[WEB SITE] Augmented reality game helps stroke victims recover faster

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An augmented reality game that helps stroke victims recover. (Photo: Petrie, et al)

More than six million people worldwide die each year from strokes. Every two seconds, someone, somewhere is having one. Not all strokes are fatal, of course. In fact, 80 per cent of stroke victims survive, though many experience one or more serious lingering effects, including paralysis and cognitive and motor impairment. When a stroke occurs, areas of the brain are deprived of oxygen and neural pathways can become damaged. The good news is that the brain is a resourceful organ, and thanks to neural plasticity, it may be possible to relearn forgotten abilities through rehabilitation—targeted repetitive exercises—that helps the neurons re-organize themselves and allows the victim to regain function. The problem is that rehab is hard, and painful, and according to Regan David Petrie, some 69 per cent of stroke patients don’t get the recommended level of rehab activities. This is why the master student at Victoria University of Wellington has been developing an augmented reality (AR) mobile game, an “exergame,” whose purpose is to engage and reward stroke victims in order to keep them engaged in their therapy.

NZ Fauna AR

Petrie’s game was designed using Google’s Tango Augmented Reality platform prior to the search giant switching support to its newer, more consumer-oriented ARCore system. As the game’s player observes his or her surroundings through a mobile device, virtual 3D objects appear to set the scene and with which the player can interact.

AR in room

(Photo: Petrie, et al)

The game, still under development, is called NZ Fauna AR. As its name implies, it’s designed for stroke victims of New Zealand, leveraging their love of the country’s forests to provide a calming and enjoyable context in which play can occur. Fizzy, a virtual Rowi kiwi, is the AR star of the current iteration of the game.

Meet Fizzy AR

(Photo: Petrie, et al)

Players gather blueberries and feed them to Fizzy by performing sit-to-stand exercises, an important form of therapy for stroke victims. The most basic actions of the game are:

• standing up to throw berries to Fizzy

• sitting down to collect more berries from an AR bucket on the floor.

There are game controller buttons with interactive elements, but, says Petrie’s thesis, “The game was designed to incorporate minimal touch interactions—this was driven by the interaction model which was comprised of natural physical movements,” that is, standing up and sitting down.[…]

more —> Augmented reality game helps stroke victims recover faster | Big Think


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[WEB SITE] Surgery for Epilepsy – What Do You Need to Know?

Surgery for Epilepsy – What Do You Need to Know?

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that can affect anyone irrespective of their age and gender. Marked by recurrent seizures causing a disturbance in the normal functioning of the body, epilepsy takes a toll on the patient’s overall normal life. Therefore, it is crucial that the patient must seek medical consultation from the best neurologist in India for accurate and timely treatment.

Thanks to the advancements in the medical field, epilepsy can be controlled by using various treatment options. Approximately 70% of people who suffer from epilepsy can control this condition through medications prescribed by a neurologist. In case medications are not enough to manage the condition, the patients can opt for surgery or other alternatives.

Now, deciding to undergo neurosurgery is a big step. Hence, it is very important to gather all the information about the surgery and find the best neurosurgeon in India for a successful result. For anyoneplanning to undergo a surgery for epilepsy, here is what they need to know.

Types of Epilepsy Surgery

Usually, the main aim of an epilepsy surgery is either to remove the part of the brain which causes seizures orcontrol the nerves to stop the seizures. Depending on the patient’s condition, the neurosurgeon can opt for different types of epilepsy surgery, including:

  • Resective Surgery

It is the most common type of surgery that is performed to treat epilepsy. In resective surgery, the neurosurgeons remove the part of the brain that causes seizures. It is helpful in reducing the number of seizures and limiting the risk of permanent brain damage.

  • Multiple Subpial Transection

It is a rare procedure that is performedonly when the patient suffers from severe and frequent seizures. During this surgery, the neurosurgeoncreates small incisions in the brain to stop the seizures.

  • Hemispherectomy

In this type of surgery, the neurosurgeon removes, disconnects or disables half of the brain (cerebral hemisphere). It is usually performed in cases where children suffer from a damaged hemisphere and have intractable seizures.

  • Corpus Callosotomy

Unlike other epilepsy surgeries, it focuses on decreasing the severity of the seizures rather than stopping them. Neurosurgeon cuts the nerve fiberswhich helps in preventing the seizures from spreading from one side of the hemisphere to the other.

The Surgery

Before making the surgical decision, the neurosurgeon ensures that the patient is eligible for the surgery by performing various tests and evaluating the results. It is only after a thorough examination that the neurosurgeon begins with the procedure.

The surgery is performed by neurosurgeons trained in this field. Hospitals like Max Healthcare have teams consisting of thebest neurosurgeon in India. Before the surgery, the neurosurgeon informs the patient about all the procedures, risks and benefits.

In an anterior temporal lobectomy, that is the most common type of Resective Surgery.The neurosurgeons make an opening in the skin of the head andmake a circular opening in the skull, known as a craniotomy. Using special equipment, they perform brain mapping to locate the areas of the brain that cause seizures. Once the area is identified, neurosurgeons remove that area while carefully looking through an operative microscope. After the surgery, the bone flap is replaced and secured with titanium plates and screws. The skin of the head is also sutured back together.

Usually, the surgery takes three to four hours,and the patient is shifted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) for observation and monitoring. The hospital stay can vary from three to four days.

The Road to Recovery

After the surgery, the patient needs to take at least three to four weeks of rest before resuming to normal activities. If the patient keeps following the advice of doctors and adopts a healthy lifestyle, the recovery process can accelerate significantly. Moreover, there are various precautions that are needed to be takenin order to avoid any complications. Doctors also recommend speech or physical therapy if there are any issues after the surgery.


via Surgery for Epilepsy – What Do You Need to Know? » Northeast Today

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[WEB SITE] Briefing: Epilepsy and pregnancy

Epilepsy drug Sodium valproate has been linked to birth defects

Epilepsy drug Sodium valproate has been linked to birth defects

  • There are more than 20 epilepsy drugs now available to clinicians.
  • Some are known to interfere with the contraceptive pill, so it is important to ensure patients are on the right medication if there is a risk of unplanned pregnancy.

Read more: Women with epilepsy urged to seek medical advice before conceiving

– Women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs are at higher risk than the general population of having a baby with a major malformation: 4-10 per cent, compared to 2-3 per cent, but this varies between drugs.

– In April, doctors in the UK were banned from prescribing the epilepsy drug sodium valproate to women of childbearing age unless they sign a waiver acknowledging the risks. It has been linked to around 20,000 cases of infants being born with disabilities since the 1970s.


via Briefing: Epilepsy and pregnancy | HeraldScotland

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[PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE] Virtual Reality for Traumatic Brain Injury – Full Text

In this perspective, we discuss the potential of virtual reality (VR) in the assessment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury, a silent epidemic of extremely high burden and no pharmacological therapy available. VR, endorsed by the mobile and gaming industries, is now available in more usable and cheaper tools allowing its therapeutic engagement both at the bedside and during the daily life at chronic stages after injury with terrific potential for a longitudinal disease modifying effect.


The World Health Organization estimates that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is and will remain the most important cause of neurodisability in the coming years (1). The search for neuroprotective therapies for severe TBI has been extensive but unfruitful over the last few decades, testified by more than 30 failed clinical trials, and we still have no specific neuroprotective therapy, that is, effective in clinical TBI. The burden of mortality and residual disability calls for new approaches to promote recovery of function of TBI patients in the acute and chronic phase (23).

Classically described as a sudden event with short-term consequences, TBI induces dynamic pathological cascades that may persist for months or years after injury with a major impact on outcome (45). Among dynamic mechanisms, the neuroinflammatory response and the accumulation of aberrant proteins may have a critical role in establishing a neuropathological link between acute mechanical injury and late neurodegeneration (67). The close association between post-TBI neurological changes, persistent neuroinflammation, and late neuropathology highlights the fact that the window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention may be much wider than previously thought and that long-term treatment encompassing the acute and chronic phase should be tested to effectively interfere with this complex condition.

Importantly, next to the harmful processes, TBI also induces a neuro-restorative response that includes angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and brain plasticity (89). These spontaneous regenerative mechanisms are short-lived and too weak to counteract damage progression but they could point the way to new therapeutic options if appropriately boosted and amplified. Physical and cognitive exercise increase repair and brain plasticity after injury in experimental models and patients (1011). Rehabilitative programs to provide inputs/stimuli to specific sensory or motor neural circuits, could in principle start very early on, and be finely tuned over time to account for the type and degree of injury and the level of motor and cognitive disability.

Virtual Reality (VR) for Rehabilitation after TBI

Cognitive and physical rehabilitation programs are fundamental instruments to improve the clinical outcome of TBI patients optimizing the activities, function, performance, productivity, participation, and quality of life (12). They are based on restitutional, compensatory, and adaptive strategies and vary in relation to the patient potential and disability degree (212).

Traumatic brain injury encompasses heterogeneous etiology, as well as structural and molecular patterns of injury dictating different prognostic features and potential responses to rehabilitative therapy. Experimental studies indicate that depending on the degree of cognitive and sensorimotor impairment exercise may improve outcome with different window of opportunity, however, evidence supporting the optimal timing, type, and intensity of rehabilitative interventions in patients are scarce (1213). For example, rehabilitation is often delayed in patients with severe TBI until their discharge from the intensive care unit, or adopted in the most severe cases with only minimal goals aimed at limiting spasticity (14). Importantly, cognitive rehabilitation in the sub-acute stage of TBI is rarely considered. For these reasons, the use of innovative techniques is advocated to assess the TBI-related deficits and to develop and evaluate new rehabilitative interventions (12).

An emerging technology, VR, represents a new tool for this purpose and might provide TBI care teams with new neuro-restorative strategies readily available at the bedside. Since the late 1980s, this term has been used to describe a 3D synthetic environment created by computer graphics, where the user has the feeling of being inside (15). VR can be described as “an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to interact with and become immersed in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion” (16). For its flexibility, sense of presence (i.e., the feeling of “being there”) and emotional engagement, VR has been tested in motor and cognitive rehabilitation, with good results. In stroke patients, the number of VR programs is rapidly increasing with compelling data showing an improvement in recovery of motor function and daily living activities (17).

Data on the effects of cognitive function and quality of life are more limited. As underlined by two recent systematic reviews (1819), VR allows a level of engagement and cognitive involvement, higher than the one provided by memory and imagination, but is more controlled and can be more easily measured than that offered by direct “real” experience. Its multisensory stimulation means VR can be considered an enriched environment that can offer functional and ecological real-world demands (e.g., finding objects, assembling things, and buying stuff) that may improve brain plasticity and regenerative processes (2022).

There are several examples in the literature where VR has been successfully used both as assessment instrument and as therapeutic intervention. As assessment tool, VR has been used to detect visual-vestibular deficits in adults after concussion and mild TBI (2324). Wright WG et al., developed a Virtual Environment TBI Screen that allows subjects to explore a digitalized setting (i.e., outdoor Greek temple with columns, different kind of floor materials, etc.) performing postural tasks while the system collects data to detect visual-vestibular deficits. Besnard et al. (25) created a virtual kitchen to assess daily-life activity and evaluate executive dysfunctions in subjects with severe TBI. Robitaille et al. (26) developed a VR avatar interaction platform to assess residual executive functions in subjects with mild TBI. The platform can capture real-time subject’s movements translating them in to a virtual body, that is, therefore placed in a simulated environment (i.e., a village). The user is then allowed to explore the simulate surroundings which comprise different navigational obstacles to overcome. Similar approaches have been used by other authors, whereas simplified settings (i.e., 3D virtual corridor that the subject can explored with a joystick) have been proved useful to assess subclinical cognitive abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects that suffered a concussion (27).

As therapeutic instrument, Dahdah et al. (28) demonstrated that immersive VR intervention can be used as an effective neuro-rehabilitative tool to enhance executive functions and information processing in the sub-acute period, providing evidence of positive effects of a virtual Stroop task over traditional non-VR-based protocol. VR as therapeutic instrument has also been used for attention training in severe TBI with positive results in the early recovery stages (29) with a specific “augmented” task in which virtual and haptic feedbacks were used in a target-reaching exercise to enhance sustained attention. Finally, virtual protocols generated upon commercial available game solutions have been effective in addressing and treating balance deficits (30).

All these works suggest that VR could be useful as assessment instrument and in the rehabilitation of TBI, nonetheless a delineated pattern seems to emerge. VR assessment protocols appear to be primarily implemented for mild TBI, which induce subtle residual deficits hard to detect with traditional instruments (23). Conversely, VR treatment protocols for cognitive rehabilitation are used transversely from mild to severe conditions, although effectiveness of these kinds of interventions needs to be further explored (31).[…]


Continue —>  Frontiers | Virtual Reality for Traumatic Brain Injury | Neurology

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[Abstract] Predicting Long-Term Global Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Development of a Practical Prognostic Tool Using the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database

For patients surviving serious traumatic brain injury (TBI), families and other stakeholders often desire information on long-term functional prognosis, but accurate and easy-to-use clinical tools are lacking. We aimed to build utilitarian decision trees from commonly collected clinical variables to predict Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) functional levels at 1, 2, and 5 years after moderate-to-severe closed TBI. Flexible classification tree statistical modeling was used on prospectively collected data from the TBI-Model Systems (TBIMS) inception cohort study. Enrollments occurred at 17 designated, or previously designated, TBIMS inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Analysis included all participants with nonpenetrating TBI injured between January 1997 and January 2017. Sample sizes were 10,125 (year-1), 8,821 (year-2), and 6,165 (year-5) after cross-sectional exclusions (death, vegetative state, insufficient post-injury time, and unavailable outcome). In our final models, post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration consistently dominated branching hierarchy and was the lone injury characteristic significantly contributing to GOS predictability. Lower-order variables that added predictability were age, pre-morbid education, productivity, and occupational category. Generally, patient outcomes improved with shorter PTA, younger age, greater pre-morbid productivity, and higher pre-morbid vocational or educational achievement. Across all prognostic groups, the best and worst good recovery rates were 65.7% and 10.9%, respectively, and the best and worst severe disability rates were 3.9% and 64.1%. Predictability in test data sets ranged from C-statistic of 0.691 (year-1; confidence interval [CI], 0.675, 0.711) to 0.731 (year-2; CI, 0.724, 0.738). In conclusion, we developed a clinically useful tool to provide prognostic information on long-term functional outcomes for adult survivors of moderate and severe closed TBI. Predictive accuracy for GOS level was demonstrated in an independent test sample. Length of PTA, a clinical marker of injury severity, was by far the most critical outcome determinant.


via Predicting Long-Term Global Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Development of a Practical Prognostic Tool Using the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database | Journal of Neurotrauma

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[Abstract] Depression in the First Year after Traumatic Brain Injury


The aims of this study were to document the frequency of major and minor depressive episodes in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), taking into account TBI severity and pre-morbid history of major depression, and to describe trajectories of depressive episodes. Participants were 227 adults who were hospitalized post-TBI (76% male; mean age = 41 years; 50% mild, 33% moderate, and 17% severe TBI). Major and minor depressive episodes were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at three time points (4, 8, and 12 months after TBI). Overall, 29% of participants had a major depressive episode in at least one of the three assessments, with fairly stable rates across assessments. Participants with mild TBI were more likely than those with moderate/severe TBI to be diagnosed with major depression, as were individuals with a positive pre-morbid history of depression compared to those without such history. In addition, 13% of participants had a minor depressive episode in at least one of the three assessments. Rates of minor depression significantly decreased from 4 to 8–12 months post-injury. Results also revealed a wide variety of trajectories of depressive episodes across assessments. Of note, 52% of major depression cases still fulfilled diagnostic criteria 4 months later, whereas 38% of minor depression cases deteriorated to major depression at the following assessment. These findings suggest that depression is highly prevalent after TBI, and monitoring of patients with subthreshold depressive symptoms is warranted in order to prevent the development of full-blown major depressive episodes.


via Depression in the First Year after Traumatic Brain Injury | Journal of Neurotrauma

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[ARTICLE] Enabling Stroke Rehabilitation in Home and Community Settings: A Wearable Sensor-Based Approach for Upper-Limb Motor Training – Full Text

A conceptual representation of the wrist-worn sensor system for home-based upper-limb rehabilitation. The system consists of two wearable sensors, a tablet computer to be… View more


High-dosage motor practice can significantly contribute to achieving functional recovery after a stroke. Performing rehabilitation exercises at home and using, or attempting to use, the stroke-affected upper limb during Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are effective ways to achieve high-dosage motor practice in stroke survivors. This paper presents a novel technological approach that enables 1) detecting goal-directed upper limb movements during the performance of ADL, so that timely feedback can be provided to encourage the use of the affected limb, and 2) assessing the quality of motor performance during in-home rehabilitation exercises so that appropriate feedback can be generated to promote high-quality exercise. The results herein presented show that it is possible to detect 1) goal-directed movements during the performance of ADL with a c -statistic of 87.0% and 2) poorly performed movements in selected rehabilitation exercises with an F -score of 84.3%, thus enabling the generation of appropriate feedback. In a survey to gather preliminary data concerning the clinical adequacy of the proposed approach, 91.7% of occupational therapists demonstrated willingness to use it in their practice, and 88.2% of stroke survivors indicated that they would use it if recommended by their therapist.


Stroke is a leading cause of severe long-term disability. In the US alone, nearly 800,000 people suffer a stroke each year [1]. The number of individuals who suffer a stroke each year is expected to rise in the coming years because the prevalence of stroke increases with age and the world population is aging [2]. Approximately 85% of individuals who have a stroke survive, but they often experience significant motor impairments. Upper-limb paresis is the most common impairment following a stroke. It affects 75% of stroke survivors and leads to limitations in the performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) [4].

Inability to use the stroke-affected upper limb for ADL often leads to a phenomenon that is referred to as learned non-use [5]. As patients rely more and more on the unaffected (or less impaired) upper limb [5] they progressively lose motor abilities of the stroke-affected upper limb that they may have recovered as a result of a rehabilitation intervention [6].

A high dosage of motor practice using the stroke-affected upper limb during the performance of ADL, despite considerable difficulty, stimulates neuroplasticity and motor function recovery [7]–[8][9]. Thus, it is clinically important to encourage stroke survivors to continue making appropriate use of the affected upper limb [10]–[11][12][13], in addition to engaging in rehabilitation exercises that focus on range-of-motion and functional abilities [14]–[15][16].

The use of wearable sensors has recently emerged as an efficient way to monitor the amount of upper-limb use after a stroke [17]–[18][19][20][21][22]. However, despite growing evidence of the clinical potential of these devices [23], their widespread clinical deployment has been hindered by technical limitations. A shortcoming of currently available wrist-worn devices is that they cannot distinguish between Goal-Directed (GD) movements (i.e., movements performed for a specific purposeful task) and non-Goal-Directed (non-GD) movements (e.g., the arm swinging during gait). Instead, these sensors focus on recording the number and/or intensity of any type of arm movements [10]. Consequently, non-GD movements are reflected as part of the measurements with equal importance as GD movements. This results in an overestimation of the amount of actual arm use [24]. Furthermore, monitoring the aggregate number of stroke-affected upper limb movements is not sufficient for the purpose of providing timely feedback to encourage the use of the affected limb during the performance of ADL. To promote the use of the stroke-affected limb, it is critical that feedback reflects the relative use of the affected upper limb compared to the contralateral one.

Wrist-worn movement sensors have also been applied to monitoring rehabilitation exercises in the home setting [25]–[26][27][28]. However, existing systems primarily focus on quantifying the dosage/intensity of the exercises (e.g., the duration of the exercises and the number of movement repetitions) and do not monitor if the quality of the performed exercise is appropriate. Ensuring good quality of movement during the performance of rehabilitation exercises is critical for maximizing functional recovery after a stroke [29]. Moreover, providing customized feedback regarding the quality of exercise movements can increase motivation, promote long-term adherence to a prescribed exercise regimen, and ultimately maximize clinical outcomes [30]. One of the reasons for limited exercise participation by stroke survivors is the lack of access to resources to support exercise including performance feedback from rehabilitation specialists [31]. There are no technical solutions that provide feedback regarding the quality of exercise performance for upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke.

We propose a system for aiding in functional recovery after a stroke that consists of two wearable sensors, one worn on the stroke-affected upper limb and the other on the contralateral upper limb [32] (Fig. 1). The proposed system can be used to provide timely feedback when ADL are performed. If the system detects that the patient consistently performs GD movements with the unaffected upper limb, and rarely uses the stroke-affected upper limb, then a visual or vibrotactile reminder can be triggered to encourage the patient to attempt GD movements with the stroke-affected limb. A benefit of this approach is that if a movement is critical (e.g., signing a check), patients can use the unaffected upper limb without receiving negative feedback as long as they have performed a sufficient number of movements with the affected upper limb throughout the day. Furthermore, the system promotes high-dosage motor practice with appropriate feedback to extend components of rehabilitation interventions into the home environment.[…]

via Enabling Stroke Rehabilitation in Home and Community Settings: A Wearable Sensor-Based Approach for Upper-Limb Motor Training – IEEE Journals & Magazine

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[Abstract+References] The Use of Image Processing Methods to Improve the Detection of User’s Hand in Vision Based Games Used in Neurological Rehabilitation


Vision based games is a type of software that can become a promising, modern neurorehabilitation tool. This paper presents the possibilities offered for the implementation of this kind of software by the open source vision library. The methods and functions related to the aspect of image processing and analysis are presented in terms of their usefulness in creating programs based on the analysis of the images acquired from the camera. On the basis of the issues contained in the paper, the functionality of the library is presented in terms of the possibilities related primarily to the processing of video sequences, detection, tracking and analysis of the movement of objects.

As part of the work, the software that meets the requirements for modern neurorehablitation games has been implemented. Its main part is responsible for the identification of the current position of the user’s hand and is based on the image captured from the webcam. Whereas the tasks set for the user used among others supporting visual-motor coordination.

The main subject of the research was the analysis of the impact of the applied methods of initial image processing on the correctness of the chosen tracking algorithm. It was proposed and experimentally examined the impact of operations such as morphological transformations or apply an additional mask on a functioning of the CamShift algorithm.  And hence on the functioning of the whole game which analyzing the user’s hand movement.


Allen G. J., Richard Xu Y. D., Jin J. S. (2004). Object Tracking Using CAMShift Algorithm and Multiple Quantized Feature Spaces, Proceedings of the Pan-Sydney area workshop on Visual information processing , Sydney, 3-7.

Bradski G., Kaehler A. (2008). Learning OpenCV. Computer Vision with the OpenCV Library, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.

Buczyński P. (2005). Optymalna reprezentacja kolorów w analizie i przetwarzaniu obrazów komputerowych, Praca doktorska. Warszawa: Politechnika Warszawska.

Burke J. W., Morrow P.J., et al. (2008). Vision Based Games for Upper-Limb Stroke Rehabilitation, Machine Vision and Image Processing Conference, 159 – 164.

Burke J. W. McNeill M. D. J., et al. (2010). Designing engaging, playable games for rehabilitation”, International Conference Series On Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies (ICDVRAT), 195-202.

Cameirão M.S. , et al. (2010). Neurorehabilitation using the virtual reality based Rehabilitation Gaming System: methodology, design, psychometrics, usability and validation, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 7, 48.

Comaniciu D., Ramesh V., Meer P. (2003). Kernel-based object tracking. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions 2003, p. 564-577.

Derpanis K. G. (2005). Mean Shift Clustering, http://www.cse.yorku.ca/~kosta/ Comp-Vis_Notes/mean_shift.pdf

Di Loreto I., Gouaich A., Hocine N., (2011). Mixed reality serious games for post-stroke rehabilitation, Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare , 5th International Conference on, 530-537.

Garcia-Marin J., Felix-Navarro K., Law-rence E. (2011). Serious games to Improve the Physical Health of the Elderly: A Categorization Scheme, Fourth International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services (CENTRIC 2011), 64-71.

Jog A., Halbe S. (2013). Multiple Objects Tracking Using CAMShift Algorithm and Implementation of Trip Wire, International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 43-48.

Joshi S., Gujarathi S., Mirgemoving A. (2014). Moving object tracking method using improved camshift with surf algorithm. International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, 2(2), 14-19.

Laganière R. (2011). “OpenCV 2 Computer Vision Application Programming Cookbook”, Packt Publishing, 2011.

Lange B., Flynn S.M., Rizzo A. A., (2009). Game-based telerehabilitation, European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 45(1), 143-151.

Rafajłowicz E, Rafajłowicz W. (2010). Wstęp do przetwarzania obrazów przemysłowych, Wrocław: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej.

Rayavel P., Appasami G., Nakeeran R. (2011). Noise removal for object tracking based on HSV color space parameter using CAMSHIFT. International Journal of Computational Intelligence & Telecommunication Systems, 2(1), 39–45.

Yilmaz A., Javed O., Shah M. (2006). Object tracking: A survey, ACM Computing Surveys, 38(4), Article 13, 1-45.


via The Use of Image Processing Methods to Improve the Detection of User’s Hand in Vision Based Games Used in Neurological Rehabilitation | Gospodarek | IMAGE PROCESSING & COMMUNICATIONS

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[VIDEO] Marom Bikson plenary talk on tDCS at Society of Biological Psychiatry 2018 meeting – YouTube

“The Potential and Limitations of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation” talk by Marom Bikson at SOBP 2018 conference

Download slides: https://www.neuralengr.org/wp-content…

All references at https://www.neuralengr.org/bikson/

Talk Abstract: Few emerging therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders has engaged as much excitement and also debate as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). To identify the potential of tDCS and move beyond the hype, this talk addresses the technology and cellular foundations of tDCS. For decades, it has been established that direct current stimulation can modulate plasticity; new research is unraveling the cellular mechanisms of how direct current stimulation can produce nuanced and targeted changes in brain function. Over the past decade, the technology of tDCS has advanced from basic clinical stimulator using two electrodes to High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) using arrays of electrodes and to Remove-Supervised technology for home use. These new technologies have allowed categorical enhanced in the targeting (HD-tDCS) and deployment (Remote-Supervised) of tDCS. Finally, new approaches to optimize tDCS using imaging and biomarkers, including used EEG reciprocity, have provided new insight on therapeutic mechanisms as well as rational methods to select patients and individualize tDCS. The thesis of this talk is that tDCS is grounded in well-established biophysical principles but that emerging technologies will support robust and efficacious translation to patients.

via (55) Marom Bikson plenary talk on tDCS at Society of Biological Psychiatry 2018 meeting (May 12, 2018) – YouTube

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[ARTICLE] Using Virtual Reality to Transfer Motor Skill Knowledge from One Hand to Another – Full Text


As far as acquiring motor skills is concerned, training by voluntary physical movement is superior to all other forms of training (e.g. training by observation or passive movement of trainee’s hands by a robotic device). This obviously presents a major challenge in the rehabilitation of a paretic limb since voluntary control of physical movement is limited. Here, we describe a novel training scheme we have developed that has the potential to circumvent this major challenge. We exploited the voluntary control of one hand and provided real-time movement-based manipulated sensory feedback as if the other hand is moving. Visual manipulation through virtual reality (VR) was combined with a device that yokes left-hand fingers to passively follow right-hand voluntary finger movements. In healthy subjects, we demonstrate enhanced within-session performance gains of a limb in the absence of voluntary physical training. Results in healthy subjects suggest that training with the unique VR setup might also be beneficial for patients with upper limb hemiparesis by exploiting the voluntary control of their healthy hand to improve rehabilitation of their affected hand.


Physical practice is the most efficient form of training. Although this approach is well established1, it is very challenging in cases where the basic motor capability of the training hand is limited2. To bypass this problem, a large and growing body of literature examined various indirect approaches of motor training.

One such indirect training approach uses physical practice with one hand to introduce performance gains in the other (non-practiced) hand. This phenomenon, known as cross-education (CE) or intermanual transfer, has been studied extensively 3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and used to enhance performance in various motor tasks 10,11,12. For instance, in sport skill settings, studies have demonstrated that training basketball dribbling in one hand transfers to increased dribbling capabilities in the other, untrained hand 13,14,15.

In another indirect approach, motor learning is facilitated through the use of visual or sensory feedback. In learning by observation, it has been demonstrated that significant performance gains can be obtained simply by passively observing someone else perform the task16,17,18,19,20. Similarly, proprioceptive training, in which the limb is passively moved, was also shown to improve performance on motor tasks 12,21,22,23,24,25,26.

Together, these lines of research suggest that sensory input plays an important role in learning. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating online sensory feedback (visual and proprioceptive) during physical training of one limb results in augmented performance gain in the opposite limb. We describe a training regime that yields optimal performance outcome in a hand, in the absence of its voluntary physical training. The conceptual novelty of the proposed method resides in the fact that it combines the three different forms of learning – namely, learning by observation, CE, and passive movement. Here we examined whether the phenomenon of CE, together with mirrored visual feedback and passive movement, can be exploited to facilitate learning in healthy subjects in the absence of voluntary physical movement of the training limb.

The concept in this setup differs from direct attempts to physically train the hand. At the methodological level – we introduce a novel setup including advanced technologies such as 3D virtual reality, and custom built devices that allow manipulating visual and proprioceptive input in a natural environmental setting. Demonstrating improved outcome using the proposed training has key consequences for real-world learning. For example, children use sensory feedback in a manner that is different from that of adults27,28,29 and in order to optimize motor learning, children may require longer periods of practice. The use of CE together with manipulated sensory feedback might reduce training duration. Furthermore, acquisition of sport skills might be facilitated using this kind of sophisticated training. Finally, this can prove beneficial for the development of a new approach for rehabilitation of patients with unilateral motor deficits such as stroke.[…]

Continue —> Using Virtual Reality to Transfer Motor Skill Knowledge from One Hand to Another

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