Posts Tagged Gamification

[Abstract] Gamification of Hand Rehabilitation Process Using Virtual Reality Tools: Using Leap Motion for Hand Rehabilitation

Abstract:

Nowadays virtual reality (VR) technology give us the considerable opportunities to develop new methods to supplement traditional physiotherapy with sustain beneficial quantity and quality of rehabilitation. VR tools, like Leap motion have received great attention in the recent few years because of their immeasurable applications, whish include gaming, robotics, education, medicine etc. In this paper we present a game for hand rehabilitation using the Leap Motion controller. The main idea of gamification of hand rehabilitation is to help develop the muscle tonus and increase precision in gestures using the opportunities that VR offer by making the rehabilitation process more effective and motivating for patients.

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Source: Gamification of Hand Rehabilitation Process Using Virtual Reality Tools: Using Leap Motion for Hand Rehabilitation – IEEE Xplore Document

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[Abstract+References] Ubiquitous gamification framework for stroke rehabilitation treatment based on the web service

Abstract

Every year a large number of people survives from the stroke. To overcome the muscular rigidity, the survivors should participate the rehabilitation program regularly. Above all things, the motivation of the survivors easily collapses and hinder the participating the rehabilitation program. As a consequence, finding a good motivator for individual survivors is an important task for the caregivers and the therapists. This paper utilizes an individualized game for a motivator and proposes a ubiquitous gamification framework for stroke rehabilitation using web-services. The framework provides a formal interface to embrace individualized games and devices and motivates the survivors to participate the rehabilitation process in daily life.

References

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Management of Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group 2010. VA/DOD Clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke rehabilitation. Journal of rehabilitation research and development.
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Lindberg, J., Kreuter, M., Persson, L. O., and Taft, C. 2014. Family Members’ Perspectives on Patient Participation in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. Int J Phys Med Rehabil. (2014)
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Ren, Y., Wu, Y. N., Yang, C. Y., Xu, T., Harvey, R., and Zhang, L. Q. 2016. Developing a wearable ankle rehabilitation robotic device for in-bed acute stroke rehabilitation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 99 (2016), 1–1.  [doi>10.1109/TNSRE.2016.2584003]
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Popović, M. D., Kostić, M. D., Rodić, S. Z., and Konstantinović, L. M. 2014. Feedback-mediated upper extremities exercise: increasing patient motivation in poststroke rehabilitation. Biomed Res Int. (2014).
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Thikey, H., Grealy, M., Wijck, F. V., Barber, M., and Rowe, P. 2012. Augmented visual feedback of movement performance to enhance walking recovery after stroke: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials. 13, 1 (2012), 1–7.  [doi>10.1186/1745-6215-13-163]
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Jacobs, A., Timmermans, A., Michielsen, M., Plaetse, M. V., and Markopoulos, P. 2013. CONTRAST: gamification of arm-hand training for stroke survivors. CHI EA. ACM New York, NY, USA (2013), 415–420.  [doi>10.1145/2468356.2468430]
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Wood, S. R., Murillo, N., Bach-y-Rita, P., Leder, R. S., Marks, J. T., and Page, S. J. 2003. Motivating, Game-Based Stroke Rehabilitation: A Brief Report. Top Stroke Rehabil. 10, 2 (2003), 134–140.  [doi>10.1310/WB09-PFYJ-7XRN-RU6W]
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White, G. N., Cordato, D. J., O’Rourke, F., and Mendis, R. L. 2012. Validation of the Stroke Rehabilitation Motivation Scale: a pilot study. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr. 7 (2012), 80–87.
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Cho, K. H., Lee, K. J., and Song, C. H. 2012. Virtual-Reality Balance Training with a Video-Game System Improves Dynamic Balance in Chronic Stroke Patients. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 228, 1 (2012), 69–74.  [doi>10.1620/tjem.228.69]
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Hondori, H. M., Khademi, M., and Lopes, C.V. 2012. Monitoring intake gestures using sensor fusion (Microsoft Kinect and inertial sensors) for smart home tele-rehab setting. 1st Annual IEEE Healthcare Innovation Conference of the IEEE EMBS. (2012).
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Sin, H., and Lee, G. 2013. Additional Virtual Reality Training Using Xbox Kinect in Stroke Survivors with Hemiplegia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 92, 10 (2013), 871–880.  [doi>10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182a38e40]
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Kinect for Xbox One official homepage http://www.xbox.com/en-US/xbox-one/accessories/kinect
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Cleveland. Wii Fit Nintendo game makes physical therapy fun http://blog.cleveland.com/lifestyles/2008/06/wii_fit_nintendo_game_makes_ph.html
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Wii Fit Plus official homepage http://wiifit.com/
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Lange, B. S., Flynn, S. M., and Rizzo, A. A. 2009. Initial usability assessment of off-the-shelf video game consoles for clinical game-based motor rehabilitation. Phys Ther Rev. 14, 5 (2009), 355–363.  [doi>10.1179/108331909X12488667117258]
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Deutsch, J. E., Robbins, D., Morrison, J., and Bowlby, P. G. 2009. Wii-based compared to standard of care balance and mobility rehabilitation for two individuals post-stroke. Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference. (2009), 117–120.  [doi>10.1109/ICVR.2009.5174216]
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Björk, G. S., and Rydmark, M. 2007. Game Design in Virtual Reality Systems for Stroke Rehabilitation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 125 (2007), 146–148.
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Burke, J.W. et al. 2010. Designing engaging, playable games for rehabilitation. (2010).
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Rand, D., Kizony, R., and Weiss, P. L. 2004. Virtual reality rehabilitation for all: Vivid GX versus Sony PlayStation II EyeToy. 5th ICDVRAT. (2004), 87–94.
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Colombo, E., Pisano, F., and Mazzone, A. et al.2007. Design strategies to improve patient motivation during robot-aided rehabilitation. J Neuroeng Rehabil, 4, 3 (2007), 33–39.
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Reese, G. 2012. The REST API Design Handbook. Amazon Digital Services. (2012)

Source: Ubiquitous gamification framework for stroke rehabilitation treatment based on the web service

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[WEB SITE] Gaming helps personalized therapy level up – Penn State University

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Using game features in non-game contexts, computers can learn to build personalized mental- and physical-therapy programs that enhance individual motivation, according to Penn State engineers.

“We want to understand the human and team behaviors that motivate learning to ultimately develop personalized methods of learning instead of the one-size-fits-all approach that is often taken,” said Conrad Tucker, assistant professor of engineering design and industrial engineering.

They seek to use machine learning to train computers to develop personalized mental or physical therapy regimens — for example, to overcome anxiety or recover from a shoulder injury — so many individuals can each use a tailor-made program.

“Using people to individually evaluate others is not efficient or sustainable in time or human resources and does not scale up well to large numbers of people,” said Tucker. “We need to train computers to read individual people. Gamification explores the idea that different people are motivated by different things.”

To begin creating computer models for therapy programs, the researchers tested how to most effectively make the completion of a physical task into a gamified application by incorporating game features like scoring, avatars, challenges and competition.

“We’re exploring here how gamification could be applied to health and wellness by focusing on physically interactive gamified applications,” said Christian Lopez, graduate student in industrial engineering, who helped conduct the tests using a virtual-reality game environment.

Screen from game designed to test features for gamification use in physical and mental therapy. Image: Kimberly Cartier / Penn State

In the virtual-reality tests, researchers asked participants to physically avoid obstacles as they moved through a virtual environment. The game system recorded their actual body positions using motion sensors and then mirrored their movements with an avatar in virtual reality.

Participants had to bend, crouch, raise their arms, and jump to avoid obstacles. The participant successfully avoided a virtual obstacle if no part of their avatar touched the obstacle. If they made contact, the researchers rated the severity of the mistake by how much of the avatar touched the obstacle.

In one of the application designs, participants could earn more points by moving to collect virtual coins, which sometimes made them hit an obstacle.

“As task complexity increases, participants need more motivation to achieve the same level of results,” said Lopez. “No matter how engaging a particular feature is, it needs to move the participant towards completing the objective rather than backtracking or wasting time on a tangential task. Adding more features doesn’t necessarily enhance performance.”

Tucker and Lopez created a predictive algorithm — a mathematical formula to forecast the outcome of an event — that rates the potential usefulness of a game feature. They then tested how well each game feature motivated participants when completing the virtual-reality tasks. They compared their test results to the algorithm’s predictions as a proof of concept and found that the formula correctly anticipated which game features best motivated people in the physically interactive tasks.

The researchers found that gamified applications with a scoring system, the ability to select an avatar, and in-game rewards led to significantly fewer mistakes and higher performance than those with a win-or-lose system, randomized gaming backgrounds and performance-based awards.

Sixty-eight participants tested two designs that differed only by the features used to complete the same set of tasks. Tucker and Lopez published their results in Computers in Human Behavior.

The researchers chose the tested game features from the top-ranked games in the Google Play app store, taking advantage of the features that make the games binge-worthy and re-playable, and then narrowed the selection based on available technology.

Their algorithm next ranked game features by how easily designers could implement them, the physical complexity of using the feature, and the impact of the feature on participant motivation and ability to complete the task. If a game feature is too technologically difficult to incorporate into the game, too physically complex, does not offer enough incentive for added effort or works against the end goal of the game, then the feature has low potential usefulness.

The researchers would also like to use these results to boost workplace performance and personalize virtual-reality classrooms for online education.

“Game culture has already explored and mastered the psychological aspects of games that make them engaging and motivating,” said Tucker. “We want to leverage that knowledge towards the goal of individualized optimization of workplace performance.”

To do this, Tucker and Lopez next want to connect performance with mental state during these gamified physical tasks. Heart rate, electroencephalogram signals and facial expressions will be used as proxies for mood and mental state while completing tasks to connect mood with game features that affect motivation.

The National Science Foundation funded this research.

Source: Gaming helps personalized therapy level up | Penn State University

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[Abstract] Gamification in Physical Therapy: More Than Using Games

Abstract

The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy interventions because they involve reward-related dopaminergic systems in the brain that are known to facilitate learning through long-term potentiation of neural connections. In this perspective we propose a way to apply game design approaches to therapy development by “designing” therapy sessions in such a way as to trigger physical and cognitive behavioral patterns required for treatment and neurological recovery. We also advocate that improving game knowledge among therapists and improving communication between therapists and game designers may lead to a novel avenue in designing applied games with specific therapeutic input, thereby making gamification in therapy a realistic and promising future that may optimize clinical practice.

Source: Gamification in Physical Therapy: More Than Using Games : Pediatric Physical Therapy

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[ARTICLE] New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments – Full Text

Abstract:

The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players’ immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu). The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise.

1. Introduction

For a number of years, the possibility of applying serious games for rehabilitation purposes has been thoroughly investigated [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28]. It is often claimed that serious games reduce health system costs and efforts as they enable in-home rehabilitation without loss of medical monitoring, and in so doing provide an additional fun factor for patients [22,23,24]. Multiple reviews have summarized the very powerful contributions and reveal that the systems are generally evaluated as feasible, but no state of general applicability has yet been reached [2,3,5,7,11,13].
Most studies are quite specialised and tend to cover the same groups of largely elderly patients (e.g., stroke and Parkinson’s), which do not constitute a credible target group per se for gaming among the population. In addition, the impression is that the same functionalities are being tested repeatedly, without any evolution. Above all, other groups like children and adolescents with chronic diseases are rarely addressed, even though they are an excellent target group and would probably benefit greatly from using exergames as they need to move like any other child but are mostly limited to performing their exercises with a physiotherapist. This is generally boring, time-consuming and prevents them from playing with friends during this time. If instead they could play games involving physical exercises, without it feeling like rehabilitation, due to proper immersion and motivation, they would possibly need fewer sessions with the therapist, which may in turn improve their social life. Commercially available games would be good enough for many children with physical disabilities, if only they were configurable and adaptive to their potential and needs. Remote controls (RC) are typically not sufficiently configurable (button functions cannot be changed or the RC cannot be used with one hand) and are only made for hands (why not for feet or the mouth?) Some RCs are not sufficiently precise in detection, and so the user ends up tired and loses motivation. Motion capture devices like the Kinect sensor seem to provide better prerequisites for exergaming purposes but feature important limitations too, (e.g., detection of fine movements and rotations) such that the needs of many people are still not be covered by commercial solutions.
However, this is not due to the sensors, but rather the software, which lacks configurability for special needs, such as simple adjustments of level difficulties or the option of playing while seated. For the latter, some Kinect games are available [29], but those are hardly the most liked ones, as has been stated by affected users [30]. Therefore, more complex solutions are required to adapt a game to problems like muscle weaknesses (most games require wide or fast movements), spasticity (“strange” movements are not recognized) or the available limbs (for instance configuring a game to be controlled with the feet for players without full hand use).
To fill these gaps, the authors of the work presented here are pursuing the overall aim (as part of a long-term project) of creating an entertaining exergaming environment for adventure games that immerses the players into a virtual world and makes them forget their physical impairments. Knowledge of the gaming industry is applied to create motivating challenges that the users have to solve, which are sufficiently addictive to make the exercises pass to an unconscious plane. The gaming environment is configurable to the user’s potential and requirements. Challenges will be programmable by a therapist and will also adapt themselves to the players automatically real-time, by observing their fatigue or emotional state (lowering the difficulty or switching to more relaxing exercises when needed)…

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Figure 8. Different scenes while the volunteers were playing. (a) “The Paper-Bird”, (b) “The Ladder”, (c) “The Boat” and (d) “Whack-a-Mole”.

Continue —> Sensors | Free Full-Text | New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments | HTML

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[Abstract] Surface Electromyography for Game-Based Hand Motor Rehabilitation.

Abstract

Computer systems such as virtual environments and serious games are being used as a tool to enhance the process of user rehabilitation. These systems can help motivate and provide means to assess the user’s performance undertaking an exercise session. To do that, these systems incorporate motion tracking and gesture recognition devices, such as natural interaction devices like Kinect and Nintendo Wii. These devices, originally developed for the games market, allowed the development of low cost and minimally invasive rehabilitation systems, allowing the treatment to be taken to the patient’s residence. With the advent of natural interaction based on electromyography, devices that use electromyographic signals can also be used to construct these systems. The aim of this work is to show how electromyographic signals could be used as a tool to capture user gestures and incorporated into home-based rehabilitation systems by adopting a low-cost device to capture these gestures. The process of creation of a serious game to show some of these concepts is also present.

Source: IEEE Xplore Abstract – Surface Electromyography for Game-Based Hand Motor Rehabilitation

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[Abstract] Virtual reality gaming in the rehabilitation of the upper extremities post-stroke. 

Abstract

Background: Occurrences of strokes often result in unilateral upper limb dysfunction. Dysfunctions of this nature frequently persist and can present chronic limitations to activities of daily living.
Methods: Research into applying virtual reality gaming systems to provide rehabilitation therapy have seen resurgence. Themes explored in stroke rehab for paretic limbs are action observation and imitation, versatility, intensity and repetition and preservation of gains. Fifteen articles were ultimately selected for review. The purpose of this literature review is to compare the various virtual reality gaming modalities in the current literature and ascertain their efficacy.
Results: The literature supports the use of virtual reality gaming rehab therapy as equivalent to traditional therapies or as successful augmentation to those therapies. While some degree of rigor was displayed in the literature, small sample sizes, variation in study lengths and therapy durations and unequal controls reduce generalizability and comparability.
Conclusions: Future studies should incorporate larger sample sizes and post-intervention follow-up measures.

Source: Virtual reality gaming in the rehabilitation of the upper extremities post-stroke – Brain Injury | Taylor & Francis Online

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[Abstract] Virtual reality gaming in the rehabilitation of the upper extremities post-stroke.

Abstract

Background: Occurrences of strokes often result in unilateral upper limb dysfunction. Dysfunctions of this nature frequently persist and can present chronic limitations to activities of daily living.
Methods: Research into applying virtual reality gaming systems to provide rehabilitation therapy have seen resurgence. Themes explored in stroke rehab for paretic limbs are action observation and imitation, versatility, intensity and repetition and preservation of gains. Fifteen articles were ultimately selected for review. The purpose of this literature review is to compare the various virtual reality gaming modalities in the current literature and ascertain their efficacy.
Results: The literature supports the use of virtual reality gaming rehab therapy as equivalent to traditional therapies or as successful augmentation to those therapies. While some degree of rigor was displayed in the literature, small sample sizes, variation in study lengths and therapy durations and unequal controls reduce generalizability and comparability.
Conclusions: Future studies should incorporate larger sample sizes and post-intervention follow-up measures.

Source: Virtual reality gaming in the rehabilitation of the upper extremities post-stroke – Brain Injury | Taylor & Francis Online

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