Posts Tagged Transfer

[ARTICLE] Transfer of motor skill between virtual reality viewed using a head-mounted display and conventional screen environments – Full Text



Virtual reality viewed using a head-mounted display (HMD-VR) has the potential to be a useful tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. However, when developing tools for these purposes, it is important to design applications that will effectively transfer to the real world. Therefore, it is essential to understand whether motor skills transfer between HMD-VR and conventional screen-based environments and what factors predict transfer.


We randomized 70 healthy participants into two groups. Both groups trained on a well-established measure of motor skill acquisition, the Sequential Visual Isometric Pinch Task (SVIPT), either in HMD-VR or in a conventional environment (i.e., computer screen). We then tested whether the motor skills transferred from HMD-VR to the computer screen, and vice versa. After the completion of the experiment, participants responded to questions relating to their presence in their respective training environment, age, gender, video game use, and previous HMD-VR experience. Using multivariate and univariate linear regression, we then examined whether any personal factors from the questionnaires predicted individual differences in motor skill transfer between environments.


Our results suggest that motor skill acquisition of this task occurs at the same rate in both HMD-VR and conventional screen environments. However, the motor skills acquired in HMD-VR did not transfer to the screen environment. While this decrease in motor skill performance when moving to the screen environment was not significantly predicted by self-reported factors, there were trends for correlations with presence and previous HMD-VR experience. Conversely, motor skills acquired in a conventional screen environment not only transferred but improved in HMD-VR, and this increase in motor skill performance could be predicted by self-reported factors of presence, gender, age and video game use.


These findings suggest that personal factors may predict who is likely to have better transfer of motor skill to and from HMD-VR. Future work should examine whether these and other predictors (i.e., additional personal factors such as immersive tendencies and task-specific factors such as fidelity or feedback) also apply to motor skill transfer from HMD-VR to more dynamic physical environments.


The use of virtual reality (VR) in rehabilitation has been growing exponentially over recent years [12]. Clinical applications of VR have been shown to be engaging and motivating [34] with promising results suggesting VR interventions are comparable [5] or in some cases superior [67] to conventional rehabilitation. However, while a number of studies have reported benefits of using VR for cognitive and motor rehabilitation, there are also reports on the limitations of using these devices for clinical applications [89]. In particular, some studies have shown that VR interventions are not effective at improving motor performance in the real world due to a lack of motor skill transfer (i.e., the application of a motor skill in a novel task or environment [10]) [1112].

Concerns about motor skill transfer from virtual to real environments are even greater when specifically considering the use of VR viewed using a head-mounted display (HMD-VR). HMD-VR provides a more immersive experience compared to conventional environments (e.g., computer screens) and results in increased levels of presence (i.e., the illusion of actually being present in the virtual environment) and embodiment (i.e., the perceptual ownership of a virtual body in a virtual space) [1314] that modulate behavior [15] and impact performance on motor learning and rehabilitation applications (e.g., gait, balance, neurofeedback tasks) [16,17,18]. Additionally, motor learning in HMD-VR (e.g., upper extremity visuomotor adaptation) has been shown to rely on different learning processes compared to a conventional screen environment [19]. Given the differences in immersive experiences and learning processes between HMD-VR and conventional environments, it can be assumed that individuals may experience these environments as separate contexts. Studies have found the context of the training environment to affect the transfer of motor skills [20], where motor performance may decrease when testing occurs in an environment different from training [21]. However, only a small number of studies have specifically explored motor skill transfer of from an HMD-VR training environment to a more conventional environment (e.g., computer screen or real world) [22,23,24,25,26]. Among these studies, there are again conflicting results, with some studies finding successful motor skill transfer from HMD-VR to the real world [2223], and others not [24,25,26].

There is also large interindividual variability within the results, and this variability suggests there may be particular tasks or particular individuals that will be more successful in transferring HMD-VR motor skills to the real world. Understanding the task-related or personal factors that mediate learning and transfer from HMD-VR environments should be examined in order to understand what makes HMD-VR interventions effective. One advantage of HMD-VR over conventional screen environments is the ability to realistically simulate the real world which allows for greater task specificity [27]. Task-related factors such as fidelity (i.e., imitation of the real environment) and dimensionality (i.e., matching dimensions between virtual and real environments) between HMD-VR and the real world have been shown to influence lower extremity motor performance [28] and have been suggested to have an influence on transfer in both lower and upper extremity motor transfer [2930]. Individual differences in personal factors such as gender, age, video game experience, prior technical computer literacy, and computer efficacy seemed to influence transfer from HMD-VR to the real world in studies examining the transfer of spatial knowledge acquired in an HMD-VR environment [2631]. However, the individual differences on both task-related and personal factors have not been extensively examined in HMD-VR motor skill transfer. We begin to address this gap by examining whether individual personal factors facilitate better transfer from upper extremity motor skill acquisition in HMD-VR to a conventional screen environment.

In the current study, we examined: (1) whether transfer of upper extremity motor skills occurs between HMD-VR and conventional screen environments, and (2) what personal factors predict transfer between environments. Given the variability of motor skill learning and transfer in previous studies [22,23,24,25,2629], we hypothesized that individual motor performance would vary after transfer to a novel environment, and that this variability could be predicted by individual differences in variables such as presence in the training environment, prior experience with HMD-VR, or non-VR video games.

Methods and materials


Seventy-four healthy adults were recruited. Participants were randomized into two groups (Train-HMD-VR, Train-Screen). Three participants in the Train-Screen group were excluded from the analysis as a result of performing all trials in the Baseline training block incorrectly (see Analyses) and one participant in the Train-HMD-VR group was excluded from the analysis as a result of being an outlier, which was defined as being beyond three standard deviations from the group mean motor skill in at least one of the blocks. This resulted in a total of seventy participants (53 females/16 males/1 other, aged: M = 25.81, SD = 4.71) with thirty-five participants in each group included in the analysis. A statistical power analysis was performed for sample size estimation based on data from a pilot study of this work (N = 12) [32]. The effect size in this study was d = 0.38. With an alpha = 0.05 and power = 0.60, the projected sample size need with this effect size was approximately N = 35. Eligibility criteria included healthy, self-reported right-handed individuals and no previous experience with the motor skill task (see Experimental design). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The experimental protocol was approved by the University of Southern California Institutional Review Board and performed in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.

Experimental design

Figure 1a provides an overview of the experimental design. The experiment consisted of training and testing blocks in which participants completed a modified version of the Sequential Visual Isometric Pinch Task (SVIPT) [33]. In this task, participants were instructed to apply varying degrees of isometric force between their thumb and index finger to a small pinch force sensor (Futek Pinch Sensor FSH01465; Futek IPM FSH03633; Fig. 1b) to move a cursor between numbered colored gates as quickly and accurately as possible (Fig. 1c). A small circle at the bottom of the screen changed from red to green to indicate the start of each trial. For each trial, no time limit was given and trial completion time was recorded. At the end of each trial, the small circle at the bottom of the screen changed from green to red and participants received auditory feedback (a pleasant “ding” if the cursor correctly entered all the gates or an unpleasant “buzz” if the cursor missed one or more of the gates). A two-second time interval was given between each trial.


Experimental paradigm. a Experimental design. b Pinch force between the thumb and index finger was applied to a small force transducer to move the cursor in the SVIPT. c Sequential Visual Isometric Pinch Task (SVIPT) display. Participants were asked to apply force to the force transducer, which translated into the movement of a small black cursor (shown at the home position in the white bar) moving horizontally to the right in the environment. The cursor moved left by reducing force. Instructions were to move the cursor between the gates, in order from 1 to 5, as quickly and accurately as possible, without over- or under-shooting any of the gates


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[ARTICLE] Learning and transfer of complex motor skills in virtual reality: a perspective review – Full Text


The development of more effective rehabilitative interventions requires a better understanding of how humans learn and transfer motor skills in real-world contexts. Presently, clinicians design interventions to promote skill learning by relying on evidence from experimental paradigms involving simple tasks, such as reaching for a target. While these tasks facilitate stringent hypothesis testing in laboratory settings, the results may not shed light on performance of more complex real-world skills. In this perspective, we argue that virtual environments (VEs) are flexible, novel platforms to evaluate learning and transfer of complex skills without sacrificing experimental control. Specifically, VEs use models of real-life tasks that afford controlled experimental manipulations to measure and guide behavior with a precision that exceeds the capabilities of physical environments. This paper reviews recent insights from VE paradigms on motor learning into two pressing challenges in rehabilitation research: 1) Which training strategies in VEs promote complex skill learning? and 2) How can transfer of learning from virtual to real environments be enhanced? Defining complex skills by having nested redundancies, we outline findings on the role of movement variability in complex skill acquisition and discuss how VEs can provide novel forms of guidance to enhance learning. We review the evidence for skill transfer from virtual to real environments in typically developing and neurologically-impaired populations with a view to understanding how differences in sensory-motor information may influence learning strategies. We provide actionable suggestions for practicing clinicians and outline broad areas where more research is required. Finally, we conclude that VEs present distinctive experimental platforms to understand complex skill learning that should enable transfer from therapeutic practice to the real world.


The goal of rehabilitation interventions for clients with neurological impairments is to (re)learn motor skills during therapeutic practice and transfer those improvements to functional activities in daily life. Researchers and clinicians seek to understand the content and structure of practice that facilitates such learning and transfer for different tasks, environmental contexts and clinical populations []. Although (re)learning activities of daily living is the focus of neurological rehabilitation, much of the evidence base for therapeutic interventions stems from basic or clinical research on simple experimentally-controlled tasks, such as reaching to a target in the horizontal plane or learning a finger tapping sequence. While these simplified tasks are very different from the tasks of daily life, they facilitate precise quantification of performance variables and stringent hypothesis testing, providing insights into basic principles of motor control and learning. However, their deliberately reduced testbeds lack a feature that is pervasive in real-world tasks: the affordance of multiple options to achieve a movement goal []. Hence, principles of learning derived from these simple movement paradigms may not translate into useful transfer-oriented principles for rehabilitation [].

With some exceptions, e.g., Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy [], few rehabilitation interventions can consistently demonstrate evidence for transfer from practiced tasks to non-treatment contexts. This is also true for the rehabilitation-based use of virtual environments (VEs): computer hardware and software systems that generate simulations of real or imagined environments with which participants interact using their own movements []. VEs differ according to viewing medium, level of immersion, and type of interaction []. While practice in a variety of VEs offers promising evidence for skill acquisition as compared to conventional interventions in many rehabilitation populations, [e.g. ] the focus has been predominantly on training simplified movements. This may be one reason why successful transfer of skill learning to non-practiced tasks and real-life contexts often remains a challenge []. As such, the design of both virtual and conventional interventions requires greater understanding of how humans acquire, retain and transfer real-world skills. We propose that VEs themselves can serve as useful experimental platforms to gain this knowledge as they allow the study of these complex skills with sufficient experimental control to draw scientifically tractable conclusions [].

Complex real-world tasks have nested redundancy

In the motor learning literature, the adjective “complex” is often treated synonymously with “difficult” []. For example, a task can be labelled as difficult or complex when reaction time or movement time are relatively long, when skill improvement requires long hours of practice, or when the task poses high demands on the learner’s attention and memory []. To sharpen the discussion, we reserve the term ‘complex’ for tasks with nested redundancy. Redundancy is present when there is a greater number of execution variables than variables that define the result of the task. The well-known example for motor redundancy is pointing to a target with one’s fingertip, which can be achieved with many different joint configurations, because the arm (without the hand) has 7 degrees of freedom, while the target is defined in 3 degrees of freedom.

However, real-world tasks have another level of redundancy that lies in the task itself. Imagine you are asked to point to a line, where each location on the line is equally correct. Here, the task itself allows an infinite number of “solutions”. And of course, each of those solutions can be achieved with an infinite number of joint configurations. Further, each of the points on the target line can be reached with an infinite number of trajectories from the starting point towards the target line. It is these nested redundancies that characterize the challenge and the richness of real-world tasks. Figure 1 illustrates these nested redundancies with the example of hammering a target on an anvil. The traces are the original recordings of Bernstein from the 1930s, showing the tip of a hammer in the sagittal plane []. The added simplified arm with three joints can take on infinite configurations for any position of the hammer endpoint in the 2D plane (intrinsic redundancy). Next, the trajectories of the repeated endpoint actions take on many different shapes, in fact infinitely many shapes, while all of them hit the anvil (extrinsic redundancy). Finally, the anvil or target itself is not a point but a line, where any contact is regarded as a successful hit (task redundancy) []. Examples for these nested redundancies are ubiquitous in real life, from combing one’s hair to cutting a steak with a knife and fork. Performers must choose (implicitly or explicitly) from an infinite range of possible solutions, each leading to successful task accomplishment []. We define such actions as ‘complex’ skills. To gain insight into these ever-present control challenges and opportunities, scientific inquiry must move beyond simple tasks where redundancy has been purposefully removed and begin to examine more complex tasks.

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Fig. 1

Fig. 1Nested redundancies in a hammering task


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[ARTICLE] Locomotor skill acquisition in virtual reality shows sustained transfer to the real world – Full Text



Virtual reality (VR) is a potentially promising tool for enhancing real-world locomotion in individuals with mobility impairment through its ability to provide personalized performance feedback and simulate real-world challenges. However, it is unknown whether novel locomotor skills learned in VR show sustained transfer to the real world. Here, as an initial step towards developing a VR-based clinical intervention, we study how young adults learn and transfer a treadmill-based virtual obstacle negotiation skill to the real world.


On Day 1, participants crossed virtual obstacles while walking on a treadmill, with the instruction to minimize foot clearance during obstacle crossing. Gradual changes in performance during training were fit via non-linear mixed effect models. Immediate transfer was measured by foot clearance during physical obstacle crossing while walking over-ground. Retention of the obstacle negotiation skill in VR and retention of over-ground transfer were assessed after 24 h.


On Day 1, participants systematically reduced foot clearance throughout practice by an average of 5 cm (SD 4 cm) and transferred 3 cm (SD 1 cm) of this reduction to over-ground walking. The acquired reduction in foot clearance was also retained after 24 h in VR and over-ground. There was only a small, but significant 0.8 cm increase in foot clearance in VR and no significant increase in clearance over-ground on Day 2. Moreover, individual differences in final performance at the end of practice on Day 1 predicted retention both in VR and in the real environment.


Overall, our results support the use of VR for locomotor training as skills learned in a virtual environment readily transfer to real-world locomotion. Future work is needed to determine if VR-based locomotor training leads to sustained transfer in clinical populations with mobility impairments, such as individuals with Parkinson’s disease and stroke survivors.


In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has been increasingly used to provide engaging, interactive, and task-specific locomotor training [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. These studies have simulated walking in different environments such as parks or streets [34], walking on a slope [3], or walking while avoiding obstacles [3,4,57]. VR-based locomotor training frequently includes obstacle negotiation because it is an essential locomotor skill in the community [457] and tripping over obstacles is a common cause of falls in many patient populations [9]. The clinical application of VR-based training interventions is predicated on the idea that practice in VR will lead to lasting changes in trained skills and that these changes will influence real-world behavior. Therefore, understanding how locomotor skills acquired in VR are retained and how these skills generalize to the real world is critical for determining the long-term utility of VR for locomotor rehabilitation.

The presence of lasting changes in a motor skill as a result of practice is a hallmark of motor learning and this retention process has been examined across a wide variety of real and virtual learning contexts. Retention of motor skills has been examined in response to VR training, particularly in fields such as flight and medical procedural training. For example, complex surgical and medical skills are performed faster and more accurately during a retention session following a single day of VR-based training [10,11,12,13]. Retention of locomotor skills is often explored in studies that analyze how people adapt to external perturbations such as a split-belt treadmill which has separate belts for the right and left legs [14,15,16], elastic force fields [17], robotic exoskeletons [18], or added loads [19]. For instance, studies of split-belt treadmill adaptation have revealed that the increases in step length asymmetry observed during initial exposure to the belts moving at different speeds significantly decreased with subsequent exposures to the device [14,15,16]. A recent study by Krishnan and colleagues also investigated locomotor skill learning during a tracking task in which participants were instructed to match a pre-defined target of hip and knee trajectories as accurately as possible during the swing phase of the gait [20]. They found that the reduction in tracking error achieved through practice is retained the following day. Although motor skill learning in VR and locomotor learning have been examined in isolation, it remains to be seen how locomotor skills are acquired and retained following training in a virtual environment.

Skill transfer, which is defined as “the gain or loss in the capability for performance in one task as a result of practice or experience on some other task” [21], is another key feature of motor learning. Skill transfer is particularly critical when skill acquisition occurs in a context that differs from the environment in which the skill is to be expressed. One way in which skill transfer has been evaluated during motor learning is by measuring how the adaptation of reaching in a robot-generated force field generalizes to unconstrained reaching. This work has shown that adaptation to reaching in a curl-field leads to increased curvature during reaching in free space [2223]. Moreover, studies of treadmill-based locomotor skill learning often evaluate transfer of learned skills from treadmill walking to over-ground. For example, during split-belt treadmill adaptation, the learned changes in interlimb symmetry partially transfer to over-ground walking [24]. Further, VR-based training of obstacle negotiation on a treadmill led to increased walking speeds in the lab [57] and community [4]. However, the evaluation of transfer in these VR-based training studies was based on outcome measures such as walking speed that did not reflect the objective of the training task, which was the control of foot clearance obstacle negotiation. Therefore, it remains to be seen if the elements of skill from VR-training transfer to over-ground walking.

Underlying individual differences in learning can influence motor skill retention and transfer to new environments. For example, a recent study demonstrated that healthy older adults and people post-stroke who acquire a motor sequence skill at a faster rate also show greater retention of that skill [25]. Similarly, the rate of skill acquisition for a reaching task during early training predicts faster trial completion time at 1-month follow-up [26]. Lastly, the magnitude of improvements in reaching speed during skill acquisition predicts long-term changes in reaching speed in healthy individuals [27]. Studies of individual differences in transfer have most often sought to understand how the practice of a skill with one limb influences performance of the same skill with the untrained limb. For example, interlimb transfer of motor skills acquired through visuomotor adaptation varies with handedness [28] and individual differences in baseline movement variability [29]. However, far less work has sought to understand how individual differences in skill acquisition affect the transfer of learned skills to new environments. Overall, the influence of individual differences in skill acquisition on locomotor skill retention and sustained transfer has yet to be determined.

Here, we determined how individual differences in locomotor skill learning during virtual reality treadmill-based training influence retention and transfer of learned skills to over-ground walking in the real world. We used a VR-based version of a previously established precision obstacle negotiation task [3031] and asked 1) whether healthy young adults could learn to minimize clearance during virtual obstacle negotiation, 2) if the learned skill transferred to over-ground walking, 3) if the learned skill was retained in both VR and the real world after 24 h, and 4) if individual differences in the amount or rate of skill acquisition could predict retention and transfer. We hypothesized that 1) participants would reduce foot clearance in VR during practice on Day 1 and that 2) the reduced foot clearance in VR would transfer to over-ground obstacle negotiation. We also hypothesized that 3) the reduction in foot clearance in VR and over-ground would be retained in each environment after a 24-h retention period. Lastly, given that the rate and magnitude of the performance improvement during skill acquisition have been established as predictors of skill retention in previous studies, we also hypothesized that 4) these measures would predict retention of the learned skill in VR and over-ground. Given the growing use of VR for motor skill learning, our results may provide a unique opportunity to understand the factors that influence how training in VR might lead to long-term improvements in skilled locomotion. […]


Continue —> Locomotor skill acquisition in virtual reality shows sustained transfer to the real world | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation | Full Text

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