- •The effect of sit-to-stand training combined with TENS was evaluated in stroke patients with spastic plantar flexor.
- •TENS followed by sit-to-stand training may improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance.
- •Clinician should consider TENS application prior to sit to stand training for stroke patients with spastic plantar flexor.
Posts Tagged Balance
[Abstract] Effects of sit-to-stand training combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation on spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled study
Sit-to-stand is a fundamental movement of human being for performing mobility and independent activity. However, Stroke people symptoms experience difficulty in conducting the sit-to-stand due to paralysis and especially ankle spasticity. Recently, transcutaneous electrical- stimulation (TENS) is used to reduce pain but also to manage spasticity.
The purpose of this study was to determine
- whether TENS would lead to ankle spasticity reduction and (
- whether sit-to-stand training combined with TENS would improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in stroke patients.
Forty-stroke patients were recruited and were randomly divided into two groups: TENS group (n = 20) and sham group (n = 20). All participants underwent 30-sessions of sit-to-stand training (for 15-minutes, five-times per week for 6-weeks). Prior to each training session, 30-minutes of TENS over the peroneal nerve was given in TENS group, whereas sham group received non-electrically stimulated TENS for the same amount of time. Composite-Spasticity-Score was used to assess spasticity level of ankle plantar-flexors. Isometric strength in the extensor of hip, knee and ankle were measured by handhelddynamometer. Postural-sway distance was measured using a force platform.
The spasticity score in the TENS group (2.6 ± 0.8) improved significantly greater than the sham group (0.7 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). The muscle strength of hip extensor in the TENS group (2.7 ± 1.1 kg) was significantly higher than the sham group (1.0 ± 0.8 kg, p < 0.05). Significant improvement in postural-sway was observed in the TENS group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05).
Thus, sit-to-stand training combined with TENS may be used to improve the spasticity, balance function and muscle strength in stroke patients.
Source: Effects of sit-to-stand training combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation on spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled study – Gait & Posture
[ARTICLE] Effects of Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Balance, Emotion and Quality of Life in Patients with Cognitive Decline
[Abstract] Effect of elastic bandage on postural control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: a randomised clinical trial
Purpose: To report the immediate and prolonged (one week) effects of elastic bandage (EB) on balance control in subjects with chronic ankle instability.
Material and methods: Twenty-eight individuals successfully completed the study protocol, of whom 14 were randomly assigned to the EB group (7 men, 7 women) and 14 were assigned to the non-standardised tape (NST) group (9 men, 5 women). To objectively measure postural sway we used computerised dynamic posturography (CDP) with sensory organisation test (SOT) and unilateral stance (US) test. We analysed the following SOT parameters: the composite SOT score, the composite SOT strategy and the SOT condition 2 and its strategy. In addition, we studied the centre of gravity (COG) sway velocity with open eyes and close eyes during the US test.
Results: Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant effect for time in composite SOT score (F= 34.98; p= <0.01), composite SOT strategy (F= 12.082; p= 0.02), and COG sway with open eyes (F= 3.382; p= 0.039) in EB group and NST group. Therefore, there were improvements in balance control after bandage applications (defined as better scores in SOT parameters and decreased COG sway in US test). However, no differences between groups were observed in the most relevant parameters.
Conclusions: This study did not observe differences between EB and NST during the follow-up in the majority of measurements. Several outcome measures for SOT and US tests improved in both groups immediately after bandage applications and after one week of use. EB of the ankle joint has no advantage as compared to the non-standardised tape.
Implications for rehabilitation
- Elastic bandage (EB) of the ankle joint has no advantage as compared to the non-standardised tape.
- The effects of the bandages could be due to a greater subjective sense of security.
- It is important to be prudent with the use of bandage, since a greater sense of safety could also bring with it a greater risk of injury.
- The application of the bandage on subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) should be prolonged and used alongside other physiotherapy treatments.
[commentary] Gait and balance training using virtual reality is more effective for improving gait and balance ability after stroke than conventional training without virtual reality.
Virtual reality technology, consisting of computer simulations to artificially generate sensory information in the form of a virtual environment that is interactive and perceived as similar to the real world, is recognised as a novel intervention tool in stroke rehabilitation. This timely systematic review addressed the effectiveness of virtual reality training on gait and balance using commonly assessed clinical outcome measures. The meta-analyses conducted on these outcomes all favoured virtual reality training when the time-dose was matched between balance and gait training, with and without virtual reality. Virtual reality-based rehabilitation should thus be considered to be more than an adjunct to conventional gait training, which is recommended by a recent update on stroke rehabilitation best practice.1
While virtual reality offers the opportunity to create unique and customisable interventions that are unavailable or readily accomplished in the real world, its clinical implementation may be challenging. Diverse virtual reality tools exist; they range from computer games (eg, Wii, Kinect) to high-end, immersive, and costly systems.2 The realism and ecological validity of a virtual environment could enhance training efficiency in virtual reality-based rehabilitation. A useful framework3 to guide clinical decision-making consists of three essential phases: (1) interaction between the user and the virtual environment, taking into account the personal and environmental characteristics; (2) transfer of skills learned from the virtual environment to the real world; and (3) participation in the real world and its affordances as a result of rehabilitation. The transfer of virtual reality-based gait and balance training to actual community ambulation should thus be considered. It should be assessed with mobility outcomes recorded in the community and during negotiation of actual environmental challenges, such as slopes and obstacles. Outcomes of participation, motivation and adherence to training should also be evaluated.
Provenance: Invited. Not peer-reviewed.
© 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Australian Physiotherapy Association.
Stroke survival rates have improved a lot over the last few years. Stroke was once the third leading cause of death in the United States, but it fell to fourth place in 2008 and fifth place in 2013. Today, strokes claim an average of 129,000 American lives every year. Reducing stroke deaths in America is a great improvement, but we still have a long way to go in improving the lives of stroke survivors.
Stagnant recovery rates and low quality of life for stroke survivors are unfortunately very common. Just 10% of stroke survivors make a full recovery. Only 25% of all survivors recover with minor impairments. Nearly half of all stroke survivors continue to live with serious impairments requiring special care, and 10% of survivors live in nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, and other long-term healthcare facilities. It’s easy to see why stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. By 2030, it’s estimated that there could be up to 11 million stroke survivors in the country.
Traditionally, stroke rehabilitation in America leaves much to be desired in terms of recovery and quality of life. There is a serious gap between stroke patients being discharged and transitioning to physical recovery programs. In an effort to improve recovery and quality of life, the American Heart Association has urged the healthcare community to prioritize exercise as an essential part of post-stroke care.
Unfortunately, too few healthcare professionals prescribe exercise as a form of therapy for stroke, despite its many benefits for patients. Many stroke survivors are not given the skills, confidence, knowledge, or tools necessary to follow an exercise program. However, that can change.
With the right recovery programs that prioritize exercise for rehabilitation, stroke survivors can “relearn” crucial motors skills to regain a high quality of life. Thanks to a phenomenon known as neuroplasticity, even permanent brain damage doesn’t make disability inevitable.
A stroke causes loss of physical function because it temporarily or permanently damages the parts of the brain responsible for those functions. The same damage is also responsible for behavioral and cognitive changes, which range from memory and vision problems to severe depression and anger. Each of these changes correspond to a specific region of the brain that was damaged due to stroke.
For example, damage in the left hemisphere of your brain will cause weakness and paralysis on the right side of your body. If a stroke damages or kills brain cells in the right hemisphere, you may struggle to understand facial cues or control your behavior. However, brain damage due to stroke is not necessarily permanent.
Published on January 17, 2017
By Jessica Finnegan, PT, MPT, NCS
This is an exciting time in the world of neurologic physical therapy. Rehabilitation technologies are emerging and research is ongoing to determine the efficacy of these products. In the current healthcare environment, rehabilitation stays are becoming shorter and physical therapists (PTs) must find a way to prioritize which interventions will be most beneficial to their patients. This article discusses several rehabilitation technologies with the hope of helping PTs integrate them into their plans of care to improve mobility in patients recovering from stroke and other neurological disorders.
Convenience, Safety, and Early Mobility
Intensive, repetitive mobility-task training is recommended for all patients with impaired gait after stroke.1 In the past, mobilizing a patient with dense hemiparesis may have required two to three skilled therapists. This has obvious implications for staff efficiency and productivity. In addition, musculoskeletal injuries are commonly reported by healthcare providers and are often associated with manual patient handling.2 Workplace injuries can be a threat to the health and careers of PTs and should be avoided. Darragh and colleagues explored physical and occupational therapists’ experience with safe-patient-handling (SPH) equipment, such as ceiling lifts, floor lifts, and more. This equipment is becoming more widely available, allowing early mobilization of patients with fewer skilled staff members present and reduced risk of injury to the therapist. In this study, therapeutic uses of SPH equipment included transfer training, functional ambulation, and bed mobility.
Therapists also reported using SPH devices to address impaired attention, visual perception, and neglect. Overall, therapists who used SPH equipment “experienced increased options in therapy, accomplished more, and mobilized patients earlier in their recovery.” They also remarked that they needed to co-treat or solicit help from other professionals less frequently, which should improve productivity overall.3…
[Abstract] Effects of ankle biofeedback training on strength, balance, and gait in patients with stroke – PEDro
|Effects of ankle biofeedback training on strength, balance, and gait in patients with stroke|
|Kim S-J, Cho H-Y, Kim K-H, Lee S-M|
|Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2016 Sep;28(9):2596-2600|
|PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of ankle biofeedback training on muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in stroke patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven subjects who had had a stroke were randomly allocated to either the ankle biofeedback training group (n = 14) or control group (n = 13). Conventional therapy, which adhered to the neurodevelopmental treatment approach, was administered to both groups for 30 minutes. Furthermore, ankle strengthening exercises were performed by the control group and ankle biofeedback training by the experimental group, each for 30 minutes, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. To test muscle strength, balance, and gait, the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer, functional reach test, and 10 m walk test, respectively, were used. RESULTS: After the intervention, both groups showed a significant increase in muscle strength on the affected side and improved balance and gait. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the balance and gait of the ankle biofeedback training group compared with the control group, but not in the strength of the dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles of the affected side. CONCLUSION: This study showed that ankle biofeedback training significantly improves muscle strength of the ankle joint, balance, and gait in patients with stroke.
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[Abstract] A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Literature Review of Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Programs
- Virtual reality rehabilitation (VRR) programs are growing in popularity
- VRR programs are more effective than traditional rehabilitation programs
- Excitement, physical fidelity, and cognitive fidelity may cause VRR program success
- More research is needed to better understand VRR programs
A recent advancement in the study of physical rehabilitation is the application of virtual reality rehabilitation (VRR) programs, in which patients perform practice behaviors while interacting with the computer-simulation of an environment that imitates a physical presence in real or imagined worlds. Despite enthusiasm, much remains unknown about VRR programs. Particularly, two important research questions have been left unanswered: Are VRR programs effective? And, if so, why are VRR programs effective? A meta-analysis is performed in the current article to determine the efficacy of VRR programs, in general, as well as their ability to develop four specific rehabilitation outcomes: motor control, balance, gait, and strength. A systematic literature review is also performed to determine the mechanisms that may cause VRR program success or failure. The results demonstrate that VRR programs are more effective than traditional rehabilitation programs for physical outcome development. Further, three mechanisms have been proposed to cause these improved outcomes: excitement, physical fidelity, and cognitive fidelity; however, empirical research has yet to show that these mechanisms actually prompt better rehabilitation outcomes. The implications of these results and possible avenues for future research and practice are discussed.
[ARTICLE] A systematic review of active video games on rehabilitative outcomes among older patients – Full Text
Although current research supports the use of active video games (AVGs) in rehabilitation, the evidence has yet to be systematically reviewed or synthesized. The current project systematically reviewed literature, summarized findings, and evaluated the effectiveness of AVGs as a therapeutic tool in improving physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitative outcomes among older adults with chronic diseases.
Seven databases (Academic Search Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Medline) were searched for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of AVG-based rehabilitation among older patients. The initial search yielded 946 articles; after evaluating against inclusion criteria and removing duplicates, 19 studies of AVG-based rehabilitation remained.
Most studies were quasiexperimental in design, with physical functioning the primary outcome investigated with regard to the use of AVGs in rehabilitation. Overall, 9 studies found significant improvements for all study outcomes, whereas 9 studies were mixed, with significant improvements on several study outcomes but no effects observed on other outcomes after AVG-based treatments. One study failed to find any benefits of AVG-based rehabilitation.
Findings indicate AVGs have potential in rehabilitation for older patients, with several randomized clinical trials reporting positive effects on rehabilitative outcomes. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of AVGs over standard therapy. Given the limited number of studies and concerns with study design quality, more research is warranted to make more definitive conclusions regarding the ability of AVGs to improve rehabilitative outcomes in older patients.
Findings favored active video games (AVGs) in balance and falls efficacy promotion.
Across all age groups, AVGs were used most often for balance rehabilitation.
AVG-based physical functioning rehabilitation common in middle-aged/older adults
Falls efficacy was the only similar psychological outcome across all ages/studies.
Larger samples/more psychological rehabilitative outcomes needed in future studies.
A meta-analysis on Active Video Games (AVG) as a rehabilitative tool does not appear to be available. This meta-analytic review synthesizes the effectiveness of AVGs on patients’ rehabilitative outcomes. Ninety-eight published studies on AVGs and rehabilitation were obtained in late 2015 with 14 meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1) data-based English articles; 2) randomized-controlled trials investigating AVG’s effect on rehabilitative outcome(s); and 3) ≥ 1 comparison present in each study. Data extraction for comparisons was completed for three age categories: 1) youth/young adults (5–25 years-old); 2) middle-aged adults (40–65 years-old); and 3) older adults (≥ 65 years-old). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software calculated effect size (ES; Hedge’s g). Comparison group protocols often employed another non-AVG experimental treatment. Control group protocols implemented standard care. AVGs demonstrated a large positive effect on balance control over control among youth/young adults (ES = 0.81, p < 0.01). Further, AVGs resulted in small positive effects on middle-aged adults’ balance control over control (ES = 0.143, p = 0.48) and comparison (ES = 0.14, p = 0.53), with similar results in older adults compared to control (ES = 0.16, p = 0.27). Notably, AVG’s effect on balance control versus comparison among older adults was small yet negative (ES = − 0.12, p = 0.63). AVGs were also used to enhance general physical functioning (GPF) among middle-aged and older adults. Versus control and comparison, AVGs had no effect on middle-aged adults’ GPF (ES = − 0.054 and − 0.046, respectively) or older adults’ GPF (ES = 0.04 and 0.002, respectively). Finally, AVGs had a moderate effect on older adults’ falls efficacy versus control (ES = 0.61, p < 0.05). Findings favor AVGs for youth/young adult balance control rehabilitation and falls efficacy promotion in older adults.