Posts Tagged Wearable Robots

[ARTICLE] Voluntary control of wearable robotic exoskeletons by patients with paresis via neuromechanical modeling – Full Text

Abstract

Background

Research efforts in neurorehabilitation technologies have been directed towards creating robotic exoskeletons to restore motor function in impaired individuals. However, despite advances in mechatronics and bioelectrical signal processing, current robotic exoskeletons have had only modest clinical impact. A major limitation is the inability to enable exoskeleton voluntary control in neurologically impaired individuals. This hinders the possibility of optimally inducing the activity-driven neuroplastic changes that are required for recovery.

Methods

We have developed a patient-specific computational model of the human musculoskeletal system controlled via neural surrogates, i.e., electromyography-derived neural activations to muscles. The electromyography-driven musculoskeletal model was synthesized into a human-machine interface (HMI) that enabled poststroke and incomplete spinal cord injury patients to voluntarily control multiple joints in a multifunctional robotic exoskeleton in real time.

Results

We demonstrated patients’ control accuracy across a wide range of lower-extremity motor tasks. Remarkably, an increased level of exoskeleton assistance always resulted in a reduction in both amplitude and variability in muscle activations as well as in the mechanical moments required to perform a motor task. Since small discrepancies in onset time between human limb movement and that of the parallel exoskeleton would potentially increase human neuromuscular effort, these results demonstrate that the developed HMI precisely synchronizes the device actuation with residual voluntary muscle contraction capacity in neurologically impaired patients.

Conclusions

Continuous voluntary control of robotic exoskeletons (i.e. event-free and task-independent) has never been demonstrated before in populations with paretic and spastic-like muscle activity, such as those investigated in this study. Our proposed methodology may open new avenues for harnessing residual neuromuscular function in neurologically impaired individuals via symbiotic wearable robots.

Background

The ability to walk directly relates to quality of life. Neurological lesions such as those underlying stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) often result in severe motor impairments (i.e., paresis, spasticity, abnormal joint couplings) that compromise an individual’s motor capacity and health throughout the life span. For several decades, scientific effort in rehabilitation robotics has been directed towards exoskeletons that can help enhance motor capacity in neurologically impaired individuals. However, despite advances in mechatronics and bioelectrical signal processing, current robotic exoskeletons have had limited performance when tested in healthy individuals [1] and have achieved only modest clinical impact in neurologically impaired patients [2], e.g., stroke [34], SCI patients [5]. […]

 

Continue —>  Voluntary control of wearable robotic exoskeletons by patients with paresis via neuromechanical modeling | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation | Full Text

Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Enter aSchematic representation of the real-time modeling framework and its communication with the robotic exoskeleton. The whole framework is operated by a Raspberry Pi 3 single-board computer. The framework consists of five main components: a The EMG plugin collects muscle bioelectric signals from wearable active electrodes and transfers them to the EMG-driven model. b The B-spline component computes musculotendon length (Lmt) and moment arm (MA) values from joint angles collected via robotic exoskeleton sensors. c The EMG-driven model uses input EMG, Lmt and MA data to compute the resulting mechanical forces in 12 lower-extremity musculotendon units (Table 1) and joint moment about the degrees of freedom of knee flexion-extension and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion. d The offline calibration procedure identifies internal parameters of the model that vary non-linearly across individuals. These include optimal fiber length and tendon slack length, muscle maximal isometric force, and excitation-to-activation shape factors. eThe exoskeleton plugin converts EMG-driven model-based joint moment estimates into exoskeleton control commands. Please refer to the Methods section for an in-depth description caption

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[Abstract] Adaptive integral terminal sliding mode control for upper-limb rehabilitation exoskeleton

Highlights

    Adaptive integral sliding mode control design for exoskeletons.

    Finite time convergence of the closed-loop system.

    Robustness of the control law with respect to parametric variations and disturbances.

    No requirement of the knowledge of the system bounds.

    Real experiments using an upper limb exoskeleton with and without human subjects.

Abstract

A robust adaptive integral terminal sliding mode control strategy is proposed in this paper to deal with unknown but bounded dynamic uncertainties of a nonlinear system. This method is applied for the control of upper limb exoskeleton in order to achieve passive rehabilitation movements. Indeed, exoskeletons are in direct interaction with the human limb and even if it is possible to identify the nominal dynamics of the exoskeleton, the subject’s limb dynamics remain typically unknown and defer from a person to another. The proposed approach uses only the exoskeleton nominal model while the system upper bounds are adjusted adaptively. No prior knowledge of the exact dynamic model and upper bounds of uncertainties is required. Finite time stability and convergence are proven using Lyapunov theory. Experiments were performed with healthy subjects to evaluate the performance and the efficiency of the proposed controller in tracking trajectories that correspond to passive arm movements.

 

via Adaptive integral terminal sliding mode control for upper-limb rehabilitation exoskeleton – ScienceDirect

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[ARTICLE] Soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation and assistance: a narrative review – Full Text

Abstract

Introduction

The debilitating effects on hand function from a number of a neurologic disorders has given rise to the development of rehabilitative robotic devices aimed at restoring hand function in these patients. To combat the shortcomings of previous traditional robotics, soft robotics are rapidly emerging as an alternative due to their inherent safety, less complex designs, and increased potential for portability and efficacy. While several groups have begun designing devices, there are few devices that have progressed enough to provide clinical evidence of their design’s therapeutic abilities. Therefore, a global review of devices that have been previously attempted could facilitate the development of new and improved devices in the next step towards obtaining clinical proof of the rehabilitative effects of soft robotics in hand dysfunction.

Methods

A literature search was performed in SportDiscus, Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles related to the design of soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation. A framework of the key design elements of the devices was developed to ease the comparison of the various approaches to building them. This framework includes an analysis of the trends in portability, safety features, user intent detection methods, actuation systems, total DOF, number of independent actuators, device weight, evaluation metrics, and modes of rehabilitation.

Results

In this study, a total of 62 articles representing 44 unique devices were identified and summarized according to the framework we developed to compare different design aspects. By far, the most common type of device was that which used a pneumatic actuator to guide finger flexion/extension. However, the remainder of our framework elements yielded more heterogeneous results. Consequently, those results are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of many design choices as well as their rationales were highlighted.

Conclusion

The past 3 years has seen a rapid increase in the development of soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitative applications. These mostly preclinical research prototypes display a wide range of technical solutions which have been highlighted in the framework developed in this analysis. More work needs to be done in actuator design, safety, and implementation in order for these devices to progress to clinical trials. It is our goal that this review will guide future developers through the various design considerations in order to develop better devices for patients with hand impairments.

Background

Imagine tying your shoes or putting on a pair of pants while having limited use of your hands. Now imagine the impact on your daily life if that limitation was permanent. The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is highly dependent on hand function, leaving those suffering with hand impairments less capable of executing ADLs and with a reduced quality of life. Unfortunately, the hand is often the last part of the body to receive rehabilitation.

According to a 2015 National Health Interview Survey, there were approximately 4.7 million adults in the United States that found it “Very difficult to or cannot grasp or handle small objects” [1]. Hand impairments are commonly observed in neurological and musculoskeletal diseases such as arthritis, Cerebral Palsy, Parkinson’s Disease, and stroke. A summary of motor impairment prevalence associated with these diseases may be seen in Table 1. Fortunately, physical rehabilitation has been shown to promote motor recovery through repetitive isolated movements [25]. This is largely due to neuroplasticity – the ability for the brain to reorganize itself by establishing new neural connections. Occupational and physical therapists thus attempt to take advantage of neuroplasticity in order to re-map motor function in the brain through repeated exercise. Currently, however, there is no consensus on the best mode and dosing to facilitate neuroplasticity [6]. Additionally, recovery success relies heavily on a patient’s ability to attend therapy, which can be deterred by the frequency, duration, or cost of the therapy. Robotic devices could enhance access to repeated exercise. As such, they have been developed and investigated for their utilization as an adjunctive therapy to improve patient access, compliance and subsequent outcomes of rehabilitation efforts. An overview of the designs with comparisons between the different approaches will help future development of these tools. […]

 

Continue —>  Soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation and assistance: a narrative review

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[ARTICLE] Soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation and assistance: a narrative review – Full Text

Abstract

Introduction

The debilitating effects on hand function from a number of a neurologic disorders has given rise to the development of rehabilitative robotic devices aimed at restoring hand function in these patients. To combat the shortcomings of previous traditional robotics, soft robotics are rapidly emerging as an alternative due to their inherent safety, less complex designs, and increased potential for portability and efficacy. While several groups have begun designing devices, there are few devices that have progressed enough to provide clinical evidence of their design’s therapeutic abilities. Therefore, a global review of devices that have been previously attempted could facilitate the development of new and improved devices in the next step towards obtaining clinical proof of the rehabilitative effects of soft robotics in hand dysfunction.

Methods

A literature search was performed in SportDiscus, Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles related to the design of soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation. A framework of the key design elements of the devices was developed to ease the comparison of the various approaches to building them. This framework includes an analysis of the trends in portability, safety features, user intent detection methods, actuation systems, total DOF, number of independent actuators, device weight, evaluation metrics, and modes of rehabilitation.

Results

In this study, a total of 62 articles representing 44 unique devices were identified and summarized according to the framework we developed to compare different design aspects. By far, the most common type of device was that which used a pneumatic actuator to guide finger flexion/extension. However, the remainder of our framework elements yielded more heterogeneous results. Consequently, those results are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of many design choices as well as their rationales were highlighted.

Conclusion

The past 3 years has seen a rapid increase in the development of soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitative applications. These mostly preclinical research prototypes display a wide range of technical solutions which have been highlighted in the framework developed in this analysis. More work needs to be done in actuator design, safety, and implementation in order for these devices to progress to clinical trials. It is our goal that this review will guide future developers through the various design considerations in order to develop better devices for patients with hand impairments.

Background

Imagine tying your shoes or putting on a pair of pants while having limited use of your hands. Now imagine the impact on your daily life if that limitation was permanent. The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is highly dependent on hand function, leaving those suffering with hand impairments less capable of executing ADLs and with a reduced quality of life. Unfortunately, the hand is often the last part of the body to receive rehabilitation.

According to a 2015 National Health Interview Survey, there were approximately 4.7 million adults in the United States that found it “Very difficult to or cannot grasp or handle small objects” [1]. Hand impairments are commonly observed in neurological and musculoskeletal diseases such as arthritis, Cerebral Palsy, Parkinson’s Disease, and stroke. A summary of motor impairment prevalence associated with these diseases may be seen in Table 1. Fortunately, physical rehabilitation has been shown to promote motor recovery through repetitive isolated movements [2345]. This is largely due to neuroplasticity – the ability for the brain to reorganize itself by establishing new neural connections. Occupational and physical therapists thus attempt to take advantage of neuroplasticity in order to re-map motor function in the brain through repeated exercise. Currently, however, there is no consensus on the best mode and dosing to facilitate neuroplasticity [6]. Additionally, recovery success relies heavily on a patient’s ability to attend therapy, which can be deterred by the frequency, duration, or cost of the therapy. Robotic devices could enhance access to repeated exercise. As such, they have been developed and investigated for their utilization as an adjunctive therapy to improve patient access, compliance and subsequent outcomes of rehabilitation efforts. An overview of the designs with comparisons between the different approaches will help future development of these tools.[…]

Continue —> Soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation and assistance: a narrative review | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation | Full Text

Fig. 5Methods of detection along motor pathway [81]

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[Abstract] A Fully Fabric-Based Bidirectional Soft Robotic Glove for Assistance and Rehabilitation of Hand Impaired Patients

Abstract:

This paper presents a fully fabric-based bidirectional soft robotic glove designed to assist hand impaired patients in rehabilitation exercises and performing activities of daily living. The glove provides both active finger flexion and extension for hand assistance and rehabilitative training, through its embedded fabric-based actuators that are fabricated by heat press and ultrasonic welding of flexible thermoplastic polyurethane-coated fabrics. Compared to previous developed elastomeric-based actuators, the actuators are able to achieve smaller bend radius and generate sufficient force and torque to assist in both finger flexion and extension at lower air pressure. In this work, experiments were conducted to characterize the performances of the glove in terms of its kinematic and grip strength assistances on five healthy participants. Additionally, we present a graphical user interface that allows user to choose the desired rehabilitation exercises and control modes, which include button-controlled assistive mode, cyclic movement training, intention-driven task-specific training, and bilateral rehabilitation training.

Source: A Fully Fabric-Based Bidirectional Soft Robotic Glove for Assistance and Rehabilitation of Hand Impaired Patients – IEEE Xplore Document

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[WEB SITE] Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons: Market Shares, Market Strategies, and Market Forecasts, 2015 to 2021

Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons leverage better technology; they support high quality, lightweight materials and long life batteries. Wearable robots, exoskeletons are used for permitting paraplegic wheel chair patients walk. They are used to assist with weight lifting for workers: Designs with multiple useful features are available. The study has 421 pages and 161 tables and figures.

View Full Report: http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/wearable-robots-exoskeletons-market

Wearable robots, exoskeletons units are evolving additional functionality rapidly. Wearable robots functionality is used to assist to personal mobility via exoskeleton robots. They promote upright walking and relearning of lost functions. Exoskeletons are helping older people move after a stroke. Exoskeleton s deliver higher quality rehabilitation, provide the base for a growth strategy for clinical facilities.

Exoskeletons support occupational heavy lifting. Exoskeletons are poised to play a significant role in warehouse management, ship building, and manufacturing. Usefulness in occupational markets is being established. Emerging markets promise to have dramatic and rapid growth.

Industrial workers and warfighters can perform at a higher level when wearing an exoskeleton. Exoskeletons can enable paraplegics to walk again. Devices have the potential to be adapted further for expanded use in healthcare and industry. Elderly people benefit from powered human augmentation technology. Robots assist wearers with walking and lifting activities, improving the health and quality of life for aging populations.

Download Full Report With TOC: http://www.acutemarketreports.com/request-free-sample/48079

Exoskeletons are being developed in the U.S., China, Korea, Japan, and Europe. They are useful in medical markets. They are generally intended for logistical and engineering purposes, due to their short range and short battery life. Most exoskeletons can operate independently for several hours. Chinese manufacturers express hope that upgrades to exoskeletons extending the battery life could make them suitable for frontline infantry in difficult environments, including mountainous terrain.

Robotics has tremendous ability to support work tasks and reduce disability. Disability treatment with sophisticated exoskeletons is anticipated to providing better outcomes for patients with paralysis due to traumatic injury. With the use of exoskeletons, patient recovery of function is subtle or non existent, but getting patients able to walk and move around is of substantial benefit, People using exoskeleton robots are able to make continued progress in regaining functionality even years after an injury.

View all Reports of this Category @: http://www.acutemarketreports.com/category/machines-market

Rehabilitation robotic technologies developed in the areas of stroke rehabilitation and SCI represent therapeutic interventions with utility at varying points of the continuum of care. Exoskeletons are a related technology, but provide dramatic support for walking for people who simply cannot walk.
Parker Hannifin Indego intends to include functional electrical stimulation. It accelerates recovery of therapy in every dimension. Implementation in these kinds of devices is a compelling use of the electrical stimulation technology.

It is a question of cost. The insurance will only pay for a small amount of exoskeleton rehabilitation. More marketing will have a tremendous effect in convincing people that they can achieve improvements even after years of effort.

Rehabilitation robotics includes development of devices for assisting performance of sensorimotor functions. Devices help arm, hand, leg rehabilitation by supporting repetitive motion that builds neurological pathways to support use of the muscles. Development of different schemes for assisting therapeutic training is innovative. Assessment with sensorimotor performance helps patients move parts of the body that have been damaged.

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Source: Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons: Market Shares, Market Strategies, and Market Forecasts, 2015 to 2021 – Thrasher Backer

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[WEB SITE] Global Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons Robot Market 2015 Forecast to Industry Size, Shares, Strategies, Trends, and Growth 2021

A new study Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons Market Shares, Strategy, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2015 to 2021. Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons leverage better technology, they support high quality, lightweight materials and long life batteries. Wearable robots, exoskeletons are used for permitting paraplegic wheel chair patients walk. They are used to assist with weight lifting for workers: Designs with multiple useful features are available. The study has 421 pages and 161 tables and figures.

Wearable robots, exoskeletons units are evolving additional functionality rapidly. Wearable robots functionality is used to assist to personal mobility via exoskeleton robots. They promote upright walking and relearning of lost functions. Exoskeletons are helping older people move after a stroke. Exoskeleton s deliver higher quality rehabilitation, provide the base for a growth strategy for clinical facilities.

Exoskeletons support occupational heavy lifting. Exoskeletons are poised to play a significant role in warehouse management, ship building, and manufacturing. Usefulness in occupational markets is being established. Emerging markets promise to have dramatic and rapid growth.

Do Inquiry For Sample Before Purchasing Report: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/wearable-robots-exoskeletons-market-shares-market-strategies-and-36075#RequestSample

Industrial workers and warfighters can perform at a higher level when wearing an exoskeleton. Exoskeletons can enable paraplegics to walk again. Devices have the potential to be adapted further for expanded use in healthcare and industry. Elderly people benefit from powered human augmentation technology. Robots assist wearers with walking and lifting activities, improving the health and quality of life for aging populations.

Exoskeletons are being developed in the U.S., China, Korea, Japan, and Europe. They are useful in medical markets. They are generally intended for logistical and engineering purposes, due to their short range and short battery life. Most exoskeletons can operate independently for several hours. Chinese manufacturers express hope that upgrades to exoskeletons extending the battery life could make them suitable for frontline infantry in difficult environments, including mountainous terrain.

Robotics has tremendous ability to support work tasks and reduce disability. Disability treatment with sophisticated exoskeletons is anticipated to providing better outcomes for patients with paralysis due to traumatic injury. With the use of exoskeletons, patient recovery of function is subtle or non existent, but getting patients able to walk and move around is of substantial benefit, People using exoskeleton robots are able to make continued progress in regaining functionality even years after an injury.

Rehabilitation robotic technologies developed in the areas of stroke rehabilitation and SCI represent therapeutic interventions with utility at varying points of the continuum of care. Exoskeletons are a related technology, but provide dramatic support for walking for people who simply cannot walk.

Parker Hannifin Indego intends to include functional electrical stimulation. It accelerates recovery of therapy in every dimension. Implementation in these kinds of devices is a compelling use of the electrical stimulation technology.

It is a question of cost. The insurance will only pay for a small amount of exoskeleton rehabilitation. More marketing will have a tremendous effect in convincing people that they can achieve improvements even after years of effort.

Rehabilitation robotics includes development of devices for assisting performance of sensorimotor functions. Devices help arm, hand, leg rehabilitation by supporting repetitive motion that builds neurological pathways to support use of the muscles. Development of different schemes for assisting therapeutic training is innovative. Assessment with sensorimotor performance helps patients move parts of the body that have been damaged.

Exoskeletons are used mainly as therapy aids in this manner, highly targeted, highly specific as to how much movement is supported at any one time. Learning how to walk for a wheelchair bound patient or relearning of lost functions in a patient depends on stimulation of desire to conquer the disability. Effective tools help incent desire of the patient to get better.

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Initially when a market is just developing and it is going through the early adopter phase, penetration analysis is an appropriate balance to growth %. The penetration analysis for wearable robots is still too small to be useful but it is useful to bear in mind that there is tremendous upside to this market.

Continue —> Global Wearable Robots, Exoskeletons Robot Market 2015 Forecast to Industry Size, Shares, Strategies, Trends, and Growth 2021

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