and Central were searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) until 30 June 2018. Outcomes included depression severity, response, remission, relapse and adverse events. The quality of evidence was assessed according to Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) considering the methodological quality of the RCTs and meta-analyses, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision of the evidence and the potential risk of publication bias.
The literature search revealed 26 meta-analyses conducted between 2002 and 2018 on 1–49 RCTs in major, minor and seasonal depression. In patients with mild to moderate major depression, moderate quality evidence suggested the efficacy of St. John’s wort towards placebo and its comparative effectiveness towards standard antidepressants for the treatment for depression severity and response rates, while St. John’s wort caused significant less adverse events. In patients with recurrent major depression, moderate quality evidence showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was superior to standard antidepressant drug treatment for the prevention of depression relapse. Other CAM evidence was considered as having low or very low quality.
The effects of all but two CAM treatments found in studies on clinical depressed patients based on low to very low quality of evidence. The evidence has to be downgraded mostly due to avoidable methodological flaws of both the original RCTs and meta-analyses not following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Further research is needed.
Strengths and limitations of this study
- This systematic overview included the comprehensive literature search of important complementary and alternative medicine topics defined by the Cochrane Collaboration.
- The inclusion criteria were restricted to meta-analyses of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression.
- The quality of evidence from meta-analyses was assessed according to Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation.
- There is a possible lack of evidence of newer RCTs, which have not been analysed by the included meta-analyses.
Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, with about 25% of women and 12% of men suffering from at least one depressive episode during their lifetime.1–3 According to the criteria for diagnosis recommended by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), depressive disorders can be distinguished by their degree of severity or duration and are also characterised by a high comorbidity and an increase of psychological strain for the affected person.4 It is evident that a strong comorbid connection to several chronic conditions like addictions,5 neurodegenerative diseases6 7 or different psychiatric diseases8–11 exists. This leads depressive disorders as one of the leading causes of disability worldwide.12
The most commonly used treatments for depression are antidepressants, psychotherapy or a combination of drugs and psychotherapy. While both treatment strategies (alone and in combination) have been shown to be effective,13–15 more recent meta-analyses also found high dropout and low remission rates16–21 as well as clinically significant differences between antidepressant drugs and placebos only for patients at the upper end of the very severely depressed category.22 This may lead patients to search for alternatives. Increasing mainstream use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) support this trend, particularly for different physical conditions with comorbid affective disorders.23–27 The NIH defines CAM as therapeutic approaches that are usually not included in conventional Western medicine systems.28 CAM therapies used in combination with conventional care are considered as complementary, those used instead of conventional care as alternative practices. Types of CAM approaches include natural products, such as herbs and dietary supplements (vitamins, minerals and probiotics) and mind and body practices, such as yoga, chiropractic and osteopathic manipulation, meditation, relaxation, acupuncture, tai chi, qi gong and hypnotherapy. Practices of traditional healers from Europe (naturopathy and homeopathy), Asia (Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine) and other continents are also classified as CAM.28 While some complementary therapies have become a promising adjunct in the standard treatment of depression,29 30 others are known for their possible side effects or interactions with standard drugs.30 Recent clinical practice guidelines, in addition, vary widely in their search strategies and resulting recommendations for CAM treatments. While the American College of Physicians (ACP),31 the American Psychiatric Association (APA)32 and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guideline33 provide a more comprehensive overview and critical appraisal of CAM treatments, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN),34 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE),35 and the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP)36 guidelines mainly focus on St. John’s Wort and light therapy. Possible effects and risks of further CAM therapies are not discussed. Thus, the purpose of this overview is to provide a comprehensive search strategy of relevant CAM terms and systematically summarise the existing level 1 evidence for clinical depression as a basis for further guideline recommendations on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of CAM therapies.[…]
[Abstract] The Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation on Gait Performance in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
[Abstract + References] Antidepressant effect of vagal nerve stimulation in epilepsy patients: a systematic review
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective palliative therapy in drug-resistant epileptic patients and is also approved as a therapy for treatment-resistant depression. Depression is a frequent comorbidity in epilepsy and it affects the quality of life of patients more than the seizure frequency itself. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the available literature about the VNS effect on depressive symptoms in epileptic patients.
Material and methods
A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar was performed, and results were included up to January 2020. All studies concerning depressive symptom assessment in epileptic patients treated with VNS were included.
Nine studies were included because they fulfilled inclusion criteria. Six out of nine papers reported a positive effect of VNS on depressive symptoms. Eight out of nine studies did not find any correlation between seizure reduction and depressive symptom amelioration, as induced by VNS. Clinical scales for depression, drug regimens, and age of patients were broadly different among the examined studies.
Reviewed studies strongly suggest that VNS ameliorates depressive symptoms in drug-resistant epileptic patients and that the VNS effect on depression is uncorrelated to seizure response. However, more rigorous studies addressing this issue are encouraged.
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[Abstract] Medical devices for self-help management: the case of stroke rehabilitation – Systematic Review
Introduction: Self-help devices (SHD) have been used as an alternative to conventional treatment for post stroke rehabilitation. This review aims to look for evidence that a stroke survivor may have increased muscle strength with the use of SHD.
Methods: This article was conducted according to PRISMA, a statistical tool (state of the art by systematic review) and previously registered in PROSPERO (international prospective registry of systematic reviews) under number CRD42018091424. Studies addressing the use of SHD and its effect on muscle strength in stroke patients were included. The studies were read, selected and their metadata extracted. A Downs & Black scale was used to assess methodological quality.
Results: 41 publications were analyzed, of which only three met the proposed inclusion criteria. Two articles showed positive results in strength gain using SHD. One study presented a decrease in the mean reaching forces when compared to the intervention groups (subacute and chronic with assistance to grip) and controls but SHD assisted in performing the activity.
Conclusion: Studies using SHD suggest muscle strength improvement in stroke patients.
[Abstract] Effectiveness of home-based virtual reality on vestibular rehabilitation outcomes: a systematic review
Background: A 2015 systematic review evaluated the efficacy of utilizing virtual reality in vestibular rehabilitation programs. However, the biggest limitation with most of the included virtual reality systems was the associated cost of the equipment. In addition, home-based exercises are the preferred method of vestibular rehabilitation treatments.
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of home-based virtual reality systems on vestibular rehabilitation outcomes.
Methods: The following databases were examined: CINAHL Complete, ProQuest Medical Database, and PubMed. The following search terms were utilized: ‘video OR computer’ AND ‘vestibular’ AND ‘home’. The evidence level for all of the included articles was evaluated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence and the methodological rigor for all of the included articles was evaluated using a 10-item tool created by Medlicott and Harris.
Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles were selected for inclusion in this systematic review. This systematic review found that home-based virtual reality interventions were able to effectively achieve the primary objectives of vestibular rehabilitation and that the use of these interventions was equally as effective as the use of a traditional vestibular rehabilitation program. In addition, it may be most beneficial to combine virtual reality with traditional vestibular rehabilitation.
Conclusions: Clinicians should consider using a combination of virtual reality and traditional vestibular rehabilitation when treating individuals who have been diagnosed with a vestibular dysfunction.