Friendships often fall apart after someone has a TBI because people don’t understand what that person is going through; they might even think he is faking. And in turn, the injured person doesn’t understand why his friends have suddenly abandoned him. Loss of relationships and loneliness can be devastating after a brain injury.
Posts Tagged TBI
RESEARCH UPDATES, INDUSTRY NEWS, SURVIVOR STORIES
The world of advancements in brain injury knowledge and treatment is a rich composite of the progress being made by scores of dedicated people. The articles and reports below reflect current research, industry analysis, and stories of recovery. Innovations in patient care and the evolution of best practices in rehabilitation are among the subjects addressed by thought leaders, universities, and institutes noted here.
- 04/24/2020 – Study links concussions to loss of inhibition
- 04/23/2020 – New study of football players shows concussions have long-term effects on inhibition
- 04/22/2020 – Quality improvement effort cuts blood clots in brain injury patients
- 04/21/2020 – When damaged, the adult brain repairs itself by going back to the beginning
- 04/20/2020 – Study links brain injuries to endocrine disorders in youths
- 04/17/2020 – Post-concussion decisions impact recovery time for athletes
- 04/16/2020 – Chilling concussed cells shows promise for full recovery
- 04/15/2020 – Recovery from mild brain trauma takes longer than expected
- 04/14/2020 – Nanoparticle therapy might help reduce brain swelling in traumatic brain injury
- 04/13/2020 – Anatomy of a traumatic brain injury: Why so much fatigue and brain fog?
- 04/10/2020 – Subconcussive head impacts affect neuro-ophthalmologic function
- 04/09/2020 – Two weeks after sports-related concussion, most patients have not recovered
- 04/08/2020 – New research prompts second thoughts about brain injury treatment
- 04/07/2020 – A brain injury changed everything for this couple. Recovery meant relearning everything—including their love for one another
- 04/06/2020 – Understanding visual dysfunctions from traumatic brain injury
- 04/03/2020 – The hidden consequences of TBI
- 04/02/2020 – Aerobic exercise may treat persistent post-concussive symptoms in adults
- 04/01/2020 – Early intervention following traumatic brain injury reduces epilepsy risk
- 03/31/2020 – Depletion and repopulation of microglia could be a future therapy for TBI
- 03/30/2020 – Researchers uncover potential therapy for concussion-based headaches
- 03/27/2020 – Brain scan-blood test panel to help diagnose brain trauma following battlefield blasts
- 03/26/2020 – Vision rehab treatment effective for stroke and injury related blindness
- 03/25/2020 – ‘Resetting’ immune cells improves traumatic brain injury recovery
- 03/24/2020 – We must not turn our heads from the effects of traumatic brain injuries
- 03/23/2020 – Brain injury diagnosed with a finger prick and an optofluidic chip
- 03/20/2020 – Blood test helps triage older patients with mild TBI
- 03/19/2020 – Researchers uncover potential new therapy for concussion-related headaches
- 03/18/2020 – Exercise could lessen the impact of traumatic brain injuries
- 03/17/2020 – Virtual reality programs support the treatment of children with acquired brain injury
- 03/16/2020 – Did you know? 5 surprising traumatic brain injury facts
Traumatic Brain Injury
Also called: Acquired brain injury, TBI
See, Play and Learn
What is traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a sudden injury that causes damage to the brain. It may happen when there is a blow, bump, or jolt to the head. This is a closed head injury. A TBI can also happen when an object penetrates the skull. This is a penetrating injury.
Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe. Concussions are a type of mild TBI. The effects of a concussion can sometimes be serious, but most people completely recover in time. More severe TBI can lead to serious physical and psychological symptoms, coma, and even death.
What causes traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
The main causes of TBI depend on the type of head injury:
- Some of the common causes of a closed head injury include
- Some of the common causes of a penetrating injury include
- Being hit by a bullet or shrapnel
- Being hit by a weapon such as a hammer, knife, or baseball bat
- A head injury that causes a bone fragment to penetrate the skull
Some accidents such as explosions, natural disasters, or other extreme events can cause both closed and penetrating TBI in the same person.
Who is at risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
Certain groups are at higher risk of TBI:
- Men are more likely to get a TBI than women. They are also more likely to have serious TBI.
- Adults aged 65 and older are at the greatest risk for being hospitalized and dying from a TBI
What are the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
The symptoms of TBI depend on the type of injury and how serious the brain damage is.
The symptoms of mild TBI can include
- A brief loss of consciousness in some cases. However, many people with mild TBI remain conscious after the injury.
- Blurred vision or tired eyes
- Ringing in the ears
- Bad taste in the mouth
- Fatigue or lethargy
- A change in sleep patterns
- Behavioral or mood changes
- Trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking
If you have a moderate or severe TBI, you may have those same symptoms. You may also have other symptoms such as
- A headache that gets worse or does not go away
- Repeated vomiting or nausea
- Convulsions or seizures
- Not being able to wake up from sleep
- Larger than normal pupil (dark center) of one or both eyes. This is called dilation of the pupil.
- Slurred speech
- Weakness or numbness in the arms and legs
- Loss of coordination
- Increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation
How is traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosed?
If you have a head injury or other trauma that may have caused a TBI, you need to get medical care as soon as possible. To make a diagnosis, your health care provider
- Will ask about your symptoms and the details of your injury
- Will do a neurologic exam
- May do imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI
- May use a tool such as the Glasgow coma scale to determine how severe the TBI is. This scale measures your ability to open your eyes, speak, and move.
- May do neuropsychological tests to check how your brain is functioning
What are the treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
The treatments for TBI depend on many factors, including the size, severity, and location of the brain injury.
For mild TBI, the main treatment is rest. If you have a headache, you can try taking over-the-counter pain relievers. It is important to follow your health care provider’s instructions for complete rest and a gradual return to your normal activities. If you start doing too much too soon, it may take longer to recover. Contact your provider if your symptoms are not getting better or if you have new symptoms.
For moderate to severe TBI, the first thing health care providers will do is stabilize you to prevent further injury. They will manage your blood pressure, check the pressure inside your skull, and make sure that there is enough blood and oxygen getting to your brain.
Once you are stable, the treatments may include
- Surgery to reduce additional damage to your brain, for example to
- Remove hematomas (clotted blood)
- Get rid of damaged or dead brain tissue
- Repair skull fractures
- Relieve pressure in the skull
- Medicines to treat the symptoms of TBI and to lower some of the risks associated with it, such as
- Rehabilitation therapies, which can include therapies for physical, emotional, and cognitive difficulties:
- Physical therapy, to build physical strength, coordination, and flexibility
- Occupational therapy, to help you learn or relearn how to perform daily tasks, such as getting dressed, cooking, and bathing
- Speech therapy, to help you to with speech and other communication skills and treat swallowing disorders
- Psychological counseling, to help you learn coping skills, work on relationships, and improve your emotional well-being
- Vocational counseling, which focuses on your ability to return to work and deal with workplace challenges
- Cognitive therapy, to improve your memory, attention, perception, learning, planning, and judgment
Some people with TBI may have permanent disabilities. A TBI can also put you at risk for other health problems such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Treating these problems can improve your quality of life.
Can traumatic brain injury (TBI) be prevented?
There are steps you can take to prevent head injuries and TBIs:
- Always wear your seatbelt and use car seats and booster seats for children
- Never drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol
- Wear a properly fitting helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboarding, and playing sports like hockey and football
- Prevent falls by
- Making your house safer. For example, you can install railings on the stairs and grab bars in the tub, get rid of tripping hazards, and use window guards and stair safety gates for young children.
- Improving your balance and strength with regular physical activity
- CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) – Short Summary
- Traumatic Brain Injury (American Academy of Family Physicians)Also in Spanish
- Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Kids (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)Also in Spanish
- Traumatic Brain Injury: Hope Through Research (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)Also in Spanish
- What Are Common Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Symptoms? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)Also in Spanish
Diagnosis and Tests
- Computed Tomography (CT) — Head (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America)Also in Spanish
- How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)Also in Spanish
- Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) — Brain (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) – PDFAlso in Spanish
Prevention and Risk Factors
- What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury? (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Occupational Therapy and Community Reintegration of Persons with Brain Injury (American Occupational Therapy Association) – PDF
- Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations (Merck & Co., Inc.)Also in Spanish
- Cerebral Hypoxia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)Also in Spanish
- Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)Also in Spanish
- Intracranial Hematoma (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)Also in Spanish
- Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System (Hormone Health Network)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Brain Injuries, Traumatic (National Institutes of Health)
Journal ArticlesReferences and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Tranexamic acid is safe to use following mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury.
- Article: Treatment Thresholds in Neurotrauma.
- Article: Traumatic Brain Injury: An Overview of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Medical Management.
- Traumatic Brain Injury — see more articles
- — see more articles
Find an Expert
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Also in Spanish
- Find a Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physician (American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Also in Spanish
- Brain injury – discharge (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
- Chronic subdural hematoma (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
- EEG (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
- Head injury – first aid (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
- Intracranial pressure monitoring (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
- Subdural hematoma (Medical Encyclopedia)Also in Spanish
For more Visit —-> Traumatic Brain Injury | TBI | MedlinePlus
The TBI Coach, Nathalie Kelly, explains cognitive fatigue in a way that everyone can understand. Brain fatigue is a huge debilitating issue for those with brain injuries and concusssions. See the full transcript below.
Hello my beautiful and courageous friends,
Do you find it hard to understand that at some moments someone with a TBI can appear to function pretty well, and a minute later they are stuttering and stumbling?
It’s called Cognitive Fatigue. Cognitive fatigue happens because the injured brain is working very hard . Since the old pathways are broken, your amazing brain is having to find new paths. when the brain is overloaded and it is like your brain switch being turned off. One minute you are there, and the next minute, it was too much, a fuse blew, and you are gone.
It can be so extreme of a contrast, that people get accused of faking their brain injury. That hurts!
The best explanation I have ever heard comes from Dr. Clark Elliott in his fabulous book “The Ghost in My Brain”. He came up with a great metaphor. It is as if we have 3 energy batteries, an A, B, C battery.
The most efficient battery is the A battery. For most people, it gets charged up each night with sleep,and lasts throughout the day. When the A battery gets used, we have to turn to our B battery. The B battery does not last as long and takes a lot longer to charge. When the B Battery runs down, we have to turn to our emergency battery, the C battery. The C battery should be for dire emergencies only. It only lasts a short while and it takes days to recharge. It’s kinda of like your laptop tells you you have 2% battery left. And then it shuts off and the screen goes black.
When you have a TBI, your A battery gets used up processing things that took no effort before. An enormous percentage of our brain’s energy goes toward processing vision. While it was no problem before, now Processing vision and sound, balance and motion, now takes most of your available energy. So your A batteries are always depleted.
You are now running on B batteries to do anything else, getting groceries, driving a car, going to work. They are not going to last long. And so you are dipping into the C batteries on a daily basis and not just during an emergency.
This is what it looks like when the C batteries are depleted. There will be days of sleep to pay for pushing it this far.
At the beginning of a brain injury when your brain is working really hard to find workarounds for the broken connections, you may be like this most of the time. Over time, as your brain slowly heals, your ability to process information improves and now your A battery has a little more capacity. As you get better you are tapping into you C battery less and less, perhaps only on rough days instead of everyday.
When you are fatigued, it is really important to sleep. That is the only way the batteries get charged again. And that is how our brain heals. New studies show that sleep is the process during which the brain dispels toxins so it can function at its best.
So, if someone you love has a Brain Injury and you can tell they are fatigued. What they need from you is an Immediate response. It takes less than a minute to go from one battery cell to the next, Take them out of the situation, the restaurant, the noise, and get them to quiet, dark, and rest ASAP. You do not want to linger. and You do not want to push the system into the C batteries.
Please share with our community your thoughts and experiences in the comment section below. What do you think of this A B C Battery metaphor? What helps you with cognitive fatigue?
Visit my website http://www.TheTBICoach.com for more helpful videos and tips and for my special report on 3 Things Everyone with a TBI Should Know.
Meet a handful of people with brain injury who give courage and tenacity new meaning.
Although research involving traumatic brain injury (TBI) has traditionally focused on the acute clinical manifestations, new studies provide evidence for chronic and progressive neurological sequelae associated with TBI, highlighting the risk of persistent, and sometimes life-long, consequences for affected patients. Several treatment modalities to date have demonstrated efficacy in experimental models. However, there is currently no effective treatment to improve neural structure repair and functional recovery of TBI patients. Optogenetics represents a potential molecular tool for neuromodulation and monitoring cellular activity with unprecedented spatial resolution and millisecond temporal precision. In this review, we discuss the conceptual background and preclinical evidence of optogenetics for neuromodulation, and translational applications for TBI treatment are considered.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue worldwide and is predicted to be the third largest contributor to the global disease burden by 2020 [1,2]. The multifaceted and heterogeneous pathological aspects of this disease, which occur within days to months postinjury, cause significant neurological sequelae in TBI patients. Current empirical evidence provides new insight into these pathological mechanisms that lead to both focal neurological, as well as cognitive, deficits [3–5].
Recovery following TBI is complex and incompletely understood, yet studies have begun to elucidate important aspects of endogenously activated mechanisms that facilitate the process. Much of this research has been conducted to understand the fundamental concept of plasticity. Although neurogenesis within the mature brain continues, it is limited primarily to the subventricular zone (SVZ) surrounding the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) [6–8]. A distinct subpopulation of cells from these regions migrate through adult white matter and differentiate into neurons in several cortical locations. Recent evidence suggests these cells may be involved in cell repair or renewal mechanisms [9,10].
Exploitation of this endogenous population of stem cells is of particular interest with regard to TBI. Following both diffuse and focal injury, a significant increase in proliferation within the SVZ and DG has been demonstrated in both mouse and rat TBI models alike [11,12]. Importantly, newly generated and injury-induced granular cells are able to integrate into the existing hippocampal circuitry, a phenomenon thought to facilitate innate cognitive recovery following injury [13,14]. A more recent study of human TBI models found proliferation of cells expressing markers of neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells in the perilesion cortex, thus representing an intrinsic effort by the injured brain to repair and regenerate damaged tissue .
This observed endogenous plasticity can be further investigated and manipulated using precise electrical modulation. To date, several methods have been explored to induce or accelerate functional and adaptive recovery in TBI patients, including both invasive (eg, electrical cortical stimulation [ECS]) and noninvasive (eg, transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS], transcranial direct current stimulation, and pharmacologic) methods, each mediating an upregulation in plasticity following TBI [16–20]. However, animal studies and clinical trials involving the use of these interventions are scarce, and such approaches are often cell type indiscriminate, invasive, and render surrounding tissues susceptible to damage [21,22]. Due to a universal understanding that newer therapeutic approaches must circumvent these limitations, recent developments have successfully incorporated precision and cell type specificity into the treatment modality. Optogenetics builds upon previous research through the use of genetically encoded channels and receptors that serve to selectively activate or inhibit neuronal subpopulations with unprecedented spatial resolution and millisecond temporal precision. In this review, we discuss optogenetics as a means to evaluate and modulate neural circuits in the context of recovery following TBI.
Fundamentals of Optogenetics
Optogenetics is a modern advancement incorporating the fields of bioengineering, optics, and genetics for the purpose of modulating and monitoring cellular activity at the level of molecularly defined neuronal classes. This innovation involves the artificial introduction of light-sensitive proteins (eg, opsins) into cell membranes [23,24]. Neuronal plasma membranes themselves are thus made sensitive to light, permitting direct activation and inhibition of specified, targeted neurons within intact neuronal circuits . In addition, optical monitoring of neuronal activity is achieved using genetically encoded sensors that respond to changes in ion concentration (eg, calcium) or membrane voltage. By utilizing tools with the ability to utilize light energy, neuronal imaging can achieve both high spatial and high temporal resolution [26,27].
While previous approaches typically fall short with respect to temporal and spatial accuracy, optogenetics expands the capability for optical imaging and genetic targeting by simultaneously controlling or monitoring either the activity of many neurons within a circuit or certain regions within a single neuron. Single-cell optogenetics is able to map neural circuits with excellent accuracy and zero-spike crosstalk . Expression of certain light-sensitive proteins can also behave as actuators and switch neurons on and off, inducing either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations for varying periods of time with exquisite precision. This capability allows the opsins to probe neural activity at the resolution of single spikes, raising the possibility that this method can one day mimic natural neural code . Since its inception, optogenetic tools have been developed to further map complex neural circuits and target specific neurons to facilitate behavior modulation, which are significant ambitions of current research in the field of neuroscience.[…]