Posts Tagged hemiparesis

[Abstract + References] The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for improving upper limb spasticity and functionality in stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

To assess the effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for reducing spasticity and improving functionality of the upper limb in stroke survivors.

A systematic review of MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PEDro, REHABDATA, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Tripdatabase and Epistemonikos from 1980 to April 2020 was carried out.

The bibliography was screened to identify randomized controlled clinical trials that applied extracorporeal shock waves to upper limb spastic muscles in post-stroke individuals. Two reviewers independently screened references, selected relevant studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the PEDro scale. The primary outcome was spasticity and functionality of the upper limb.

A total of 1,103 studies were identified and 16 randomized controlled trials were finally included (764 individuals) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed and a beneficial effect on spasticity was found. The mean difference (MD) on the Modified Ashworth Scale for comparison extracorporeal shock wave versus sham was −0.28; with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from −0.54 to −0.03. The MD of the comparison of extracorporeal shock wave plus conventional physiotherapy versus conventional physiotherapy was −1.78; 95% CI from −2.02 to −1.53. The MD for upper limb motor-function using the Fugl Meyer Assessment was 0.94; 95% CI from 0.42 to 1.47 in the short term and 0.97; 95% CI from 0.19 to 1.74 in the medium term.

The extracorporeal shock wave therapy is effective for reducing upper limb spasticity. Adding it to conventional therapy provides an additional benefit.

via The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for improving upper limb spasticity and functionality in stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis – Rosa Cabanas-Valdés, Pol Serra-Llobet, Pere Ramón Rodriguez-Rubio, Carlos López-de–Celis, Mercé Llauró-Fores, Jordi Calvo-Sanz, 2020

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[Abstract + References] An intention-based online bilateral training system for upper limb motor rehabilitation

Abstract

Bilateral rehabilitation training robotic systems have potential to promote the upper limb motor recovery of post-stroke hemiparesis patients through providing the synchronization motion between the impaired limb and contralateral limb. The active rehabilitation training based on patients’ intention can also promote the recovery effect by stimulating the activity of the ipsilateral hemisphere and contralateral hemisphere. In this paper, a novel intention-based bilateral training system using biomedical signals which represents the muscle activity information and active motion intention was proposed to promote the rehabilitation training effect. The proposed system can provide the synchronization motion to the impaired limb by the exoskeleton device according to the sEMG signals from the contralateral intact limb. A BPNN model using a novel multi-features input vector was employed for establishing the relationship between the sEMG signals and the motion intention. To verify the intention prediction performance, the comparison experiments involving both the offline phase and online phase were carried out using three different kinds of feature input vectors of sEMG. Furthermore, the real-time bilateral control experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed bilateral rehabilitation system, in terms of motion synchronization tracking and the real-time characteristics.

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Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00542-020-04939-x

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[ARTICLE] Reaching exercise for chronic paretic upper extremity after stroke using a novel rehabilitation robot with arm-weight support and concomitant electrical stimulation and vibration: before-and-after feasibility trial – Full Text

Abstract

Background

Our group developed a rehabilitation robot to assist with repetitive, active reaching movement of a paretic upper extremity. The robot is equipped with a servo motor-controlled arm-weight support and works in conjunction with neuromuscular electrical stimulation and vibratory stimulation to facilitate agonist-muscle contraction. In this before-and-after pilot study, we assessed the feasibility of applying the robot to improve motor control and function of the hemiparetic upper extremity in patients who suffered chronic stroke.

Methods

We enrolled 6 patients with chronic stroke and hemiparesis who, while sitting and without assistance, could reach 10 cm both sagitally and vertically (from a starting position located 10 cm forward from the patient’s navel level) with the affected upper extremity. The patients were assigned to receive reaching exercise intervention with the robot (Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd. Fukuoka, Japan) for 2 weeks at 15 min/day in addition to regular occupational therapy for 40 min/day. Outcomes assessed before and after 2 weeks of intervention included the upper extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UE-FMA), the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and, during reaching movement, kinematic analysis.

Results

None of the patients experienced adverse events. The mean score of UE-FMA increased from 44.8 [SD 14.4] to 48.0 [SD 14.4] (p = 0.026, r = 0.91), and both the shoulder–elbow and wrist–hand scores increased after 2-week intervention. An increase was also observed in ARAT score, from mean 29.8 [SD 16.3] to 36.2 [SD 18.1] (p = 0.042, r = 0.83). Kinematic analysis during the reaching movement revealed a significant increase in active range of motion (AROM) at the elbow, and movement time tended to decrease. Furthermore, trajectory length for the wrist (“hand path”) and the acromion (“trunk compensatory movement”) showed a decreasing trend.

Conclusions

This robot-assisted modality is feasible and our preliminary findings suggest it improved motor control and motor function of the hemiparetic upper extremity in patients with chronic stroke. Training with this robot might induce greater AROM for the elbow and decrease compensatory trunk movement, thus contributing to movement efficacy and efficiency.

Background

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. In 2017, the number of patients treated for stroke in Japan was 1,115,000, with 109,844 deaths [12]. Many survivors of stroke require nursing care to some extent; in fact, patients with stroke account for the largest percentage of claims under the Japanese Long-term Care Insurance System [3]. In a previous review, about 90% of patients with stroke had hemiparesis on admission, and less than 15% of them experienced complete motor recovery [4]. In stroke rehabilitation, some principles are well accepted: high-intensity, task-specific, goal-setting, and multidisciplinary-team care are needed to be effective [5]. Among these principles, “task-specific” might be controversial, because some theories of motor control suggest that, on the contrary, motor learning improves, and acquires greater generalizability, when a training program offers variability [67]. The appropriate approach probably depends on the aim of rehabilitation (which can be subject-dependent): for example, a reaching movement with the arm is frequently needed in activities of daily living.

Robotic rehabilitation is a novel intervention method, and several reviews have noted that it leads to improved muscle strength and motor control of the affected upper extremity [89]. A recent Cochrane review suggests that electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training might improve arm function, muscle strength of the upper extremity, and even activity of daily living after stroke [10]. Robotic devices can enable patients to perform task-specific, high-intensity rehabilitation due to increased repetition or amount of training.

At the same time, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely employed as a rehabilitation technique. According to a previous study, NMES is effective at improving motor control and motor function of affected arms of patients with acute stroke [11], and the NMES system was more efficient when applied with a high-voltage pulsed current [12]. Although few studies have investigated untriggered NMES for the hemiparetic upper limb, continuous electrical stimulation with robotic training improved active range of motion and motor control [13], and we employed the NMES system without triggered electromyography (EMG) [14]. Continuous stimulation with NMES has been considered to be effective in facilitating contraction of paretic muscles [14]. Furthermore, the latest meta-analysis showed that electrical stimulation was effective for arm function and activity regardless of the stimulation type (NMES, EMG triggered, or sensory) [15].

Functional vibratory stimulation (FVS) is known to produce a favorable effect on spasticity, motor control, and gait after stroke [16]. Regarding hemiparetic upper extremities, previous studies have shown that focal vibration applied to paretic muscles is effective at decreasing spasticity with an amplitude of 91 Hz [17], and that it probably improves motor control with an amplitude of 120 Hz, especially in terms of smoothness of movement [18]. For the lower extremity, a previous study revealed that focal vibration improved gait by promoting contraction of the target muscle [19]. Moreover, not only did it promote contraction of the agonist muscle, low amplitude vibratory stimulation (80 Hz) also facilitated focused motorcortical activation [2021]. In addition, tendon or muscle vibration produces a tonic vibration reflex through both spinal and supraspinal pathways via repetitive activation of Ia afferent fibers [2223]. It is possible to artificially elicit the illusion of movement by vibrating the tendons or the muscles through the skin [24]; the illusion is probably mediated by the activation of muscle spindles [25]. This phenomenon indicates that vibration induces a strong proprioceptive feedback. On the other hand, it has been reported that the vastus lateralis muscle demonstrates a shift toward more appropriate muscle timing when vibration is applied during stance phase and transition to stance of the gait cycle in patients with spinal cord injury [26]. This indicates that strong sensory feedback from quadriceps vibration caused increased muscle excitation [26]. Thus, the combination of muscle vibration with NMES might help to recruit Ia afferent fibers and increase muscle force production. This phenomenon has already been demonstrated in healthy people in the plantar flexors [27]. To the best of our knowledge, however, the use of a robotic device equipped with electrical stimulation and vibration has not been reported.

Considering these facts, our group undertook to develop a rehabilitation robot to assist with repetitive, active reaching movement of the paretic upper extremity; patent acquisitions [28,29,30] and product development were accomplished with a medical–engineering collaboration within Kagoshima University and collaboration between industry (Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd., Fukuoka, Japan) and academia (Kagoshima university). The robot is equipped with a servo motor-controlled arm-weight support via a wire—the system is programmed to assist the patient’s paretic arm to move between two switches (sensors) located at various three-dimensional positions, which provide a variety of reaching tasks—and works in conjunction with NMES and vibratory stimulation to facilitate agonist-muscle contraction, because the combination might strengthen proprioceptive feedback and tonic vibration reflex. Indeed, this device was applicable and beneficial for a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury [31]. In the before-and-after pilot study reported here, we assessed the feasibility of our novel approach of applying the robot equipped with electrical stimulation and vibration to improve motor control and function of the hemiparetic upper extremity in patients who suffered chronic stroke.[…]

Continue —-> Reaching exercise for chronic paretic upper extremity after stroke using a novel rehabilitation robot with arm-weight support and concomitant electrical stimulation and vibration: before-and-after feasibility trial | SpringerLink

Fig. 5

Fig.5 Setting for training with the robot. A wire (a) connecting the device to the forearm cuff adjusts the amount of arm-weight support. The patient repeats a reaching movement from the start button (b) to the target button (c), accompanied with the arm-weight support, electrical stimulation (d), and vibratory stimulation (e). Two video cameras (f) on the upper frame of the device record the reaching movement for kinematic analysis

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[Abstract] The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy to reduce lower limb spasticity in stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) to reduce lower limb spasticity in adult stroke survivors.

Data Sources: A systematic review of Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PEDro database, REHABDATA, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Trip Database, and Epistemonikos from 1980 to December 2018 was carried out.

Review Methods: The bibliography was screened to identify clinical trials (controlled and before-after) that used ESWT to reduce spasticity in stroke survivors. Two reviewers independently screened references, selected relevant studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias by PEDro scale. The primary outcome was spasticity.

Results: A total of 12 studies (278 participants) were included (5 randomized controlled trials, 1 controlled trial, and 6 before-after studies). A meta-analysis was performed by randomized controlled trials. A beneficial effect on spasticity was found. The mean difference (MD) was 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.86 and also in subgroup analysis (short, medium, and long term). The MD for range of motion was 1.81; CI −0.20 to 3.82 and for lower limb function the standard mean difference (SMD) was 0.34; 95% CI −0.09 to 0.77. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a better beneficial effect for myotendinous junction. MD was 1.5; 95% CI −2.44 to 5.44 at long-term (9 weeks).

Conclusion: The ESWT (radial/focused) would be a good non-invasive rehabilitation strategy in chronic stroke survivors to reduce lower limb spasticity, increase ankle range of motion, and improve lower limb function. It does not show any adverse events and it is a safe and effective method.

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[REVIEW ARTICLE ] Robot-Assisted Therapy in Upper Extremity Hemiparesis: Overview of an Evidence-Based Approach – Full Text

Robot-mediated therapy is an innovative form of rehabilitation that enables highly repetitive, intensive, adaptive, and quantifiable physical training. It has been increasingly used to restore loss of motor function, mainly in stroke survivors suffering from an upper limb paresis. Multiple studies collated in a growing number of review articles showed the positive effects on motor impairment, less clearly on functional limitations. After describing the current status of robotic therapy after upper limb paresis due to stroke, this overview addresses basic principles related to robotic therapy applied to upper limb paresis. We demonstrate how this innovation is an evidence-based approach in that it meets both the improved clinical and more fundamental knowledge-base about regaining effective motor function after stroke and the need of more objective, flexible and controlled therapeutic paradigms.

Introduction

Robot-mediated rehabilitation is an innovative exercise-based therapy using robotic devices that enable the implementation of highly repetitive, intensive, adaptive, and quantifiable physical training. Since the first clinical studies with the MIT-Manus robot (1), robotic applications have been increasingly used to restore loss of motor function, mainly in stroke survivors suffering from an upper limb paresis but also in cerebral palsy (2), multiple sclerosis (3), spinal cord injury (4), and other disease types. Thus, multiple studies suggested that robot-assisted training, integrated into a multidisciplinary program, resulted in an additional reduction of motor impairments in comparison to usual care alone in different stages of stroke recovery: namely, acute (57), subacute (18), and chronic phases after the stroke onset (911). Typically, patients engaged in the robotic therapy showed an impairment reduction of 5 points or more in the Fugl-Meyer assessment as compared to usual care. Of notice, rehabilitation studies conducted during the chronic stroke phase suggest that a 5-point differential represents the minimum clinically important difference (MCID), i.e., the magnitude of change that is necessary to produce real-world benefits for patients (12). These results were collated in multiple review articles and meta-analyses (1317). In contrast, the advantage of robotic training over usual care in terms of functional benefit is less clear, but there are recent results that suggest how best to organize training to achieve superior results in terms of both impairment and function (18). Indeed, the use of the robotic tool has allowed us the parse and study the ingredients that should form an efficacious and efficient rehabilitation program. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview of the current state of robotic training in upper limb rehabilitation after stroke, to analyze the rationale behind its use, and to discuss our working model on how to more effectively employ robotics to promote motor recovery after stroke.

Upper Extremity Robotic Therapy: Current Status

Robotic systems used in the field of neurorehabilitation can be organized under two basic categories: exoskeleton and end-effector type robots. Exoskeleton robotic systems allow us to accurately determine the kinematic configuration of human joints, while end-effector type robots exert forces only in the most distal part of the affected limb. A growing number of commercial robotic devices have been developed employing either configuration. Examples of exoskeleton type include the Armeo®Spring, Armeo®Power, and Myomo® and of end-effector type include the InMotion™, Burt®, Kinarm™ and REAplan®. Both categories enable the implementation of intensive training and there are many other devices in different stages of development or commercialization (1920).

The last decade has seen an exponential growth in both the number of devices as well as clinical trials. The results coalesced in a set of systematic reviews, meta-analyses (1317) and guidelines such as those published by the American Heart Association and the Veterans Administration (AHA and VA) (21). There is a clear consensus that upper limb therapy using robotic devices over 30–60-min sessions, is safe despite the larger number of movement repetitions (14).

This technic is feasible and showed a high rate of eligibility; in the VA ROBOTICS (911) study, nearly two thirds of interviewed stroke survivors were enrolled in the study. As a comparison the EXCITE cohort of constraint-induced movement therapy enrolled only 6% of the screened patients participated (22). On that issue, it is relevant to notice the admission criteria of both chronic stroke studies. ROBOTICS enrolled subjects with Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) of 38 or lower (out of 66) while EXCITE typically enrolled subjects with an FMA of 42 or higher. Duret and colleagues demonstrated that the target population, based on motor impairments, seems to be broader in the robotic intervention which includes patients with severe motor impairments, a group that typically has not seen much benefit from usual care (23). Indeed, Duret found that more severely impaired patients benefited more from robot-assisted training and that co-factors such as age, aphasia, and neglect had no impact on the amount of repetitive movements performed and were not contraindicated. Furthermore, all patients enrolled in robotic training were satisfied with the intervention. This result is consistent with the literature (24).

The main outcome result is that robotic therapy led to significantly more improvement in impairment as compared to conventional usual care, but only slightly more on motor function of the limb segments targeted by the robotic device (16). For example, Bertani et al. (15) and Zhang et al. (17) found that robotic training was more effective in reducing motor impairment than conventional usual care therapy in patients with chronic stroke, and further meta-analyses suggested that using robotic therapy as an adjunct to conventional usual care treatment is more effective than robotic training alone (1317). Other examples of disproven beliefs: many rehabilitation professionals mistakenly expected significant increase of muscle hyperactivity and shoulder pain due to the intensive training. Most studies showed just the opposite, i.e., that intensive robotic training was associated with tone reduction as compared to the usual care groups (92526). These results are shattering the resistance to the widespread adoption of robotic therapy as a therapeutic modality post-stroke.

That said, not all is rosy. Superior changes in functional outcomes were more controversial until the very last years as most studies and reviews concluded that robotic therapy did not improve activities of daily living beyond traditional care. One first step was reached in 2015 with Mehrholz et al. (14), who found that robotic therapy can provide more functional benefits when compared to other interventions however with a quality of evidence low to very low. 2018 may have seen a decisive step in favor of robotic as the latest meta-analysis conducted by Mehrholz et al. (27) concluded that robot-assisted arm training may improve activities of daily living in the acute phase after stroke with a high quality of evidence However, the results must be interpreted with caution because of the high variability in trial designs as evidenced by the multicenter study (28) in which robotic rehabilitation using the Armeo®Spring, a non-motorized device, was compared to self-management with negative results on motor impairments and potential functional benefits in the robotic group.

The Robot Assisted Training for the Upper Limb after Stroke (RATULS) study (29) might clarify things and put everyone in agreement on the topic. Of notice, RATULS goes beyond the Veterans Administration ROBOTICS with chronic stroke or the French REM_AVC study with subacute stroke. RATULS included 770 stroke patients and covered all stroke phases, from acute to chronic, and it included a positive meaningful control in addition to usual care.[…]

 

Continue —-> Frontiers | Robot-Assisted Therapy in Upper Extremity Hemiparesis: Overview of an Evidence-Based Approach | Neurology

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[Dissertation] Advancing Rehabilitation Research Through Characterization of Conventional Occupational Therapy for Adult Stroke Survivors with Upper Extremity Hemiparesis

Abstract

Stroke remains a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. While significant medical advances have led to decreased stroke mortality rates, incidence of stroke has remained roughly the same. This has resulted in an increased number of stroke survivors living with upper extremity (UE) hemiparesis requiring occupational therapy (OT). Despite a significant increase in the number of stroke rehabilitation trials over the past decade, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis found insufficient evidence that any experimental interventions were superior to conventional rehabilitation for improving UE motor function post-stroke. While it may be true that novel interventions are no more effective than conventional rehabilitation, an equally probable reason is the large disparities in dosage, frequency, and interventions used across control groups in clinical trials.
In the stroke rehabilitation literature, control interventions are often referred to as standard care or conventional rehabilitation. Concerningly, the majority of stroke rehabilitation trials lack an empirically based rationale for how control interventions are comparable to standard care rehabilitation. Inadequate descriptions of, and rationales for, control interventions across stroke rehabilitation trials are significant barriers to the advancement of evidence-based practice. Without a true understanding of `standard care’ in real-world practice, there is no way to know if the control intervention is truly comparable. There is an urgent need to characterize `standard care’ rehabilitation to inform control intervention development and improve interpretability of clinical trial results. The purpose of this study was to investigate current practices of occupational therapy practitioners in outpatient rehabilitation settings to address upper extremity hemiparesis in adult stroke survivors.
In Chapter 2, a cross-sectional e-mail survey was sent to OT practitioners across the United States to determine current practice patterns of therapists working in outpatient stroke rehabilitation nationwide. The results of this study (n=269) revealed that stretching, bilateral upper extremity training, strength training, weightbearing, manual therapy and task-oriented training were used by more than 85% of OT practitioners in our sample. Poor patient compliance (84%), medical complexity (64%), and spasticity (63%) were the most commonly reported barriers to patients meeting their OT goals in outpatient rehabilitation.
Chapters 3 and 4 present the results of a video-based observational study of outpatient OT sessions at an academic medical center. The Rehabilitation Treatment Specification System (RTSS) was used to analyze 30 OT treatment sessions. The average total session time was 52 ± 4.7 minutes with 36.2 ± 7.4 minutes of active time and 15.8 ± 7.1 minutes of inactive time per session. Interventions in the RTSS categories of `Skills and Habits’ (e.g., task-oriented activities) and `Organ Function’ (e.g., stretching, weightbearing) were used in the majority of OT sessions with `Skills and Habits’ activities accounting for 59% of active time and `Organ Function’ activities accounting for 35% of active time. After removing outliers, an average of 150.2 ± 85.2 UE repetitions occurred per session. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was commonly used as an adjuvant to task-oriented activities and knowledge of performance was provided often during treatment.
Taken together, these results suggest that task-oriented training is commonly used by OT practitioners to address UE hemiparesis and musculoskeletal interventions are often used to mitigate spasticity in preparation for task-oriented activities. Future research will include video observation and analysis of OT practice sessions across multiple practice settings, as well as analyzing our remaining survey data across multiple practice settings (e.g., inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing facilities) to describe similarities and differences with the current findings.
Full Text: Wengerd_Dissertation_11.26.19.pdf (3.16 MB) View|Download

via OhioLINK ETD: Wengerd, Lauren Rachel

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[Case Study] Robotic rehabilitation of the paralyzed upper limb for a stroke patient using the single-joint hybrid assistive limb: a case study assessed by accelerometer on the wrist – Full Text PDF

Abstract

[Purpose] Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation of paralyzed upper limbs in stroke patients. For example, the Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb has been shown to improve upper limb impairments. However, limited data are available on the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation of the upper limb with regards to daily living. In this case study, an accelerometer was adopted to examine whether rehabilitation using the Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb improved upper limb activity during daily living in a stroke patient.

[Participant and Methods] The participant was a 69-year-old male diagnosed with stroke and left hemiparesis. The Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb was applied to the participant’s elbow on the paralyzed side. The participant wore an accelerometer on each wrist to measure the activities of the upper limbs. Clinical tests of the paralyzed upper limb were also performed.

[Results] The activity of the paralytic limb was significantly higher after Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb intervention than before the intervention. On the other hand, none of the results of the clinical tests changed beyond a clinically important difference.

[Conclusion] The Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb could be useful for promoting active use of a paralyzed upper limb in daily living. In addition, an accelerometer could be especially useful for evaluating the effects of robotic rehabilitation.

INTRODUCTION

Hemiparesis is a sequela that can substantially influence the lives of patients with stroke. For these patients, exercise therapy can improve not only the impairment but also the patients’ daily activities and quality of life1, 2). Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation of paralyzed upper limbs in patients with stroke37). For example, Saita et al. demonstrated that the Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL-SJ; HAL-FS01, CYBERDYNE, Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) improved upper limb impairment in stroke patients7) . However, these studies evaluated the upper limb function in a testing situation, such as by using Fugl-Meyer assessment or the Action Research Arm Test. Few data are available about the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation for the upper limb for activities of daily living.
Recently, some studies reported that an accelerometer provides an effective method for assessing arm activity in daily living for patients with stroke8) . Thus, accelerometer may be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation for daily activities. In this case study, accelerometer was used to examine whether robotic rehabilitation using the HAL-SJ improved upper limb activity in daily living in a patient with stroke.

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[Abstract] The Role of Robotic Path Assistance and Weight Support in Facilitating 3D Movements in Individuals With Poststroke Hemiparesis

Background. High-intensity repetitive training is challenging to provide poststroke. Robotic approaches can facilitate such training by unweighting the limb and/or by improving trajectory control, but the extent to which these types of assistance are necessary is not known.

Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which robotic path assistance and/or weight support facilitate repetitive 3D movements in high functioning and low functioning subjects with poststroke arm motor impairment relative to healthy controls.

Methods. Seven healthy controls and 18 subjects with chronic poststroke right-sided hemiparesis performed 300 repetitions of a 3D circle-drawing task using a 3D Cable-driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX) robot. Subjects performed 100 repetitions each with path assistance alone, weight support alone, and path assistance plus weight support in a random order over a single session. Kinematic data from the task were used to compute the normalized error and speed as well as the speed-error relationship.

Results. Low functioning stroke subjects (Fugl-Meyer Scale score = 16.6 ± 6.5) showed the lowest error with path assistance plus weight support, whereas high functioning stroke subjects (Fugl-Meyer Scale score = 59.6 ± 6.8) moved faster with path assistance alone. When both speed and error were considered together, low functioning subjects significantly reduced their error and increased their speed but showed no difference across the robotic conditions.

Conclusions. Robotic assistance can facilitate repetitive task performance in individuals with severe arm motor impairment, but path assistance provides little advantage over weight support alone. Future studies focusing on antigravity arm movement control are warranted poststroke.

 

via The Role of Robotic Path Assistance and Weight Support in Facilitating 3D Movements in Individuals With Poststroke Hemiparesis – Preeti Raghavan, Seda Bilaloglu, Syed Zain Ali, Xin Jin, Viswanath Aluru, Megan C. Buckley, Alvin Tang, Arash Yousefi, Jennifer Stone, Sunil K. Agrawal, Ying Lu, 2020

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[Abstract] The Effect of IoT-based Upper and Lower Extremity Rehabilitation Medical Device Training on Gait in Chronic Stroke Survivor : A Case Study

Purpose: For stroke survivors, abnormal gait patterns lead to a significant risk of falls. We have recently developed an IoT-based Upper and Lower Extremity Rehabilitation Medical Device (RoBoGat) that enables continuous passive motion (CPM) training, squat training (ST), and gait training (GT). The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of RoBoGat on gait in a chronic stroke survivor.

Methods: In this study, an individual with right-side chronic hemiparesis post-stroke participated. The participant underwent 14 days of RoBoGat training that involved continuous passive motion training, squat training, and gait training. During the training, knee and hip joint angles were adjusted within the range where the subject felt no pain. We assessed gait, timed up and go test, and visual analog scale at baseline and after first and final interventions.

Results: After the intervention, positive changes were observed such as stride, gait velocity, and loading phase. Improvements were also observed in timed up and go tests. However, there was no significant change in VAS, which assessed pain in training and daily life.

Conclusion: The main finding of this case-control study is that robot-based upper and lower extremity training may be a feasible approach in the neurorehabilitation field. It can be concluded that repetitive and continuous robot rehabilitation exercises have a positive effect on improving the physical function of chronic stroke survivors.

Source: https://www.earticle.net/Article/A368653

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[Abstract] Roles of Lesioned and Nonlesioned Hemispheres in Reaching Performance Poststroke

Background. Severe poststroke arm impairment is associated with greater activation of the nonlesioned hemisphere during movement of the affected arm. The circumstances under which this activation may be adaptive or maladaptive remain unclear.

Objective. To identify the functional relevance of key lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere motor areas to reaching performance in patients with mild versus severe arm impairment.

Methods. A total of 20 participants with chronic stroke performed a reaching response time task with their affected arm. During the reaction time period, a transient magnetic stimulus was applied over the primary (M1) or dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of either hemisphere, and the effect of the perturbation on movement time (MT) was calculated.

Results. For perturbation of the nonlesioned hemisphere, there was a significant interaction effect of Site of perturbation (PMd vs M1) by Group (mild vs severe; P < .001). Perturbation of PMd had a greater effect on MT in the severe versus the mild group. This effect was not observed with perturbation of M1. For perturbation of the lesioned hemisphere, there was a main effect of site of perturbation (P < .05), with perturbation of M1 having a greater effect on MT than PMd.

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that, in the context of reaching movements, the role of the nonlesioned hemisphere depends on both impairment severity and the specific site that is targeted. A deeper understanding of these individual-, task-, and site-specific factors is essential for advancing the potential usefulness of neuromodulation to enhance poststroke motor recovery.

  

via Roles of Lesioned and Nonlesioned Hemispheres in Reaching Performance Poststroke – Rachael M. Harrington, Evan Chan, Amanda K. Rounds, Clinton J. Wutzke, Alexander W. Dromerick, Peter E. Turkeltaub, Michelle L. Harris-Love,

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